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New  York  Programmes 


***»*» 


BOSTON 

SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 


FOUNDED  IN  1881  BY 
HENRY  LEE  HIGGINSON 


SEVENTY-SIXTH   SEASON 
I956-I957 

Carnegie  Hall,  New  York 


THE  EUROPEAN  TOUR 

At  the  Royal  Festival  Hall  in  London 
seven  weeks  ago,  on  September  25,  the 
Boston  Symphony  Orchestra  played  the 
final  concert  of  its  six-weeks  tour  of 
Europe  undertaken  in  cooperation  with 
the  International  Exchange  Program  of 
the  American  National  Theatre  and 
Academy  (A.N.T.A.).  The  Orchestra 
had  made  its  only  previous  tour  of 
Europe  in  May,  1952,  under  the  auspices 
of  the  Congress  for  Cultural  Freedom, 
when  it  performed  in  France,  Germany, 
Belgium,  Holland  and  England.  In  the 
tour  just  completed  only  Paris  and  Lon- 
don were  revisited.  A  total  of  twenty- 
eight  concerts  was  given  in  nineteen 
different  cities  in  thirteen  countries. 
Charles  Munch  conducted  eighteen  of 
the  concerts,  Pierre  Monteux,  ten. 


EUROPEAN  IMPRESSIONS 

From  the  prodigious  attention  in  the 
press  which  Boston's  orchestra  has  had 
on  its  European  tour,  paragraphs  from 
here  and  there  are  quoted: 

Edinburgh 

After  he  had  finished  his  concerts  on 
Friday,  Sir  Thomas  Beecham  kindly  but 
sarcastically  hoped  that  what  was  to 
follow  would  be  as  good. 

Last  night  the  Boston  Symphony  Or- 
chestra under  its  conductor  Charles 
Munch,  making  its  first  appearance  at 
the  Edinburgh  Festival,  took  over  the 
evening  concert  at  the  Usher  Hall,  and 
alas  for  Sir  Thomas's  sarcasm  and  for 
our  national  pride,  it  was  better — better 
than  the  Scottish  National,  the  B.B.C., 
or  the  Halle.  Fortunately  for  our  self- 
esteem,  it  is  also  no  less  clearly  better 
than  the  Concertgebouw,  or  the  Berlin 
Philharmonic. 

So  dazzling  to  the  ear  was  its  playing 
last  night  that  for  that  evening  at  least 
it  was  impossible  to  recall  anything  com- 
parable. There  can  in  fact  be  no  other 
orchestra  like  it  in  the  world.  It  has  no 
"departments,"  no  brass,  wind,  and 
strings  to  compare  and  evaluate.  Its 
sound  is  a  single  marvellously  rich 
silken  texture  into  which  every  note  of 
every  instrument  is  so  carefully  woven 
that  everything  can  be  heard  except  the 
joins.  Even  the  austerest  critics,  by 
temperament  resistant  to  the  seductions 
of  mere  gorgeousness  of  orchestral 
sound   or   virtuosity   of    technique,   and 


boiled  hard  by  constant  listening,  were 
thrilled  by  it. — Colin  Mason,  Man- 
chester Guardian,  September  16. 

Moscow 

The  Soviet  Union's  musical  elite  gave 
the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra  a 
tumultuous  reception  tonight  culmi- 
nating in  a  ten- minute  standing  ovation 
after  the  orchestra  had  played  two  en- 
cores. 

Observers  who  saw  the  Boston  or- 
chestra open  Thursday  in  Leningrad 
said  tonight's  outburst  of  acclaim  in 
Moscow's  packed  Conservatory  sur- 
passed anything  the  orchestra  had  ever 
experienced. 

The  usually  decorous  elite  of  the 
Soviet  capital  went  wild  over  the  pro- 
gram, which  began  with  Charles  Munch 
leading  the  musicians  in  Beethoven's 
Symphony  No.  3,  the  "Eroica." 

The  excitement  rose  visibly  as  the 
orchestra  moved  into  the  Sixth  Sym- 
phony by  Walter  Piston,  whose  work  is 
practically  unknown  here.  Real  frenzy 
developed  after  Mr.  Munch  had  led  the 
musicians  through  Ravel's  second 
"Daphnis  et  Chloe"  Suite.— Welles 
Hangen,  New  York  Times,  Sept.  9. 

Chartrbs 

The  cathedral  was  specially  illumi- 
nated for  tonight's  performance.  Out- 
side the  great  rose  window  looking  to 
the  west  at  the  end  of  the  nave  were 
floodlights  which  shed  a  soft  glow  into 
the  interior. 

The  orchestra  itself  sat  beneath  the 
window  in  the  portico  of  the  church. 
Floodlights  lit  up  the  arches  of  the 
clerestory  and  other  floodlights  at  the 
east  end  of  the  church  shone  through 
the  stained-glass  windows  above  the 
altar.  Other  interior  lighting  included 
lights  above  the  confessionals. — Frank 
Kelley,  New  York  Herald  Tribune, 
September  22. 

London 

The  highlight  of  the  two  Boston  con- 
certs was  Debussy's  "La  Mer"  under 
Munch,  not  only  for  the  polished  bril- 
liance of  the  playing,  but  for  the  salutary 
reminder  that  these  bright,  clear,  and 
even  penetrating  French  orchestral  col- 
ours were  those  of  the  composer's  own 
conception.  Here,  with  the  marine  tang 
of  the  woodwind  and  the  spitting  trum- 
pets, was  the  sea  itself,  buffeting  and 
invigorating  us  on  Thames-side. — Felix 
Aprahamian,  Sunday  Times,  Sept.  30. 


Carnegie  Hall,   New  York 
Seventy-First  Season  in  New  York 


SEVENTY-SIXTH  SEASON,   1956-1957 

Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 
Richard  Burgin,  Associate  Conductor 


Concert  Bulletin  of  the 

First   Concerts 

WEDNESDAY  EVENING,  November  14,  at  8:45 
SATURDAY  AFTERNOON,  November  17,  at  2:30 

with  historical  and  descriptive  notes  by 

John  N.  Burk 

The  TRUSTEES  of  the 

BOSTON  SYMPHONY  ORCHESTRA,  Inc. 

Henry  B.  Cabot  .         President 

Jacob  J.  Kaplan  .         Vice-President 

Richard  C.  Paine  .         Treasurer 

Talcott  M.  Banks,  Jr.  Michael  T.  Kelleher 

Theodore  P.  Ferris  Palfrey  Perkins 

Alvan  T.  Fuller  Charles  H.  Stockton 

Francis  W.  Hatch  Edward  A.  Taft 

Harold  D.  Hodgkinson  Raymond  S.  Wilkins 

C.  D.  Jackson  Oliver  Wolcott 

TRUSTEES  EMERITUS 
Philip  R.  Allen  M.  A.  DeWolfe  Howe 

N.  Penrose  Hallo  well  Lewis  Perry 

Thomas  D.  Perry,  Jr.,  Manager 
G.  W.  Rector  |  Assistant  J.  J.  Brosnahan,  Assistant  Treasurer 

N.  S.  Shirk        /  Managers         Rosario  Mazzeo,  Personnel  Manager 

[*] 


THE  WHITE   HOUSE 

WASHINGTON 


September  28,   1956 


Dear  Mr.   Cabot: 

The  reports  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 
during  its  recent  tour  of  Europe  have  given  me 
great  satisfaction.     Whenever  outstanding  Ameri- 
cans like  the  men  and  women  of  the  Boston  Symphony 
display  their  talents  to  the  people  of  other  countries, 
the  cause  of  international  understanding  is  advanced. 

Since  all  people  want  peace,   it  is  necessary  for  the 
people  of  all  nations  to  correspond  at  all  levels  and 
work  out  methods  by  which  we  can  gradually  learn 
more  of  each  other.     The  exchange  of  artists  is  one 
of  the  most  effective  methods  of  strengthening  world 
friendship.     Your  orchestra  has  demonstrated  this 
truth. 

I  should  add  that  it  is  gratifying  to  observe  that  the 
Boston  Symphony  Orchestra  has  developed,   in  typical 
American  fashion,  with  the  sponsorship  and  devoted 
support  of  private  citizens. 

Please  welcome  home  your  musicians  and  distinguished 
conductors,    Charles  Munch  and  Pierre  Monteux,   and 
accept  my  congratulations  on  a  job  well  done. 

Sincerely, 


sincerely,  f-^ 


Mr.   Henry  B.   Cabot 

President 

The  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra,  Inc. 

Symphony  Hall 

Boston,   Massachusetts 

[2] 


seventy-sixth  season  •  nineteen  hundred  fifty-six  and  fifty-seven 
Seventy-First  Season  in  New  York 

First  Evening  Concert 

WEDNESDAY,  November  14 


Program 


Mozart Symphony  in  D  major,  "Paris,"  K.  297 

I.    Allegro  assai 
II.    Andantino 
III.    Allegro 

Piston  Symphony  No.  5 

I.     Lento;  Allegro  con  spirito;  Lento 
II.    Adagio 
III.     Allegro  lieto 

INTERMISSION 


Tchaikovsky Symphony  No.  6,  in  B  minor,  "Pathetique,"  Op.  74 

I.  Adagio;  Allegro  non  troppo 

II.  Allegro  con  grazia 

III.  Allegro  molto  vivace 

IV.  Finale:   Adagio  lamentoso 


Performances  by  this  orchestra  are  broadcast  each  week  on  Monday 
evenings  from  8:15  to  9:00  P.M.  on  the  NBC  Radio  Network. 

Music  of  these  programs  is  available  at  the  Music  Library, 
58th   Street   Branch,    the   New  York   Public   Library. 

BALDWIN  PIANO  RCA  VICTOR  RECORDS 


[3] 


SYMPHONY  IN  D  MAJOR    ("PARIS"),  NO.  31    (K.  297) 

By  Wolfgang  Amadeus  Mozart 

Born  at  Salzburg,  January  27,  1756;  died  at  Vienna,  December  5,  1791 


Composed  in  Paris  in  1778,  this  symphony  had  its  first  performance  at  a  Concert 
Spirituel  under  the  direction  of  Jean  Le  Gros  on  June  18  of  that  year. 

The  first  performance  of  the  symphony  at  the  concerts  of  the  Boston  Symphony 
Orchestra  was  October  28,  1887,  under  the  direction  of  Wilhelm  Gericke.  Arthur 
Nikisch  performed  it  April  28,  1893;  Emil  Paur,  November  8,  1895;  Wilhelm  Gericke, 
January  13,  1898,  and  Serge  Koussevitzky,  October  26,  1945. 

The  score  calls  for  the  following  instruments  in  pairs:  flutes,  oboes,  clarinets, 
bassoons,  horns,  trumpets,  together  with  timpani  and  strings. 

Mozart,  aged  twenty-two,  arrived  with  his  mother  in  Paris  on 
March  23,  1778,  and  stayed  there  until  September  26.  The 
Mozart  family  had  built  great  hopes  on  the  success  of  Wolfgang  in  the 
French  capital.  What  he  wanted  (and  was  never  to  succeed  in  having) 
was  a  permanent  remunerative  post,  preferably  that  of  Kapellmeister, 
which  provincial  Salzburg  had  not  offered  him.  Nor  were  the  available 
musicians  at  Salzburg  inspiring  to  compose  for.  "For  the  last  five  or 
six  years,"  wrote  Mozart  to  a  Salzburg  friend,  with  a  Parisian  perform- 
ance perhaps  ringing  in  his  memory,  "the  Salzburg  orchestra  has  always 
been  rich  in  what  is  useless  and  superfluous,  but  very  poor  in  what  is 
necessary,  and  absolutely  destitute  of  what  is  indispensable."  At  Mann- 
heim, whence  he  had  just  come  and  which  possessed  the  finest  orchestra 
in  Europe,  Mozart  had  probably  first  awakened  to  the  full  possibilities 
of  the  symphonic  medium.  "The  discipline  that  rules  this  orchestra!" 
he  had  written  to  his  father.  "They  behave  themselves  quite  differently, 
have  good  manners,  are  well  dressed,  and  don't  soak  themselves  in 
taverns." 

The  young  man  realized  clearly  enough  that  the  broad  road  to  suc- 
cess in  Paris  was  not  the  symphonic  road  but  the  opera.  The  Gluck- 
Piccini  controversy  still  held  everyone's  attention,  although  Gluck  had 
triumphed  by  that  time.  Mozart  was  not  interested  in  taking  sides:  he 
was  as  careful  to  preserve  beauty  of  melody  as  the  dramatic  verities,  and 
instinctively  he  would  have  sacrificed  neither.  He  was  ready  to  adapt 
his  style  to  the  French  language  and  the  French  taste,  but  he  never 
obtained  in  Paris  more  than  half  a  promise  of  a  French  libretto,  nor 
any  definite  prospect  of  a  performance. 

Mozart  arrived  in  Paris  with  very  little  money,  after  nine  and  a  half 
days  of  tedious  travelling  from  Mannheim.  His  mother,  who  was  with 
him,  wrote  home:  "During  the  last  two  days  we  were  choked  by  the 
wind  and  drowned  by  the  rain,  so  that  we  both  got  soaking  wet  in  the 
carriage  and  could  scarcely  breathe."  And  so  they  arrived  in  a  strange 
city,  where  Mozart,  making  calls  and  lacking  cab  fare,  picked  his  way 
over  paving  stones  slippery  with  early  spring  mud.  Mozart's  mother  was 
a  care  and  a  burden,  for  she  merely  sat  alone  in  their  dark  lodgings  day 


after  day  and  complained  of  increasing  ailments.  On  July  3  she  suc- 
cumbed to  a  disease  as  unidentifiable  as  many  were  in  those  days,  and 
Mozart  for  the  first  time  directly  witnessed  the  spectre  of  death.  His 
father,  unable  to  leave  Salzburg,  had  realized  that  the  boy,  too  sensitive, 
too  impulsive,  too  trusting,  had  none  of  the  qualities  needed  to  back 
up  his  talents,  push  his  advantage,  and  make  himself  known  or  even 
noticed  in  a  foreign  land.  As  Baron  Grimm,  the  most  helpful  friend  of 
Mozart  in  Paris,  wrote  to  Leopold:  "He  is  too  good-natured,  listless, 
easily  gullible,  too  little  occupied  with  the  means  which  can  lead  to 
fortune.  One  can  never  come  through  in  this  town  without  resource, 
enterprise  and  audacity."  The  long  letters  constantly  exchanged 
between  father  and  son  (the  postage  eating  into  Mozart's  diminishing 
savings)  are  full  of  cautions  and  admonitions  on  the  one  hand,  expres- 
sions of  filial  devotion  and  bitter  discouragement  on  the  other. 

The  Baron  Grimm  was  the  one  person  who  introduced  Mozart  in 
favorable  places.  He  took  him  to  Noverre,  Director  of  Ballet  at  the 
Opera,  who  spoke  of  an  opera  and  allowed  Mozart  to  provide  numbers 
for  a  ballet  ("Les  Petits  Riens"),  the  production  of  which  gave  him  no 
credit.  His  one  fruitful  meeting  was  with  Le  Gros,  the  Director  of  the 
Concert  Spirituel,  the  famous  ultra-aristocratic  subscription  concerts, 
given  in  Lent  when  the  theaters  were  closed,  which  were  later  to 
perform  symphonies  of  Haydn  and  ultimately  to  vanish  in  the  tides 
of  revolution.  But  with  Le  Gros,  as  with  others,  French  "politesse"  ran 
ahead  of  honest  good  intention.  Mozart  contributed  to  an  oratorio, 
which  proved  another  case  of  obliging  without  return.  He  wrote  a 
"Symphonie  Concertante"  with  solo  parts  designed  for  the  eminent 
virtuosos  of  the  orchestra:  Wendling  (flute)  and  Ramm  (oboe),  whom 
he  had  known  at  Mannheim;  Punto,  the  hornist  who,  like  Ramm,  was 
later  to  inspire  Beethoven,  and  Ritter  (bassoon).  Le  Gros  left  the 
score  lying  on  his  desk  when  it  should  have  been  with  the  copyist,  and 
when  the  time  for  its  performance  arrived  it  had  simply  disappeared.* 
Mozart  was  offended  but  more  or  less  forgave  Le  Gros  when  he  was 
asked  for  a  symphony  —  which,  needless  to  say,  he  promptly  provided. 
In  a  letter  to  his  father,  Mozart  describes  an  encounter  with  Le  Gros: 
"M.  Le  Gros  came  into  the  room  and  said,  'It  is  really  quite  wonderful 
to  have  the  pleasure  of  seeing  you  again.'  'Yes,  I  have  a  great  deal  to 
do.'  'I  hope  you  will  stay  to  lunch  with  us  today?'  'I  am  very  sorry,  but 
I  am  already  engaged.'  'M.  Mozart,  we  really  must  spend  a  day 
together  again  soon.'  'That  will  give  me  much  pleasure.'  A  long  pause; 
at  last,  'A  propos,  will  you  not  write  a  grand  symphony  for  me  for 
Corpus  Christi?'  'Why  not?'  'Can  I  then  rely  on  this?'  'Oh  yes,  if  I  may 


♦The  original  score  was  lost,  but  another  version  ultimately  appeared  (K.  Anhang  9),  in 
which  a  clarinet  is  used  instead  of  a  flute.  It  was  performed  at  the  Boston  Symphony 
concerts  November  10-11,  1955. 

[5] 


rely  with  certainty  on  its  being  performed  and  that  it  will  not  have  the 
same  fate  as  my  Sinfonia  Concertante.'  Then  the  dance  began.  He 
excused  himself  as  well  as  he  could,  but  did  not  find  much  to  say. 
In  short,  the  symphony  was  highly  approved  of  —  and  Le  Gros  was 
so  pleased  with  it  that  he  says  it  is  his  very  best  symphony." 

Mozart  had  not  composed  a  symphony  for  four  years  —  for  the  good 
reason  that  there  had  been  no  call  for  one.  But  he  had  listened  to 
Cannabich's  splendid  orchestra  at  Mannheim.  The  orchestra  of  the 
Concert  Spirituel  had  a  reputation  for  great  brilliance  —  Mozart's  dis- 
paraging remarks  to  his  father,  presently  to  be  quoted,  must  have  been 
rather  peevish  than  judicial.  Mozart  had  been  studying  the  taste  of 
the  Parisian  audience  as  well  as  the  quality  of  the  orchestra.  He  com- 
posed with  both  in  mind.  In  every  part  there  is  a  play  for  brilliant 
effect  —  numerous  crescendos,  adroit  modulations,  abrupt  alternation 
of  piano  and  forte.  The  individual  instruments  are  favored,  and  it  is 
to  be  noted  that  a  clarinet  is  used  in  a  symphony  by  Mozart  for  the 
first  time.  Above  all,  he  aimed  toward  the  utmost  conciseness.  Otto 
Jahn,  who  saw  the  original  score,  remarked  that  "when  he  came  to 
a  passage  which  seemed  to  him  tedious  or  superfluous,  he  struck  it 
out  and  went  on  with  the  next."  The  result  was  a  symphony  some 
eighteen  minutes  in  length  and  entirely  without  indication  of  repeats. 

Mozart  was  well  aware  that  the  orchestra  prided  itself  on  the  "pre- 
mier coup  d'archet,"  the  incisive  opening  stroke  of  the  combined  bows 
on  a  brilliant  chord.  Accordingly  he  opened  his  symphony  with  a 
unison  octave  flourish.  He  wrote,  "I  have  been  careful  not  to  neglect 
le  premier  coup  d'archet  —  and  that  is  quite  sufficient.  What  a  fuss 
the  oxen  here  make  of  this  trick!  Was  Teufel  —  I  can  see  no  differ- 
ence! They  all  begin  together  just  as  they  do  in  other  places.  It  is 
really  too  much  of  a  joke!"  And  he  goes  on  to  repeat  a  story  of  a 
Frenchman  who  asks  a  German  musician  if  he  has  heard  the  famous 
coup  d'archet  at  the  Concert  Spirituel.  "  'Yes,  I  have  heard  the  first 
and  the  last.'  'Do  you  mean  —  the  last?'  'Certainly,  the  first  and  the 
last  —  and  the  last  gave  me  the  more  pleasure.'  " 

"I  was  very  unhappy  over  the  rehearsal,"  wrote  Mozart,  "for  I  never 
heard  anything  worse  in  my  life;  you  cannot  imagine  how  they  scraped 
and  scrambled  over  the  symphony  twice.  I  was  really  unhappy.  I 
should  like  to  have  rehearsed  it  again,  but  there  was  so  much  else  that 
there  was  no  time.  So  I  went  to  bed  with  a  heavy  heart  and  a  dis- 
contented and  angry  spirit.  The  day  before,  I  decided  not  to  go  to 
the  concert,  but  it  was  a  fine  evening  and  I  determined  at  last  to  go, 
but  with  the  intention,  if  it  went  as  badly  as  at  the  rehearsal,  of  going 
into  the  orchestra,  taking  the  violin  out  of  the  hands  of  M.  La  Hous- 
saye  [the  concert  master],  and  conducting  it  myself.  I  prayed  for 
God's  grace  that  it  might  go  well,  for  it  is  all  to  His  honor  and  grace; 

[6] 


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To  Charles  Munch,  conducting  is  not  a  profession  but  a 
sacred  calling.  And  this  dedication,  combined  with  the 
magnificence  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra,  brings 
you  performances  of  unmatched  power  and  beauty.  You 
feel  and  hear  this  devotion  whether  he  conducts  Ravel, 
Berlioz  or  Beethoven  . . .  whether  the  performance  is  in 
Symphony  Hall  or ...  on  RCA  Victor  Records,  of  course! 


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[7] 


and  ecce,  the  symphony  began.  Raaff  stood  close  to  me,  and  in  the 
middle  of  the  first  Allegro  was  a  passage  that  I  knew  was  sure  to 
please;  the  whole  audience  was  struck,  and  there  was  great  applause. 
I  knew  when  I  was  writing  it  that  it  would  make  an  effect,  so  I  brought 
it  in  again  at  the  end,  da  capo.  The  Andante  pleased  also,  but 
especially  the  last  Allegro.  I  had  heard  that  all  the  last  Allegros  here, 
like  the  first,  begin  with  all  the  instruments  together  and  generally 
in  unison;  so  I  began  with  the  violins  alone,  piano,  for  eight  bars, 
followed  at  once  by  forte.  The  audience  (as  I  had  anticipated)  cried 
'Sh!'  at  the  piano,  but  directly  the  forte  began  they  took  to  clapping. 
As  soon  as  the  symphony  was  over,  I  went  to  the  Palais  Royal,  treated 
myself  to  an  ice,  told  my  beads  as  I  had  vowed,  and  went  home." 

Mozart  also  relates  that  Le  Gros,  unlike  the  audience  and  the 
composer  himself,  was  not  satisfied  with  the  slow  movement.  He  con- 
sidered it  not  short  enough.  The  amiable  Mozart  forthwith  wrote 
another,  entirely  different,  which  was  played  at  later  performances. 
Weighing  the  two,  Mozart  decided  on  the  whole  in  favor  of  the 
second.  It  was  presumably  the  second,  marked  Andantino  instead  of 
Andante,  which  was  used  in  the  original  French  publication  by  Siebel 
and  which  is  here  performed.*  On  account  of  the  success  of  this 
symphony  Mozart  told  his  father  that  he  composed  another  one  which 
was  also  performed  by  Le  Gros.  But  this  second  symphony  is  appar- 
ently lost  —  no  existing  score  has  been  identified  as  a  possibility. 
Mozart  received  not  a  sou  for  these  contributions  to  Le  Gros. 

The  following  interesting  remarks  about  the  "Parisian"  Symphony 
are  taken  from  Einstein's  book  on  Mozart: f 

"The  symphony  is  characteristic  of  the  Mannheim-Paris  style.  In 
the  first  movement  it  even  parodies  that  style  to  a  slight  degree.  It 
begins  with  the  fortissimo-unisono,  precision  in  which  was  a  great 
point  of  pride  with  the  Paris  orchestra.  .  .  .  He  continues  with  the 
pompous  runs  in  the  strings  characteristic  of  the  French  overture,  and 
does  not  forget  to  write  impressive  unison  passages  for  the  strings 
against  sustained  tones  in  the  winds.  But  that  is  where  the  parody,  or 
the  connivance  to  please  the  French  taste,  ends.  Mozart's  ambition 
was  far  too  great,  and  there  was  too  much  dependent  on  the  success 
of  the  work,  for  him  not  to  take  it  seriously.  The  fact  that  the  last 
of  the  thre'e  movements  was  the  most  successful  does  honor  to  the 
taste  of  the  Parisians.  The  second  theme  of  this  movement  is  a  fugato, 
supplying  the  natural  material  for  development;  it  does  not  return 
in  the  recapitulation  —  one  of  the  strokes  of  genius  in  this  masterful 
movement,  which  hovers  continually  between  brilliant  tumult  and 
graceful  seriousness." 

*  Both  slow  movements  have  survived.  Alfred  Einstein,  in  his  edition  of  the  Koechel 
Verzeichnis,  identifies  the  Andantino  as  the  second  version,  but  Saint-Foix,  the  French 
authority  who  is  regarded  as  no  mean  Mozart  expert,  states  positively  that  the  Andantino 
movement,  having  forty  bars  more,   is   not  shorter  and  must  have  been  the  first  composed. 

f  Oxford  University  Press,  1945. 

[copyrighted] 
[8] 


SYMPHONY  NO.  5 
By  Walter  Piston 

Born  in  Rockland,  Maine,  January  20,  1894 


The  Symphony  No.  5  was  composed  in  1954  at  Belmont,  Massachusetts,  and  Wood- 
stock, Vermont,  as  a  commission  for  the  Juilliard  School  of  Music,  for  the  festival 
of  American  music  originally  planned  for  1955,  but  postponed  until  the  spring  of 
1956.  The  first  performance  of  the  Symphony  took  place  at  the  school  February  24, 
1956,  played  by  the  Juilliard  Orchestra,  Jean  Morel  conducting. 

The  orchestration  is  as  follows:  2  flutes  and  piccolo,  2  oboes  and  English  horn, 

2  clarinets  and  bass  clarinet,  2  bassoons  and  contra-bassoon,  4  horns,  3  trumpets, 

3  trombones  and  tuba,  timpani,  snare  drum,  cymbals,  bass  drum,  2  harps,  and  strings. 

r-piHE  following  analysis  has  been  furnished  by  the  composer: 

-**  I.  In  the  slow  introduction  may  be  found  the  origins  of  all  the 
musical  ideas  subsequently  developed  in  the  Symphony.  The  main 
body  of  the  movement  is  in  sonata  form.  Horns  announce  the  prin- 
cipal theme,  forceful  and  rugged  in  character.  The  secondary  theme, 
more  relaxed  and  songful,  is  first  played  by  the  oboe.  At  the  close  of 
the  movement  the  flute  melody  of  the  introduction  is  again  heard. 

II.  Cellos  and  basses  outline  in  pizzicato  a  basic  melodic  pattern, 
and  against  this  the  violins  play  a  melody,  the  theme  of  the  movement. 
There  follow  three  variations,  or  transformations,  of  the  theme,  each 
section  growing  out  of  that  preceding.  The  first  variation  is  marked 
by  the  entry  of  the  clarinet,  after  a  short  transition  in  the  horns;  the 
second  by  widely  divided  strings,  with  harp  figures  and  a  reference  to 
the  original  pizzicato  bass  given  by  piccolo  and  clarinet;  the  third  by 
the  tuba  playing  the  theme,  with  cellos  and  basses.  These  variations 
are  not  greatly  contrasted,  but  rather  form  a  continuous  whole,  finish- 
ing with  a  coda  recalling  the  start  of  the  first  variation. 

III.  A  gay  and  rhythmic  movement,  bearing  resemblance  in  form  to 
a  rondo  A-B-A-B-A  in  which  there  is  considerable  "working  out"  of  the 
second  A,  or  to  a  sonata  form  in  which  the  second  theme  precedes  the 
first  in  the  recapitulation,  besides  being  in  a  different  key. 

[copyrighted] 


[9] 


ENTR'ACTE 
THE  ADVENTUROUS  LISTENER 

"Two,  and  I  think  only  two,  requisites  are  essential  to  understanding  the  art  of 
our  time.  The  first  is  tolerance;  the  second  is  repeated  exposure."  (Frederick  P. 
Walkey,  Director  of  the  deCordova  and  Dana  Museum,  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 
Bulletin,  February  ly,  1956.) 


IT  is  plain  enough  when  a  new  and  arresting  work  is  performed  at  a 
symphony  concert  anywhere  that  the  reception  is  mixed.  Comments 
in  the  corridors  seem  to  extend  from  elation  to  resentment.  Friend- 
ships are  sometimes  strained.  One  could  find  almost  any  opinion:  the 
piece  is  an  exciting,  new  apparition  in  the  world;  it  is  interesting  and 
rather  amusing;  it  has  its  points  but  once  is  enough;  it  is  an  imposition 
and  an  outrage. 

The  proportion  of  these  reactions  to  any  single  piece  has  never  been 
systematically  polled,  so  far  as  I  know.  It  becomes  a  debate  which  for 
the  moment  gets  nowhere  because  one's  own  opinion  is  all  that  really 
matters  to  one's  self.  The  middle  categories  are  likely  to  be  in  the 
majority.  They  will  include  that  greater  part  of  the  seasoned  concert- 
going  public  which,  when  less  than  enraptured,  accept  equably  and  in 
good  faith  what  may  be  offered  for  what  it  may  contain.  These  middle 
opinions  are  likely  to  be  nearer  the  truth  because  new  music  is  apt  to 
be  in  between  as  to  quality,  truly  extraordinary  works  being  rare  in 
any  age.  As  for  those  of  the  last  category,  the  malcontents,  they  are 
likely  to  be  unreasonable  because,  having  failed  to  discover  any  par- 
ticular point  in  the  music,  a  point  which  does  exist  according  to  other 
opinions,  they  are  by  their  own  admission  not  qualified  judges.  An 
opinion  more  safely  to  be  counted  upon  is  that  of  the  conductor,  who 
by  the  nature  of  his  job  has  presumably  a  good  deal  more  musical 
penetration  than  the  average  listener.  He  has  chosen  the  new  piece 
and  labored  over  the  preparation  (which  is  often  considerable)  for  the 
reason  that  he  has  found  it  worth  the  time  and  effort  of  his  orchestra 
and  himself,  as  well  as  worth  consideration  by  his  audiences. 

The  question  of  how  much  contemporary  music  should  be  included 
upon  his  programs  is  one  which  a  conductor  must  continually  ask 
himself.  To  what  extent  should  he  lead  his  audiences  into  new  ways 
and  accustom  them  to  perhaps  an  ultimate  enjoyment  of  what  is  at 
first  baffling?  How  often  does  he  owe  a  talented  young  composer  the 
great  advantage  of  a  first  performance  in  his  own  presence?  Should  he 
listen  to  the  critics,  remembering  that  critics  in  the  past  have  not 
always  proven  good  prophets?  Conductors,  so  history  shows,  have  in 
many  cases  been  good  prophets  and  men  of  courage  and  conviction. 
There  have  been  times  when  conductors  (and  this  includes  Boston 
Symphony  conductors)  have  persisted  against  considerable  opposition, 

[10] 


even  repeated  certain  much  reviled  works  and  at  length  proved  them- 
selves gloriously  right.  The  cases  come  to  mind  of  composers  now 
exalted  at  the  Boston  Symphony  concerts,  but  at  first  roundly  de- 
nounced: Brahms,  Franck,  Strauss,  Debussy,  Sibelius,  Stravinsky,  and 
—  let  us  not  become  involved  in  the  still  arguable  present. 

The  more  conservative  composers  of  today  who  woo  us  with  cus- 
tomary harmonies  have  certainly  the  right  to  be  heard,  but  not  to  the 
exclusion  of  the  more  challenging  ones.  Ludwig  Spohr  was  once  found 
more  agreeable  and  safe  than  Beethoven  —  at  a  later  period  Karl  Gold- 
mark  was  found  more  comfortable  than  Richard  Strauss.  Spohr's 
Consecration  of  Tones  and  Goldmark's  Rustic  Wedding  Symphony  had 
a  legitimate  claim  to  be  played  and  enjoyed  until  they  succumbed  to 
their  more  enduring  rivals  and  quietly  passed  into  oblivion.  The 
bolder  composers,  the  ruthless  innovators,  proved  with  time  the  more 
engrossing  artists,  and  it  was  only  then  fully  realized  that  they  had  been 
the  musical  life  blood  of  their  day.  If  there  are  no  proper  giants  loom- 
ing now,  it  is  still  a  good  idea  to  scan  the  horizon.  The  situation  is  the 
same  —  music  continues  to  reflect  contemporary  tendencies  and  to  seek 
fresh  ways.  Every  conductor  is  aware  of  this,  and  will  not  allow  his 
programs  to  subside  into  stagnation  by  drawing  away  from  the  music 
that  is  being  written  right  now. 

A  young  American  composer  today  faces  prodigious  numerical  com- 
petition. The  situation  is  very  different  from  that  of  1886,  when  Louis 
C.  Elson  remarked  that  "if  all  the  symphonic  composers  of  America 
were  to  hold  a  mass-meeting  they  could  be  lodged  in  one  double  room 
in  any  country  hotel."  Now  they  would  need  considerably  more  space. 
There  seems  to  be  no  end  of  them,  and  they  keep  coming.  Most  of 
them  will  never  get  known,  since  there  is  no  place  in  the  world  for  so 
much  creation.  Still,  the  situation  is  healthy,  numerically  speaking  — 
it  recalls  seventeenth  century  Italy  or  eighteenth  century  Germany, 
which  seem  to  have  had  no  end  of  listenable  but  unimportant  com- 
posers. Audiences  have  a  persistent  tendency  to  take  what  seems  good 
to  them  and  not  to  bother  in  the  least  as  to  whether  every  aspirant  is 
getting  a  hearing.  If  on  the  other  hand  he  has  a  talent  which  merits 
survival  he  is  pretty  likely  to  get  his  hearing  in  our  concert  world  which 
possesses  more  performances,  and  more  skilled  performers  than  any 
previous  era  could  show.  The  composer  now  has  vast  resources  of 
working  material  to  draw  upon  —  chromatic,  intervallic,  rhythmic, 
coloristic.  If  he  is  no  more  than  clever  and  ingenious,  his  music  can 
be  stimulating  to  conductor,  musicians,  and  audience.  If  he  is  one  of 
the  rare  ones  with  that  something  which  great  art  requires,  he  will  have 
his  due  of  performances,  and  eventually  of  full  apprehension. 

The  easiest  course  for  any  conductor  would  be  to  pass  by  new,  diffi- 
cult, or  controversial  works  and  simply  give  his  audiences  the  estab- 


lished  "masterpieces"  of  obvious  worth  and  popularity.  Since  the 
really  great  symphonies  are  unfortunately  too  few,  the  result  would  be 
over-repetition,  which  dulls  the  edge  of  enjoyment,  for  the  habitues  at 
least.  The  final  result  would  be  a  sort  of  squirrel  cage  of  the  familiar, 
as  if  the  art  of  musical  composition  had  come  to  end  about  fifty  years 
ago.  Without  the  stimulation  of  new  musical  vistas,  symphony  concerts 
would  subside  into  decrepitude. 

Many  people  say  after  a  performance:  "I  am  not  educated  up  to  it," 
as  if  music  were  made  for  a  closed  cult  of  experts.  Perhaps  some  music 
is  only  for  experts.  If  so,  it  is  of  little  value.  Complexity  in  scores 
should  not  be  exclusive;  a  fugue  or  a  double  chorus  of  Bach,  the  finale 
of  the  "Jupiter"  Symphony,  can  be  enjoyed  by  those  who  do  not  follow 
every  detail  of  the  counterpoint.  Complexity  should  produce  a  clear 
over-all  impression,  whether  from  early  composers  or  the  latest  ones. 
It  must  be  acceptable  to  the  lay  listener  or  have  no  general  claim  for 
performance.  Enjoyment  of  sounds  is  not  reached  by  theoretical 
instruction.  It  comes  through  alertness  to  rhythm,  to  melody,  and  to 
sound  combinations.  This  alertness  can  be  developed,  it  is  true,  by  a 
certain  amount  of  systematic  training  —  but  too  much  is  no  help.  The 
professional  expert  is  not  always  enviable  where  the  enjoyment  of 
listening  is  concerned.  His  proper  fastidiousness  as  a  performer  usually 
makes  him  over-fastidious  as  a  listener.  He  is  also  apt  to  be  a  restless 
listener,  because  he  is  by  habit  at  the  giving  rather  than  the  receiving 
end,  and  as  a  listener  he  can  be  jaded  by  repeated  hearing.  Fortunate 
is  the  beginner  who  may  have  the  privilege,  the  exhilirating  experience 
of  hearing  a  symphony  by  Beethoven  for  the  first  time!  That  privilege 
belongs  to  the  lay  listener.  His  enjoyment  generally  speaking  increases 
through  responsive  and  repeated  listening,  whereby  the  rhythmic  and 
tonal  sense  latent  in  all  of  us  can  become  keen  and  discriminating. 

It  is  good  sense  for  every  listener  to  enjoy  in  his  own  way  and  to  be 
independent  of  expert  judgment.  Of  the  various  morals  which 
Wagner,  without  being  sententious,  allows  us  to  draw  from  the  book 
of  Die  Meister singer  von  Niirnberg,  perhaps  the  most  potent  is  driven 
home  while  Walther  is  singing  his  prize  song.  Music  as  a  free,  spon- 
taneous art,  welling  from  the  heart,  is  up  for  judgment.  The  official 
judges,  the  guilds  of  mastersingers,  are  the  intellectuals,  the  conserva- 
tives who  stand  by  tradition,  and  they  have  ruled  out  the  contestant. 
Nevertheless  he  has  entered  the  lists  by  the  contrivance  of  the  one 
liberal  among  them  —  Hans  Sachs.  As  Walther  sings  his  lovely  stanzas, 
pure  basic  form  is  clothed  in  a  spontaneous  melodic  outpouring.  The 
mastersingers  (i.e.  the  pedants)  sit  at  first  in  silent  astonishment.  It  is 
among  the  crowd,  the  townsfolk,  who  know  nothing  of  rules  (i.e.  the 
general  audience)  that  the  first  murmur  of  response  is  heard.  It  grows 
to  a  great  chorus  of  approbation,  with  which  the  masters  warmly 

[12] 


concur.  But  their  approval  is  now  no  more  than  an  endorsement  — 
the  multitude  has  made  the  actual  judgment. 

If  audiences  in  general  are  not  always  quite  so  immediately  percep- 
tive as  this,  it  could  at  least  be  said  of  the  opera  in  question  that  it  had 
an  immediate  popular  success,  the  pedants  concurring.  The  real  point, 
however,  seems  to  be  that  audiences  and  not  the  learned  elect  of  the 
musical  profession  are  the  final  arbiters  of  what  shall  last  and  what 
shall  drop  by  the  wayside,  fall  either  summarily  or  by  degrees  into 
oblivion. 

We  all  know  from  experience  that  craftsmanship,  being  nothing 
more  than  a  helpful  means  of  conveyance,  can,  when  it  has  nothing  in 
particular  to  convey,  produce  a  completely  dull  and  barren  score.  The 
expert  analyst  can  appraise  this  skill  and  demonstrate  it  in  a  technical 
analysis  useful  only  to  the  student.  He  may,  or  may  not,  sense  the 
intangible  life  which  gives  it  the  right  to  be  called  music;  if  he  does 
sense  this  inner  quality  and  attempts  to  describe  it,  his  description  is 
bound  to  be  inadequate  or  fall  into  an  absurdity  of  purple  words.  If 
such  a  writer  should  try  to  give  to  someone  who  had  never  heard 
Beethoven's  Ninth  Symphony  any  sense  of  the  tremendous  impulse 
which  lifts  and  sweeps  an  entire  audience  on  its  current,  he  would  fail 
completely.  The  same  applies  to  the  simplest  melody,  whether  it  be  a 
Lied  by  Schubert  or  a  popular  tune  by  Kern  or  Gershwin.  No  expert 
can  give  any  technical  accounting  for  the  special  charm  which  captures 
us  all  so  quickly  and  easily. 

For  this  quality  of  personal  communication,  so  difficult  to  name, 
there  are  those  who  have  invented  the  word  "musicality".  If  we  call 
it  "impulse"  we  are  at  least  using  a  less  loathsome  word  for  what  can 
only  be  indicated  as  the  life  force  of  the  art  of  music  in  its  most  ele- 
mentary sense.  Music  of  genuine  beauty  is  directly  available  to  us  all 
without  benefit  of  guides,  and  let  none  of  us  be  dismayed. 

J.  N.  B. 


EDNA  NITKIN,  M.Mus. 

PIANIST 

ACCOMPANIST        TEACHER 

Studio:  500  Boylston  St.,  Copley  Sq. 

Boston  KE  6-4062 


[»S] 


SYMPHONY  NO.  6,  IN  B  MINOR,  "PATHETIC,"  Op.  74 
By  Peter  Ilyitch  Tchaikovsky 

Born  at  Votkinsk  in  the  government  of  Viatka,  Russia,  May  7,   1840;  died  at 

St.  Petersburg,  November  6,  1893 


Completed  in  1893,  Tchaikovsky's  Sixth  Symphony  was  first  performed  at  St. 
Petersburg,  October  28  of  the  same  year. 

Following  the  composer's  death  Napravnik  conducted  the  symphony  with  great 
success  at  a  concert  of  Tchaikovsky's  music,  November  18,  1893.  The  piece  attained 
a  quick  popularity,  and  reached  America  the  following  spring,  when  it  was  produced 
by  the  New  York  Symphony  Society,  March  16,  1894.  It  was  performed  by  the 
Boston  Symphony  Orchestra  on  December  28  following,  Emil  Paur  conducting. 

The  orchestration  consists  of  2  flutes  and  piccolo,  2  oboes,  2  clarinets,  2  bassoons, 
4  horns,  2  trumpets,  3  trombones,  tuba,  timpani,  bass  drum,  cymbals,  tam-tam 
and  strings. 

Talking  with  his  brother  Modeste  on  the  day  after  the  first  per- 
formance of  the  Sixth  Symphony,  Tchaikovsky  discussed  the 
problem  of  a  title,  for  he  was  about  to  send  the  score  to  the  publisher. 
He  had  thought  of  calling  it  "A  Program  Symphony"  and  had  written 
to  his  nephew,  Vladimir  Davidoff,  of  this  intention,  adding,  "This 
program  is  penetrated  by  subjective  sentiment.  .  .  .  The  program  is  of 
a  kind  which  remains  an  enigma  to  all  —  let  them  guess  it  who  can." 
And  he  said  to  Modeste  when  the  question  of  a  title  was  under  dis- 
cussion, "What  does  'program  symphony'  mean  when  I  will  give  it  no 
program?"  In  other  words,  he  foresaw  that  to  give  it  such  a  name 
would  at  the  same  time  explain  nothing  and  invite  from  every  side  a 
question  which  he  could  not  answer.  He  accepted  Modeste's  suggestion 
of  "Pathetique"  but  thought  better  of  it  after  the  score  had  been 
shipped  to  Jurgenson,  and  wrote  his  preference  for  the  number  and 
nothing  else.  But  the  symphony  was  published  as  the  "Pathetique'*; 
Jurgenson  had  evidently  insisted  upon  what  was  a  good  selling  title. 
We  can  only  conclude  from  these  circumstances  that  there  was  some 
sort  of  program  in  Tchaikovsky's  mind  but  that  the  "subjective"  senti- 
ment of  which  he  spoke  was  more  than  he  could  explain.  Plainly,  too, 
the  word  "Pathetique/'  while  giving  the  general  character  of  the  music, 
fell  short  of  conveying  the  program. 

Modeste's  title  "Pathetique"  was  an  obvious  first  thought,  and  an 
apt  one,  because  the  symphony  has  all  the  habiliments  of  melancholy  — 
the  stressing  of  the  minor  mood,  the  sinking  chromatic  melodies,  the 
poignant  dissonances,  the  exploration  of  the  darkest  depths  and  color- 
ing of  the  orchestra,  the  upsweeping  attack  upon  a  theme,  the  outbursts 
of  defiance.  But  these  are  not  mere  devices  as  Tchaikovsky  used  them. 
If  they  were,  the  symphony  would  be  no  better  than  a  mass  of  mediocre 

[14] 


music  in  the  affecting  style  then  being  written.  They  were  externals 
useful  to  his  expressive  purpose,  but  no  more  basic  than  the  physical 
spasm  which  is  the  outward  sign  of  an  inward  impulse.  There  is  a 
deeper  motivation  to  the  symphony  —  a  motivation  which  is  eloquent 
and  unmistakable  in  the  music  itself  and  which  the  word  "Pathetique" 
serves  only  vaguely  to  indicate. 

There  have  always  been  those  who  assume  that  the  more  melancholy 
music  of  Tchaikovsky  is  a  sort  of  confession  of  his  personal  troubles, 
as  if  music  were  not  a  work  of  art,  and,  like  all  the  narrative  arts,  a 
structure  of  the  artist's  fantasy.  The  symphony,  of  course,  is  colored 
by  the  character  of  the  artist  himself,  but  it  does  not  mirror  the 
Tchaikovsky  one  meets  in  his  letters  and  diaries.  The  neurotic  fears, 
the  mental  and  physical  miseries  as  found  in  the  diaries  have  simply 
nothing  to  do  with  musical  matters.  Tones  to  Tchaikovsky  were  pure 
sensuous  delight,  his  salvation  when  life  threatened  to  become  insup- 
portable. And  he  was  neither  the  first  nor  the  last  to  resort  to  pathos 
for  the  release  of  music's  most  affecting  and  luxuriant  expression.  The 
fact  that  he  was  subject  to  periodical  depressions  and  elations  (he 
showed  every  sign  of  elation  while  at  work  upon  the  symphony)  may 
well  have  attuned  him  to  nostalgic  music  moods.  But  the  general 
romantic  trend  of  his  time  certainly  had  a  good  deal  more  to  do  with 
it.  His  generation  revelled  in  the  depiction  of  sorrow.  The  pathos  of 
the  jilted  Tatiana  of  Pushkin  actually  moved  Tchaikovsky  to  tears  and 
to  some  of  his  most  dramatic  music.  But  Tchaikovsky  enjoyed  nothing 
more  than  to  be  moved  to  tears  —  as  did  his  admirers,  from  Nadejda 
von  Meek  down.  "While  composing  the  [sixth]  symphony  in  my  mind," 
Tchaikovsky  had  written  to  his  nephew,  "I  frequently  shed  tears." 

There  can  be  no  denying  that  the  emotional  message  of  the 
"Pathetique"  must  have  in  some  way  emanated  from  the  inmost 
nature  of  its  composer.  But  the  subtle  alchemy  by  which  the  artist's 
emotional  nature,  conditioned  by  his  experience,  is  transformed  into 
the  realm  of  tone  patterns  is  a  process  too  deep-lying  to  be  perceived, 
and  it  will  be  understood  least  of  all  by  the  artist  himself.  Tchaikovsky, 
addicted  like  other  Russians  to  self-examination,  sometimes  tried  to 
explain  his  deeper  feelings,  especially  as  expressed  in  his  music,  but 
invariably  he  found  himself  groping  in  the  dark,  talking  in  high- 
sounding  but  inadequate  generalities.  At  such  times  he  accused  him- 
self of  "insincerity";  perhaps  we  could  better  call  it  attitudinizing 
to  cover  his  own  vague  understanding.  Only  his  music  was  "sincere" 
—  that  is,  when  he  was  at  his  best  and  satisfied  with  it,  as  in  the 
"Pathetique"  He  wrote  to  Davidoff,  to  whom  he  was  to  dedicate  the 
symphony,  "I  certainly  regard  it  as  quite  the  best  —  and  especially 
the  most  sincere  —  of  all  my  works.  I  love  it  as  I  never  loved  any  one 


of  my  musical  offspring  before."  Here  is  a  case  where  the  artist  can 
express  himself  as  the  non-artist  cannot;  more  clearly  even  than  he 
consciously  knows  himself. 

The  final  impression  of  the  "Pathetic"  Symphony  when  it  is  listened 
to  without  preconceptions  is  anything  but  pessimistic.  The  first  move- 
ment and  the  last,  which  are  the  key  movements  of  the  symphony, 
are  very  similar  in  plan.  The  duality  in  each  case  consists  of  a  spare 
and  desolate  theme  and  another  of  sorrowful  cast  which  is  nevertheless 
calm  and  assuaging.  Each  theme  is  developed  independently  in  sepa- 
rate alternating  sections,  each  working  up  into  an  agitated  form.  But 
the  second  theme  has  always  the  final  answer.  Each  movement  ends 
gently  with  a  gradual  and  peaceful  subsidence. 

The  bassoon  softly  sets  forth  the  first  theme,  Adagio,  in  rising 
sequences  accentuating  the  minor.  The  violas  carry  it  down  again 
into  the  depths,  and  after  a  suspensive  pause  the  theme  becomes 
vigorous  and  rhythmic  in  an  Allegro  non  troppo  as  it  is  developed 
stormily  over  a  constant  agitation  of  string  figures.*  The  figure 
melts  away  and  after  another  pause  the  second  theme,  tranquil  and 
singing  in  a  clear  D  major,  spreads  its  consolation.  "Teneramente, 
molto  cantabile,  con  espansione,"  reads  the  direction  over  it.  The 
theme  is  developed  over  a  springy  rhythm  in  the  strings  and  then,  in 
an  Andante  episode,  is  sung  without  mutes  and  passionately,  the  violins 
sweeping  up  to  attack  the  note  at  its  peak.  This  theme  dies  away  in 
another  long  descent  into  the  depths  of  the  bassoon.  And  now  the  first 
theme  returns  in  its  agitated  rhythmic  form  and  works  up  at  length 
to  violent  and  frenzied  utterance.  Another  tense  pause  (these  pauses 
are  very  characteristic  of  this  dramatic  symphony)  and  the  second  theme 
returns,  in  a  passionate  outpouring  from  the  violins.  Its  message  is 
conclusive,  and  at  last  passion  is  dispersed  as  the  strings  give  out  soft 
descending  pizzicato  scales  of  B  major.  The  strife  of  this  movement, 
with  its  questionings  and  its  outbreaks,  is  at  last  resolved. 

The  second  movement,  an  Allegro  con  grazia  in  5/4  rhythm  through- 
out, has  relics  of  the  traditional  scherzo  in  its  repeats,  trio  and  da  capo, 
but  there  is  nothing  scherzo-like  in  its  mood.  It  moves  at  a  steady,  even 
pace,  gracefully  melodic,  a  foil  to  the  great  variety  of  tempo  and  the 
extreme  contrasts  of  the  movement  before.  The  main  section  offers  a 
relief  from  melancholy,  and  only  the  trio,  with  its  constant  descent  and 
its  reiteration  of  drumbeats,  throws  a  light  cloud  over  the  whole.  Here 
there  is  another  verbal  clue:  "Sweetly  and  plaintively"  ("Con  dolcezza 
e  flebile"). 

After  the  placidity  of  this  movement,  the  third  bursts  upon  the  scene 

♦As  the  string  figure  subsides  into  the  basses,  the  trombones  intone  (at  bar  201)  a  chant 
for  the  dead.  The  allusion  is  to  a  liturgy  of  the  Russian  church,  "May  he  rest  in  peace  with 
the  saints."  A  second  phrase  from  this  quotation  is  developed,  but  in  a  violent  and  purely 
symphonic  way. 

[16] 


with  shattering  effect.  It  seems  to  pick  up  the  fitful  storminess  of  the 
first  movement  and  gather  it  up  into  a  steady  frenzy.  Again  the  strings 
keep  up  a  constant  agitation  as  the  brass  strides  through  fragments  of 
a  martial  theme.  Pomp  is  here,  with  clashing  cymbals.  But  when  with 
a  final  abrupt  outburst  the  movement  has  ended,  the  frenzies  of  defiance 
(if  such  it  is)  are  completely  spent. 

Again  the  complete  contrast  of  a  dark  lamentation  in  the  strings, 
as  the  last  movement  begins.  With  its  melodic  descent,  its  dissonant 
chords,  the  symphony  here  reaches  its  darkest  moments.  Then  comes 
the  answering  theme  in  a  gentle  and  luminous  D  major.  "Con  lenezza 
e  devozione,"  the  composer  directs,  lest  we  miss  its  character  of  "gen- 
tleness and  devotion."  The  theme  is  sung  by  the  strings  over  soft  pul- 
sations from  the  horns.  The  anguished  opening  theme  returns  in  more 
impassioned  voice  than  before.  But  when  this  voice  has  lapsed  into 
silence  in  the  dramatic  way  which  by  this  time  has  become  inevitable, 
there  comes  a  chain  of  soft  trombone  chords  that  might  well  have 
been  labelled  "con  devozione,"  and  once  more  there  is  heard  the  quiet 
descending  scale  theme  by  the  muted  strings.  Now  passion  is  gone  as 
well  as  violence,  as  the  melody  descends  into  the  deepest  register  of 
the  'cellos  and  melts  into  silence.  If  the  composer  ends  darkly,  he  is  at 
least  at  peace  with  himself.  Resignation  is  a  strange  word  to  use  for 
Tchaikovsky,  but  it  seems  to  fit  here. 

•    • 

When  Tchaikovsky  conducted  the  first  performance  of  his  newly 
completed  Sixth  Symphony  in  1893,  one  might  reasonably  have 
expected  a  great  success  for  the  work.  The  composer  then  commanded 
favorable  attention,  having  attained  eminence  and  popularity  — 
though  nothing  remotely  approaching  the  immense  vogue  this  very 
symphony  was  destined  to  make  for  him  immediately  after  his  death, 
which  occurred  nine  days  after  the  first  performance.  The  composer 
believed  in  his  symphony  with  a  conviction  which  he  by  no  means 
always  felt  for  his  newest  scores  as  he  presented  them  to  the  world. 
His  preliminary  doubts  about  the  melancholy  finale,  the  adagio  lamen- 
toso,  read  like  astonishment  at  his  own  temerity  in  having  followed 
his  own  artistic  dictates  with  so  sure  a  hand  against  all  symphonic 
tradition. 

He  had  good  reason  to  believe  that  the  broad  and  affecting  flood 
of  outpouring  emotion  would  sweep  the  first  audience  in  its  cur- 
rent. But  such  was  not  the  case.  The  performance,  according  to 
Tchaikovsky's  scrupulous  brother  Modeste,  "fell  rather  flat.  The  sym- 
phony was  applauded,  and  the  composer  recalled;  but  the  enthusiasm 
did  not  surpass  what  was  usually  shown  for  one  of  Tchaikovsky's  new 
compositions.    The  symphony   produced   nothing   approaching   that 

[17] 


powerful  and  thrilling  impression  made  by  the  work  when  it  was 
conducted  by  Napravnik,  November  18,  and  later,  wherever  it  was 
played."  The  critics,  too,  were  cool.  The  Viedemosti  found  "the 
thematic  material  not  very  original,  the  leading  subjects  neither  new 
nor  significant."  The  Syn  Otechestva  discovered  Gounod  in  the  first 
movement  and  Grieg  in  the  last,  and  the  Novoe  Vremja  drew  this 
astonishing  conclusion:  "As  far  as  inspiration  is  concerned  it  stands 
far  below  Tchaikovsky's  other  symphonies." 

Cases  such  as  this,  and  there  are  plenty  of  them,  where  a  subsequently 
acknowledged  masterpiece  first  meets  an  indifferent  reception,  invite 
speculation.  Was  the  tardy  general  acceptance  of  new  ideas  mostly  to 
blame,  or  was  the  first  audience  perhaps  beclouded  by  a  groping  and 
mediocre  performance,  intransigeance  on  the  part  of  the  players?  It 
would  seem  that  even  a  reasonably  straightforward  performance  of 
anything  quite  so  obvious  as  the  "Pathetic"  Symphony  should  have 
awakened  a  fair  degree  of  emotional  response. 

Mankind's  propensity  to  find  presentiments  of  death  in  the  sym- 
phony, which  Rimsky-Korsakov  had  plentiful  opportunity  to  observe, 
was  circumstantially  combated  by  Modeste  and  by  Kashkin,  who  were 
careful  to  account  for  each  of  Tchaikovsky's  actions  in  the  year  1893. 
There  are  quoted  a  number  of  letters  written  while  he  was  at  work 
upon  the  symphony;  he  speaks  about  the  progress  of  his  score,  always 
in  a  tone  of  buoyant  confidence  in  his  music.  Kashkin  last  saw  him 
shortly  before  the  performance  of  his  symphony;  Modeste  was  with 
him  until  the  end.  Both  say  that  he  was  in  unfailing  good  spirits. 
Death  was  mentioned  in  the  natural  course  of  conversation  at  the 
funeral  of  his  friend  Zvierev  in  October.  Zvierev,  as  it  happened,  was 
one  of  several  friends  who  had  died  in  close  succession.  Tchaikovsky 
talked  freely  with  Kashkin  at  this  time.  Friends  had  died;  who  would 
be  the  next  to  go?  "I  told  Peter,"  wrote  Kashkin,  "that  he  would  out- 
live us  all.  He  disputed  the  likelihood,  yet  added  that  he  had  never 
felt  so  well  and  happy."  And  from  Modeste:  "A  few  years  ago  one  such 
grief  would  have  affected  Tchaikovsky  more  keenly  than  all  of  them 
taken  together  seemed  to  do  at  this  juncture."  And  elsewhere:  "From 
the  time  of  his  return  from  England  (in  June)  until  the  end  of  his 
life,  Tchailcovsky  was  as  serene  and  cheerful  as  at  any  period  in  his 
existence." 

[copyrighted] 


Q^> 


[18] 


seventy-sixth  season  •  nineteen  hundred  fifty-six  and  fifty-seven 
Seventy-First  Season  in  New  York 

First  Afternoon  Concert 

SATURDAY,  November  17 


Program 


Weber Overture  to  "Euryanthe" 

Debussy "Iberia"   ("Images"  for  Orchestra,  No.  2) 

I.     Par  les  rues  et  par  les  chemins  (In  the  streets  and  byways) 
II.     Les  parfums  de  la  nuit  (The  fragrance  of  the  night) 
III.     Le  matin  d'un  jour  de  fete  (The  morning  of  a  festival  day) 

INTERMISSION 

Beethoven Symphony  No.  3  in  E-flat  major,  "Eroica,"  Op.  55 

I.    Allegro  con  brio 
II.    Marcia  funebre:   Adagio  assai 

III.  Scherzo:   Allegro  vivace 

IV.  Finale:  Allegro  molto 


Performances  by  this  orchestra  are  broadcast  each  week  on  Monday 
evening  from  8:15  to  9:00  P.M.  on  the  NBC  Radio  Network. 

Music  of  these  programs  is  available  at  the  Music  Library, 
58th   Street   Branch,   the  New  York   Public   Library. 

BALDWIN  PIANO  RCA  VICTOR  RECORDS 


[19] 


OVERTURE  TO  "EURYANTHE" 

By  Carl  Maria  von  Weber 

Born  in  Eutin,  Oldenburg,  December  18,  1786;  died  in  London,  June  5,  1826 


Composed  in  1823,  Euryanthe  was  first  performed  at  the  Kdrntnertortheater  in 
Vienna,  October  25  of  the  same  year. 

The  Overture  requires  the  following  orchestra:  2  flutes,  2  oboes,  2  clarinets, 
2  bassoons,  4  horns,  2  trumpets,  3  trombones,  timpani  and  strings. 

Weber  composed  Euryanthe,  his  "grand  heroic-romantic"  opera  for 
Domenico  Barbaja,  manager  of  the  Karnthnerthor  Theater  in 
Vienna,  who  had  a  hopeful  eye  upon  a  success  comparable  to  that  of 
Der  Freischiitz.  There  is  every  evidence  that  Weber  was  ambitious  for 
his  work  and  spared  no  pains  with  it.  Euryanthe  was  his  longest 
opera,  lasting,  as  first  performed,  four  hours.  Unlike  Der  Freischiitz, 
it  had  a  continuous  musical  score  with  no  interruptions  of  spoken 
dialogue.  Weber  completed  the  score  without  the  Overture  on  August 
29,  1823,  and  began  at  once  to  compose  the  Overture,  which  was  not 
ready  until  October  19,  six  days  before  the  first  performance.  On  the 
day  following  the  event,  October  26,  the  composer  wrote  to  his  wife: 
"My  reception,  when  I  appeared  in  the  orchestra,  was  the  most  enthu- 
siastic and  brilliant  that  one  could  imagine.  There  was  no  end  to  it. 
At  last  I  gave  the  signal  for  the  beginning.  Stillness  of  death.  The 
Overture  was  applauded  madly;  there  was  a  demand  for  a  repetition; 
but  I  went  ahead,  so  that  the  performance  might  not  be  too  long  drawn 
out."  Yet  the  success  was  not  unqualified;  the  printed  reports  were  not 
all  favorable.  The  libretto  in  particular  was  generally  denounced  as 
needlessly  involved.  The  opera  held  the  stage  for  hardly  more  than 
twenty  performances  in  the  season.  There  are  degrees  of  success,  and 
such  was  the  case  in  Vienna  in  1823.  Schubert,  whose  Rosamunde,  to 
a  text  by  the  same  librettist,  Helmina  von  Chezy,  was  mounted  on 
December  20  of  the  same  season,  had  reason  to  envy  Euryanthe,  for 
Rosamunde  did  not  survive  two  performances.  Beethoven,  who  was  in 
Vienna  and  had  a  long  and  cordial  meeting  with  Weber  at  the  time, 
also  envied  him  his  undoubted  instinct  for  the  theater  as  evidenced  in 
the  score  oi'Der  Freischiitz,  which  he  had  studied  with  exclamations 
of  wonderment.* 

The  libretto  of  Euryanthe  has  been  held  to  account  for  the  fact  that 
the  opera  fell  considerably  short  of  Der  Freischiitz  in  popularity. 
Helmina  von  Chezy  derived  her  subject  from  an  old  French  tale  of 
the   13th  century,  "Histoire  de  Gerard  de  Nevers  et  de  la  belle  et 


*  This,  according  to  the  Life  of  Weber,  by  his  son  Baron  Max  Maria  von  Weber.  The  elder 
Weber  had  conducted  Fidelio,  and,  despite  various  acrimonious  remarks  upon  Beethoven  which 
are  attributed  to  him,  seems  to  have  been  a  sincere  admirer  of  his  genius. 

[SO] 


asked  the  brahmin  of  the  brewer. . . 


"Pray  tell,  good  fellow,  why  not  a  beverage 
Brewed  in  a  fashion  a  bit  above  the  average? 
A  light-hearted  ale,  dry  refreshing  beer 
Worthy  of  a  connoisseur,  worthy  of  a  Peer?" 


"Matey,  you're  in  luck",  said  the  Brewer  to  the  Brahmin, 
"You  and  the  missus  and  the  Beacon  Hill  barman, 
For  Carling's  now  in  Natick,  brewing  ale  and  beer 
Worthy  of  a  connoisseur,  worthy  of  a  Peer." 


CARLING    BREWING    CO. 


[21] 


vertueuse  Euryant  de  Savoy e,  sa  mie,"  for  which  Boccaccio  found  use 
in  his  "Decameron"  (second  day,  ninth  novel),  and  Shakespeare  in  his 
Cymbeline.  Shakespeare's  rather  strained  plot  seems  a  model  of  lucidity 
beside  von  Chezy's. 

The  plot,  as  Frau  von  Chezy  presented  it,  devolved  upon  the  purity 
and  constancy  of  Euryanthe.  Her  suitor,  Count  Adolar,  praises  her 
beauty  and  virtue  in  a  public  assemblage,  and  accepts  the  wager  of 
the  supercilious  Count  Lysiart  that  he  can  "gain  her  favor."  There  is 
a  plot  to  besmirch  her  character,  in  which  Eglantine,  who  is  also  in 
love  with  Adolar  and  jealous  of  Euryanthe,  conspires.  Adolar,  believ- 
ing this  false  accusation,  drags  her  into  the  wilderness  to  slay  her,  and 
is  moved  with  pity  only  to  the  extent  of  leaving  her  there  to  die. 
Lysiart,  hearing  of  Eglantine's  treachery,  stabs  Eglantine  and  is  con- 
demned to  death.  Euryanthe,  who  is  announced  to  have  perished,  is 
found  to  have  been  only  in  a  faint,  and  is  restored  to  her  lover. 
There  are  other  extraneous  threads  to  the  plot,  such  as  the  ghosts  of 
Emma,  Adolar's  sister,  and  of  her  fiance*,  Udo,  who  haunt  the  scene. 
Emma,  at  the  death  of  Udo,  who  fell  in  battle,  has  killed  herself  by 
means  of  a  poisoned  ring,  and  is  doomed  to  wander  as  a  ghost  until 
"the  ring  should  be  wet  with  the  tears  shed  by  an  innocent  maiden 
in  her  time  of  danger  and  extreme  need."  Eglantine  steals  the  ring 
from  the  sepulchre,  and  gives  it  to  Lysiart  with  a  false  story  to  prove 
the  guilt  of  Euryanthe. 

Weber  had  begun  the  rehearsals  by  reading  the  opera  book  to  the 
assembled  company,  but  in  spite  of  his  "admirable  declamation," 
there  seems  to  have  been  some  bewilderment  as  to  what  it  was  all 
about.  There  were  embarrassing  questions  from  all  sides.  Why  did  . 
Euryanthe  mutely  allow  herself  to  be  dragged  into  the  wilderness 
and  left  there;  why  did  she  not  lift  her  voice  to  expose  the  treacherous 
Eglantine  and  vindicate  herself?  Before  such  queries,  the  poor  com- 
poser could  only  "hang  his  head  in  despair."  From  its  first  perform- 
ance, public  objections  to  the  plot  were  equally  insistent.  No  less  an 
authority  than  Goethe  referred  to  it  as  "a  bad  subject,  with  which 
nothing  could  be  done."  Weber  once  said  at  dinner,  according  to  his 
son:  "My  Euryanthe  should  be  called  'Ennuyante.' "  Philipp  Spitta 
rises  to  the  defense  of  the  much-abused  libretto,  pointing  out  that, 
considered  as  a  vehicle  for  the  music  which  it  serves,  it  is  not  without 
merit,  and  "abounds  in  opportunities  for  the  descriptive  writing  in 
which  Weber  so  much  delighted  and  excelled.  .  .  .  Euryanthe,  like 
all  his  operas,  is  an  epic  procession,  an  enchanted  panorama,  repre- 
senting the  life  of  one  special  period,  that  of  mediaeval  history.  Looked 
at  from  this  point  of  view,  it  can  be  thoroughly  enjoyed." 

•    • 

The  overture,  after  an  opening  in  the  characteristic  fiery  Weberian 

t-i 


manner,  discloses  a  theme  from  Adolar's  "Ich  bau'  auf  Gott  und  meine 
Euryanth' "  (Act  I)  set  forth  by  the  wind  choirs.  The  second  theme 
(violins)  is  from  Adolar's  aria  "Wehen  mix  liifte  Ruh'  "  (Act  II). 
After  a  pause  of  suspense,  the  composer  introduces  a  largo  of  fifteen 
measures,  pianissimo,  for  violins,  muted  and  divided,  with  a  tremolo 
in  the  violas.  It  is  an  eerie  music  intended  to  suggest  the  scene  of  the 
sepulchre.  Weber  proposed,  but  abandoned,  the  idea  of  having  the 
curtain  raised  in  the  midst  of  the  overture  to  reveal  the  following 
tableau:  "The  interior  of  Emma's  tomb.  A  kneeling  statue  of  her  is 
beside  the  coffin,  which  is  surmounted  by  a  twelfth-century  baldacchino 
[canopy].  Euryanthe  prays  by  the  coffin,  while  the  spirit  of  Emma 
hovers  overhead.  Eglantine  looks  on."  In  a  fugato  of  the  development, 
the  first  theme  is  inverted.  The  lyrical  second  theme  brings  the 
conclusion. 

[COPYRIGHTED  | 


"IBERIA,"  "IMAGES,"  for  Orchestra,  No.  2 

By  Claude  Debussy 

Born  at  St.  Germain    (Seine-et-Oise),  France,  August  22,  1862;  died  at  Paris, 

March  25,  1918 


Debussy  completed  the  "Rondes  de  Printemps"  in  1909,  "Ibiria"  in  1910,  and 
"Gigues"  in  1912.  The  three  "Images"  as  published  bore  numbers  in  reverse  order. 

"Ibiria"  was  first  performed  by  Gabriel  Piern£  at  a  Colonne  concert  in  Paris, 
February  20,  1910.  It  had  its  first  performance  in  America,  January  3,  1911,  under 
Gustav  Mahler,  at  a  concert  of  the  New  York  Philharmonic  Society.  The  first 
performance  in  Boston  was  on  April  21,  1911,  by  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra. 
Max  Fiedler,  conductor. 

The  orchestration  requires  3  flutes  and  piccolo,  2  oboes  and  English  horn,  3 
clarinets,  3  bassoons  and  contra-bassoon,  4  horns,  3  trumpets,  3  trombones  and  tuba, 
timpani,  tambourine,  castanets,  military  drum,  cymbals,  xylophone,  celesta,  bells, 
two  harps  and  strings. 

Debussy  wrote  to  Durand,  his  publisher,  on  May  16,  1905,  of  his 
plan  to  compose  a  set  of  "Images"  (a  conveniently  noncommit- 
tal title)  for  two  pianos,  to  be  called  I.  "Gigues  Tristes,"  II.  "Ibiria*' 
III.  "Valses  (?)"  Before  long  the  project  had  become  an  orchestral 
one,  and  the  questioned  "Valses"  had  been  dropped.  The  two  orches- 
tral pieces  were  expected  for  the  summer  of  1 906.  They  were  not  forth- 
coming. The  musician  who  could  once  linger  over  his  scores  at  will, 
rewriting,  refining,  repolishing,  while  the  world  cared  little,  was  now 
the  famous  composer  of  "Pelleas"  Publishers,  orchestras,  were  at  his 

[23] 


doorstep,  expectant,  insistent,  mentioning  dates.  Debussy  was  still  un- 
hurried, reluctant  to  give  to  his  publisher  a  score  which  might  still  be 
bettered.  He  wrote  to  Durand  in  August  of  1906:  "I  have  before  me 
three  different  endings  for  'Iberia*;  shall  I  toss  a  coin  —  or  seek  a 
fourth?"  To  Durand,  July  17,  1907:  "Don't  hold  it  against  me  that  I 
am  behind;  I  am  working  like  a  laborer  —  and  making  some  progress, 
in  spite  of  terrible  and  tiring  setbacks!"  Two  months  later  he  promises 
that  "Ibiria"  will  be  ready  as  soon  as  the  "Rondes  de  Printemps,"  the 
third  of  the  "Images,"  is  "right  and  as  I  wish  it."  By  Christmas  of  1908, 
the  first  full  draft  of  "Iberia"  was  completed,  but  the  composer  was 
by  that  time  involved  in  a  project  for  an  opera  on  Poe's  "Fall  of  the 
House  of  Usher,"  immediately  followed  by  another  operatic  project 
which,  like  the  first,  came  to  nothing:    "The  Devil  in  the  Belfry." 

•    • 

The  movements  are  as  follows: 

I.  "Par  les  rues  et  par  les  chemins"  ("In  the  streets  and  byways").  Assez  anime 
(dans  un  rhythme  aierte  mais  pricis). 

II.  "Les  parfums  de  la  nuit"  ("The  fragrance  of  the  night") .  Lent  et  reveur. 

III.  "Le  matin  d'un  jour  de  fete"  ("The  morning  of  a  festival  day").  Dans  un 
rhythme  de  marche  lointaine,  aierte  et  joyeuse. 

There  was  a  considerable  expression  of  dissatisfaction  with  "Iberia" 
in  Paris,  when  it  was  first  heard.  "Half  the  house  applauded  furiously," 
reported  a  newspaper  correspondent,  "whereupon  hisses  and  cat  calls 
came  from  the  other  half.  I  think  the  audience  was  about  equally 
divided."  There  was  also  much  critical  disfavor,  while  certain  indi- 
viduals pronounced  roundly  in  favor  of  "Iberia" 

Manuel  de  Falla,  a  Spanish  purist  who  might  well  have  frowned 
upon  a  quasi  Spanish  product  of  France,  smiled  upon  this  piece  in  an 
article  printed  in  the  Chesterian: 

"The  echoes  from  the  villages,  a  kind  of  sevillana  —  the  generic 
theme  of  the  work  —  which  seems  to  float  in  a  clear  atmosphere  of 
scintillating  light;  the  intoxicating  spell  of  Andalusian  nights,  the 
festive  gaiety  of  a  people  dancing  to  the  joyous  strains  of  a  banda  of 
guitars  and  bandurrias  ...  all  this  whirls  in  the  air,  approaches  and 
recedes,  and  our  imagination  is  continually  kept  awake  and  dazzled 
by  the  power  of  an  intensely  expressive  and  richly  varied  music. . .  ."• 

♦Falla  further  states  that  Debussy  thus  pointed  the  way  to  Albexriz  towards  the  use  of  the 
fundamental  elements  of  popular  music,  rather  than  folk-tunes  as  such.  Vallas  points  out 
that  the  first  part  of  Albeniz's  "Iberia"  suite  appeared  as  early  as  1906,  and  was  well 
known  to  Debussy,  who  delighted  in  it  and  often  played  it.  The  last  part  of  the  "Iberia'* 
of  Albeniz  appeared  in  1909,  at  which  time  its  composer  probably  knew  nothing  of  Debussy's 
score.  Debussy  was  thus  evidently  indebted  to  Albeniz,  for  he  never  made  the  visit  to  Spain 
which  could  have  given  him  material  at  first  hand.  The  "realism"  which  many  have  found  in 
Debussy's  "Iberia"  was  not  of  this  sort. 

[copyrighted] 
[H) 


ENTR'ACTE 
CLAUDE  DEBUSSY,  "MUSICIEN  FRAN$A1S" 

Victor  R.  Seroff  has  written  a  book  on  Debussy*  amplifying  the 
personal  portrait  so  far  available  in  the  considerable  Debussy 
literature  by  various  letters  and  reminiscences  which  have  since  come 
to  light.  "My  portrait,"  writes  Seroff,  "differs  from  the  accepted 
Debussy  legend,  but  I  hope  that  my  readers  will  judge  the  man  for 
what  he  has  given  the  world  as  much  as  what  he  took  from  it."  Indeed 
Debussy  emerges  from  the  new  account  as  a  not  wholly  lovable  char- 
acter. His  friends  and  those  closely  bound  to  him  by  affection  had  to 
endure  a  good  deal.  On  the  other  hand  "what  he  has  given  the  world" 
he  has  given  with  complete  and  uncompromising  devotion  to  his 
aesthetic  purpose,  an  integrity  in  the  face  of  deprivation,  misunder- 
standing and  delayed  recognition.  For  this  we  can  be  grateful;  if  he 
cannot  command  our  whole-hearted  concurrence  by  his  relations  with 
those  about  him,  he  can  at  least  draw  our  sympathy. 

Debussy  as  revealed  by  Mr.  Seroff  was  seldom  a  happy  man.  The 
poor  circumstances  in  which  he  was  born  were  a  jarring  contradiction 
to  the  fastidious  tastes,  the  delicate  perceptions,  he  soon  developed. 
He  escaped  temporarily  from  the  hated  drab  surroundings  when  he 
spent  three  seasons  in  the  elaborate  entourage  of  Mme.  Nadejda  von 
Meek,  the  Russian  millionairess  widow  who  was  at  the  time  Tchaikov- 
sky's "Beloved  Friend."  This  gave  him  a  taste  of  the  luxury  of  wealth, 
with  the  stigma  of  being  one  of  the  many  hirelings  with  which  the 
lady  surrounded  herself  in  her  Russian  villa  or  in  the  summer  resorts 
of  western  Europe.  The  place  of  Debussy,  aged  eighteen,  in  this  regime 
was  as  pianist  in  a  youthful  trio  she  had  engaged.  Mme.  von  Meek 
delighted  in  her  "Bussyk"  as  she  called  him,  her  "little  Bussy,"  until 
he  aspired  to  the  hand  (and  dowry)  of  her  not  unattractive  daughter, 
Sonia.  Learning  of  this,  she  dismissed  him  at  once  and  forever. 

Debussy  later  came  to  know  wealthy  friends  and  seems  to  have  had 
no  compunctions  about  profiting  by  the  attendant  advantages.  Inde- 
pendent and  comfortable  circumstances  commensurate  with  his  tastes 
he  never  knew.  His  Prix  de  Rome  sojourn  in  the  Eternal  City  was  a 
weariness  to  his  soul.  The  women  in  his  life  brought  him  more  love 
than  they  received  in  return.  His  affair  with  Mme.  Vasnier,  in  a  sort 
of  menage  a  trois,  in  which  the  husband  was  generous  and  presumably 
complacent,  apparently  ended  without  broken  hearts.  The  case  of 
Gabrielle  Dupont  was  more  serious.  "Gaby"  was  a  denizen  of  the 
Montmartre.  In  "Bohemian"  quarters  there,  Debussy  lived  with  her 
on  and  off  for  ten  years  (1888-1898). 

*  Debussy:    Musician  of  France,  G.  P.  Putnam's,  Sons,  N.  Y.,  1956. 

[25] 


''Living  with  Debussy,"  so  writes  Seroff,  "she  learned  of  beautiful 
things,  yet  the  arts  remained  to  her  both  unknown  and  inaccessible. 
She  watched  her  lover's  devotion  to  the  'great  mysteries'  and  she  knew 
how  to  be  patient  and  how  to  wait  for  the  promised  rewards  of  his 
labor.  Meanwhile  she  took  charge  of  their  domestic  affairs,  and  that 
was  not  a  simple  task;  for  even  when  their  lunches  (if  they  had  any  at 
all)  were  made  of  a  small  chocolate  bar  and  a  piece  of  bread,  Debussy 
remained  an  enfant  gate  and  would  empty  his  purse  for  a  bibelot  or  a 
statuette  that  caught  his  fancy,  without  giving  a  moment's  thought  to 
how  they  would  eat  on  the  following  day.  It  was  up  to  Gaby's  ingenuity 
and  her  charm  to  keep  the  creditors  away  and,  if  everything  else  failed, 
to  take  the  object  of  yesterday's  fancy  to  a  pawnshop,  while  the  musi- 
cian's mind  was  wandering  in  the  heights  of  his  artistic  creations." 

Gaby  remained  patient  and  devoted.  One  day  Debussy  lost  interest, 
or  rather  became  interested  in  Rosalie  Texier,  a  worker  in  a  maison  de 
couture.  This  time  it  was  marriage.  Rosalie  (Lily)  was  "a  simple, 
provincial,  beautiful  girl."  Again  he  had  found  someone  to  take  care 
of  him,  and  put  up  with  his  difficult  ways.  When  after  five  years  he 
became  attentive  to  Emma  Bardac,  who  had  a  wealthy  husband  and 
understood  his  music,  Lily  shot  herself,  not  quite  fatally.*  The  scandal 
was  considerable  and  the  sympathy  of  the  friends  of  the  pair  naturally 
went  to  the  abandoned  wife.  When  many  of  these  friends  jointly  sub- 
scribed to  pay  her  hospital  bills,  Debussy  shut  himself  off  from  everyone 
who  had  subscribed  (as  he  had  done  with  Eugene  Ysaye,  his  first  and 
most  loyal  patron,  after  the  separation  with  Gaby).  The  outcasts 
included  his  closest  friend,  Pierre  Louys,  Rene  Peter,  the  young  writer 
who  had  been  his  adorer,  Messager,  his  most  understanding  conductor, 
Mary  Garden,  his  favorite  Melisande,  Misia  Edwards,  the  celebrated 
patroness  of  the  arts,  even  Maurice  Ravel. 

This  was  in  1904.  Debussy,  having  thus  forfeited  his  closest  friends, 
was  a  lonely  man  in  his  last  years.  Fame  came  to  him,  but  not  wealth; 
he  never  knew  affluence.  The  illness  from  which  he  died  in  1918  was 
protracted  and  painful. 

Debussy  the  composer  was  anything  but  happily  adjusted.  In  the 
early  years  he  was  deeply  smitten  with  the  music  of  Wagner,  until  he 
realized  that  to  save  his  aesthetic  soul  and  to  develop  according  to  his 
personal  taste  and  style  he  must  liberate  himself  from  that  insidious 
influence.  In  freeing  himself  of  the  inherited  style  of  Massenet  and 
entering  into  a  harmonic  chromaticism  more  individual  and  more 
subtly  expressive,  he  was  constantly  accused  of  vagueness.  The  accusa- 
tion was  not  just,  but  it  was  understandable.  The  absence  of  harmonic 


*  Leon  Vallas,  who  hardly  touches  upon  Debussy's  personal  life,  refers  to  this  in  one 
cryptical  phrase  as  an  "incident"  which  had  a  "well-nigh  fatal  result."  Gaby  is  not  even 
mentioned. 

[26] 


polarity  was  found  disturbing.  Debussy  himself,  however  sure  of  his 
expressive  purpose,  was  often  in  doubt  about  its  realization.  In  pursuit 
of  the  mood  to  convey  the  tale  of  Pelleas  et  Melisande,  aiming  to  cap- 
ture in  tones  certain  characters  in  certain  situations,  he  had  no  con- 
venient structural  formula  to  depend  upon,  but  only  his  own  elusive 
"intuition,"  a  word  he  himself  used  in  his  letters.  This  self-assignment 
was  inevitably  perplexing,  because  of  its  very  elusiveness.  Where  an- 
other composer  would  have  casually  put  down  the  first  chord  which 
occurred  to  him,  this  one  would  hesitate  for  days  over  an  alternative 
resolution,  ever  seeking,  persistently  unsatisfied.  It  required  ten  years 
of  his  life  and  many  revisions  to  make  of  Pelleas  et  Melisande  the 
masterpiece  it  finally  became.  Pelleas  et  Melisande  is  to  us  now  a 
triumphant  vindication  of  the  underlying  sense  of  direction  in 
Debussy's  "intuitive"  quest.  There  is  something  heroic  in  the  ten  years' 
search  for  the  justly  expressive  Pelleas,  for  through  those  years  not  his 
nearest  adherents  could  have  had  any  real  confidence  that  his  pro- 
longed and  painstaking  efforts  were  justified.  Debussy  was  in  this  sense 
a  lone  composer,  until  at  least  Pelleas  brought  him  a  limited  fame,  and 
sympathetic  support  from  a  limited  faction  of  connoisseurs.  Other 
composers  addicted  to  revision,  such  as  Mahler  or  Bruckner,  were  of 
lesser  stature  in  that  their  revisions  remained  indeterminate.  Debussy 
could  have  been  nothing  else  than  a  continual  tester  and  reviser  by  the 
uncharted  nature  of  the  aesthetic  he  adopted. 

Debussy  was  also  unfortunate  in  his  collaborators  (the  exception  was 
d'Annunzio,  with  whom  he  worked  in  complete  cordiality  to  notable 
ends).  Maeterlinck,  whose  text  fitted  his  purpose  far  more  closely  than 
any  other  could  have  done,  was  hostile  to  him  from  first  to  last,  in  spite 
of  the  fact  (or  perhaps  because  of  the  fact)  that  Debussy  lifted  his 
text  to  a  superior  and  far  more  poignant  tonal  life  without  the  slightest 
distortion  of  the  poet's  original  play.  Pierre  Louys,  who  was  his  devoted 
friend  and  strove  to  satisfy  him  with  an  opera  text  (Cendrelune)  could 
not  furnish  what  he  needed.  Jean  Paul  Toulet's  attempt  to  turn 
As  You  Like  It  into  a  libretto  came  to  naught.  Edgar  Allen  Poe's  The 
Devil  in  the  Belfry  and  The  Fall  of  the  House  of  Usher  appealed  to 
Debussy  immensely.  He  worked  interminably  trying  to  set  the  black 
and  unrelieved  catastrophic  tale  of  Roderick  Usher,  only  to  destroy 
every  vestige  of  his  music  sketches  in  despair.  It  is  hard  to  imagine  how 
this  subject,  so  completely  lacking  in  the  moments  of  charm  or  mood 
contrasts  comparable  to  Pelleas,  could  have  appealed  to  him  in  the  first 
place.  The  composer  whose  early  opera  was  his  fullest  and  most 
extraordinary  accomplishment  was  never  able,  despite  attempt  after 
attempt,  to  compose  another. 

j.  N.  B. 

[27] 


SYMPHONY  NO.  3  IN  E-FLAT,  "EROICA,"  Op.  55 

By  Ludwig  van  Beethoven 
Born  in  Bonn,  December  16  (?),  1770;  died  at  Vienna,  March  26,  1827 


Composed  in  the  years  1802-1804,  the  Third  Symphony  was  first  performed  at 
a  private  concert  in  the  house  of  Prince  von  Lobkowitz  in  Vienna,  December,  1804, 
the  composer  conducting.  The  first  public  performance  was  at  the  Theater  an  der 
Wien,  April  7,  1805.  The  parts  were  published  in  1806,  and  dedicated  to  Prince 
von  Lobkowitz.  The  score  was  published  in  1820. 

The  symphony  is  scored  for  2  flutes,  2  oboes,  2  clarinets,  2  bassoons,  3  horns, 
2  trumpets,  timpani  and  strings. 

Those  who  have  listened  to  the  Eroica  Symphony  have  been  re- 
minded, perhaps  too  often,  that  the  composer  once  destroyed  in 
anger  a  dedication  to  Napoleon  Bonaparte.  The  music,  as  one  returns 
to  it  in  the  course  of  succeeding  years,  seems  to  look  beyond  Napoleon, 
as  if  it  really  never  had  anything  to  do  with  the  man  who  once  fell 
short  of  receiving  a  dedication.  Sir  George  Grove  once  wrote:  "Though 
the  Eroica  was  a  portrait  of  Bonaparte,  it  is  as  much  a  portrait  of 
Beethoven  himself  —  but  that  is  the  case  with  everything  he  wrote." 
Sir  George's  second  remark  was  prophetic  of  the  present  point  of  view. 
The  name  of  Napoleon  is  now  little  associated  with  the  score,  except 
in  the  form  of  an  often  repeated  anecdote. 

The  concept  of  heroism  which  plainly  shaped  this  symphony,  and 
which  sounds  through  so  much  of  Beethoven's  music,  would  give  no 
place  to  a  self-styled  "Emperor"  who  was  ambitious  to  bring  all 
Europe  into  vassalage,  and  ready  to  crush  out  countless  lives  in  order 
to  satisfy  his  ambition.  If  the  Eroica  had  ever  come  to  Napoleon's 
attention,  which  it  probably  did  not,  its  inward  nature  would  have 
been  quite  above  his  comprehension  —  not  to  speak,  of  course,  of 
musical  comprehension.  Its  suggestion  is  of  selfless  heroes,  those  who 
give  their  lives  to  overthrow  tyrants  and  liberate  oppressed  peoples. 
Egmont  was  such  a  hero,  Leonore  such  a  heroine.  The  motive  that  gave 
musical  birth  to  those  two  characters  also  animated  most  of  Beethoven's 
music,  varying  in  intensity,  but  never  in  kind.  It  grew  from  the 
thoughts  arid  ideals  that  had  nurtured  the  French  Revolution. 

Beethoven  was  never  more  completely,  more  eruptively  revolution- 
ary than  in  his  Eroica  Symphony.  Its  first  movement  came  from  all 
that  was  defiant  in  his  nature.  He  now  tasted  to  the  full  the  intoxica- 
tion of  artistic  freedom.  This  hunger  for  freedom  was  one  of  his 
deepest  impulses,  and  it  was  piqued  by  his  sense  of  servitude  to  titles. 
Just  or  not,  the  resentment  was  real  to  him,  and  it  increased  his  kin- 
ship with  the  commoner,  and  his  ardent  republicanism.  The  Eroica, 
of  course,  is  no  political  document,  except  in  the  degree  that  it  was 
the  deep  and  inclusive  expression  of  the  composer's  point  of  view  at 

[28] 


the  time.  And  there  was  much  on  his  heart.  This  was  the  first  out- 
spoken declaration  of  independence  by  an  artist  who  had  outgrown 
the  mincing  restrictions  of  a  salon  culture  in  the  century  just  ended. 
But,  more  than  that,  it  was  a  reassertion  of  will  power.  The  artist, 
first  confronted  with  the  downright  threat  of  total  deafness,  answered 
by  an  unprecedented  outpouring  of  his  creative  faculties.  There,  es- 
pecially, lie  the  struggle,  the  domination,  the  suffering,  and  the  triumph 
of  the  Eroica  Symphony.  The  heroism  that  possesses  the  first  movement 
is  intrepidity  where  faith  and  strength  become  one,  a  strength  which 
exalts  and  purifies.  The  funeral  march,  filled  with  hushed  mystery,  has 
no  odor  of  mortality;  death  had  no  place  in  Beethoven's  thoughts  as 
artist.  The  spirit  which  gathers  and  rises  in  the  middle  portion  sweeps 
inaction  aside  and  becomes  a  life  assertion.  The  shouting  triumph 
of  the  variation  Finale  has  no  tramp  of  heavy,  crushing  feet;  it  is  a 
jubilant  exhortation  to  all  mankind,  a  foreshadowing  of  the  Finales 
of  the  Fifth  and  Ninth  Symphonies.  It  is  entirely  incongruous  as  ap- 
plied to  the  vain  and  preening  Corsican  and  his  bloody  exploits. 
Beethoven  may  once  have  had  some  misty  idea  of  a  noble  liberator;  he 
was  to  have  an  increasingly  bitter  experience  of  the  misery  which  spread 
in  Napoleon's  wake. 

As  his  notebooks  show,  he  forged  his  heroic  score  with  a  steady  on- 
slaught, expanding  the  inherited  form  almost  beyond  recognition,  yet 


Carnegie  Hall,  New  York 


Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 


Second  Pair  of  Concerts 

Wednesday  Evening,   December  12 
Saturday  Afternoon,   December  15 


[29] 


preserving  its  balance  and  symmetry.  The  plans  for  each  movement 
but  the  scherzo  were  laid  in  the  first  fever  of  creation.  But  Beethoven 
seems  to  have  been  in  no  great  hurry  to  complete  his  task.  The  work- 
manship in  detail  is  largely  attributed  to  his  summer  sojourns  of  1803 
at  Baden  and  at  Ober-Dobling.  Ries  remembered  seeing  a  fair  copy 
in  its  finished  state  upon  the  composer's  table  in  the  early  spring  of 
1804. 

Certain  definitely  established  facts,  as  well  as  legends  based  on  the 
sometimes  too  fertile  memories  of  his  friends,  surround  Beethoven's 
programmistic  intentions  regarding  the  Eroica  Symphony.  Ries  told 
how  in  the  early  spring  of  1804,  he  saw  the  completed  sheets  upon  Bee- 
thoven's work  table  with  the  word  "Buonaparte"  at  the  top,  "Luigi 
van  Beethoven"  at  the  bottom,  a  blank  space  between;  how  when  he 
told  Beethoven  a  few  weeks  later  that  the  "First  Consul"  had  pro- 
claimed himself  "Emperor  of  the  French,"  pushing  the  Pope  aside 
and  setting  the  crown  on  his  own  head,  the  composer  flew  into  a  rage, 
and  tore  the  title  page  in  two.  Schindler  confirms  this  tale,  having 
heard  it  from  Count  Moritz  Lichnowsky.  The  manuscript  copy  (not  in 
Beethoven's  script,  but  freely  marked  by  him)  which  has  come  down 
to  posterity  and  which  is  now  at  the  Library  of  the  Gesellschaft  der 
Musikfreunde  in  Vienna,  has  a  different  title  page.  It  reads:  "Sinfonia 
Grande  —  Intitulata  Bonaparte  —  804  in  August  —  del  Sigr.  Louis  van 
Beethoven  —  Sinfonia  3,  Op.  55."  The  words  "Intitulata  Bonaparte" 
have  been  blotted  out,  but  can  still  be  traced.  Under  his  name  in  lead 
pencil,  now  barely  discernible,  Beethoven  has  written:  "Geschrieben 
auf  Bonaparte/*  Beethoven  wrote  to  Breitkopf  and  Hartel,  August  26, 
1804,  offering  them  "a  new  grand  symphony,  really  entitled  Bonaparte, 
and  in  addition  to  the  usual  instruments  there  are  specially  three  ob- 
bligato  horns.  I  believe  it  will  interest  the  musical  public."  This  was 
the  Beethoven  who  liked  to  take  the  tone  of  a  shrewd  business  man, 
and  also  the  Beethoven  who  devised  his  dedications  with  a  cold  eye 
for  expediency.  The  symphony  "written  on  Bonaparte"  was  finally 
published  as  "Sinfonia  Eroica,  composed  to  celebrate  the  memory  of  a 
great  Man."  The  inscription  might  well  have  been  put  this  way: 
"Composed  in  memory  of  greatness  dreamed  by  a  musician  and  for- 
feited by  a  statesman." 

•    • 

The  immense  step  from  the  Second  Symphony  to  the  Third  is 
primarily  an  act  of  the  imagination.  The  composer  did  not  base  his 
new  power  on  any  new  scheme;  he  kept  the  form  of  the  salon  sym- 
phony* which,  as  it  stood,  could  have  been  quite  incongruous  to  his 
every  thought,  and  began  furiously  to  expand  and  transform.  The 

*  He  first  projected  the  movements  conventionally,  as  the  sketchbooks  show.  The  opening: 
chords  of  the  first  movement,  stark  and  arresting,  were  originally  sketched  as  a  merely  stiff 
dominant-tonic  cadence.  The  third  movement  first  went  upon  paper  as  a  minuet.  Variations 
were  then  popular,  and  so  were  funeral  marches,  although  they  were  not  used  in  symphonies. 

[SO] 


exposition  is  a  mighty  projection  of  155  bars,  music  of  concentrated 
force,  wide  in  dynamic  and  emotional  range,  conceived  apparently  in 
one  great  sketch,  where  the  pencil  could  hardly  keep  pace  with  the 
outpouring  thoughts.  There  are  no  periodic  tunes  here,  but  fragments 
of  massive  chords,  and  sinuous  rhythms,  subtly  articulated  but  inex- 
tricable, meaningless  as  such  except  in  their  context.  Every  bar  bears 
the  heroic  stamp.  There  is  no  melody  in  the  conventional  sense,  but 
in  its  own  sense  the  music  is  melody  unbroken,  in  long  ebb  and  flow, 
vital  in  every  part.  Even  before  the  development  is  reached  the  com- 
poser has  taken  us  through  mountains  and  valleys,  shown  us  the  range, 
the  universality  of  his  subject.  The  development  is  still  more  incredible, 
as  it  extends  the  classical  idea  of  a  brief  thematic  interplay  into  a  sec- 
tion of  250  bars.  It  discloses  vaster  scenery,  in  which  the  foregoing 
elements  are  newly  revealed,  in  their  turn  generating  others.  The  re- 
capitulation (beginning  with  the  famous  passage  where  the  horns 
mysteriously  sound  the  returning  tonic  E-flat  against  a  lingering 
dominant  chord)  restates  the  themes  in  the  increased  strength  and 
beauty  of  fully  developed  acquaintance. 

But  still  the  story  is  not  told.  In  an  unprecedented  coda  of  140  bars, 
the  much  exploited  theme  and  its  satellites  reappear  in  fresh  guise, 
as  if  the  artist's  faculty  of  imaginative  growth  could  never  expend 
itself.  This  first  of  the  long  codas  is  one  of  the  most  astonishing  parts 
of  the  Symphony.  A  coda  until  then  had  been  little  more  than  a  bril- 
liant close,  an  underlined  cadence.  With  Beethoven  it  was  a  resolution 
in  a  deeper  sense.  The  repetition  of  the  subject  matter  in  the  reprise 
could  not  be  for  him  the  final  word.  The  movement  had  been  a  narra- 
tive of  restless  action  —  forcefulness  gathering,  striding  to  its  peak  and 
breaking,  followed  by  a  gentler  lyricism  which  in  turn  grew  in  tension 
until  the  cycle  was  repeated.  The  movement  required  at  last  an  es- 
tablished point  of  repose.  The  coda  sings  the  theme  softly,  in  confident 
reverie  under  a  new  and  delicate  violin  figure.  As  the  coda  takes  its 
quiet  course,  the  theme  and  its  retinue  of  episodes  are  transfigured 
into  tone  poetry  whence  conflict  is  banished.  The  main  theme,  ringing 
and  joyous,  heard  as  never  before,  brings  the  end. 

The  second  movement,  like  the  first,  is  one  of  conflicting  impulses, 
but  here  assuaging  melody  contends,  not  with  overriding  energy,  but 
with  the  broken  accents  of  heavy  sorrow.  The  legato  second  strain  in 
the  major  eases  the  muffled  minor  and  the  clipped  notes  of  the  open- 
ing "march"  theme,  to  which  the  oboe  has  lent  a  special  somber  shad- 
ing. The  middle  section,  in  C  major,  begins  with  a  calmer,  elegiac 
melody,  over  animating  staccato  triplets  from  the  strings.  The  triplets 
become  more  insistent,  ceasing  only  momentarily  for  broad  fateful 
chords,  and  at  last  permeating  the  scene  with  their  determined  rhythm, 
as  if  the  composer  were  setting  his  indomitable  strength  against  tragedy 

[Si] 


itself.  The  opening  section  returns  as  the  subdued  theme  of  grief  gives 
its  dark  answer  to  the  display  of  defiance.  But  it  does  not  long  continue. 
A  new  melody  is  heard  in  a  fugato  of  the  strings,  an  episode  of  quiet, 
steady  assertion,  characteristic  of  the  resolution  Beethoven  found  in 
counterpoint.  The  whole  orchestra  joins  to  drive  the  point  home.  But 
a  tragic  decrescendo  and  a  reminiscence  of  the  funeral  first  theme  is 
again  the  answer.  Now  Beethoven  thunders  his  protest  in  mighty 
chords  over  a  stormy  accompaniment.  There  is  a  long  subsidence  —  a 
magnificent  yielding  this  time  —  and  a  return  of  the  first  theme  again, 
now  set  forth  in  full  voice.  As  in  the  first  movement,  there  is  still  lack- 
ing the  final  answer,  and  that  answer  comes  in  another  pianissimo  coda, 
measures  where  peacefulness  is  found  and  sorrow  accepted,  as  the 
theme,  broken  into  incoherent  fragments,  comes  to  its  last  concord. 

The  conquering  life  resurgence  comes,  not  shatteringly,  but  in  a 
breath-taking  pianissimo,  in  the  swiftest,  most  wondrous  Scherzo  Bee- 
thoven had  composed.  No  contrast  more  complete  could  be  imagined. 
The  Scherzo  is  another  exhibition  of  strength,  but  this  time  it  is 
strength  finely  controlled,  unyielding  and  undisputed.  In  the  Trio,  the 
horns,  maintaining  the  heroic  key  of  E-flat,  deliver  the  principal  phrases 
alone,  in  three-part  harmony.  The  Scherzo  returns  with  changes,  such 
as  the  repetition  of  the  famous  descending  passage  of  rhythmic  dis- 
placement in  unexpected  duple  time  instead  of  syncopation.  If  this 
passage  is  "humorous,"  humor  must  be  defined  as  the  adroit  and  fanci- 
ful play  of  power. 

And  now  in  the  Finale,  the  tumults  of  exultant  strength  are  released. 
A  dazzling  flourish,  and  the  bass  of  the  theme  is  set  forward  simply 
by  the  plucked  strings.  It  is  repeated,  its  bareness  somewhat  adorned 
before  the  theme  proper  appears  over  it,  by  way  of  the  wood  winds.* 
The  variations  disclose  a  fugato,  and  later  a  new  theme,  a  sort  of 
"second  subject"  in  conventional  martial  rhythm  but  an  inspiriting 
stroke  of  genius  in  itself.  The  fugato  returns  in  more  elaboration,  in 
which  the  bass  is  inverted.  The  music  takes  a  graver,  more  lyric  pace 
for  the  last  variation,  a  long  poco  andante.  The  theme  at  this  tempo 
has  a  very  different  expressive  beauty.  There  grows  from  it  a  new 
alternate  theme  (first  given  to  the  oboe  and  violin).  The  principal 
theme  now  strides  majestically  across  the  scene  over  triplets  of  increas- 
ing excitement  which  recall  the  slow  movement.  There  is  a  gradual 
dying  away  in  which  the  splendor  of  the  theme,  itself  unheard,  still 
lingers.  A  presto  brings  a  gleaming  close. 


*  The  varied  theme  had  already  appeared  under  Beethoven's  name  as  the  finale  of 
Premetheus,  as  a  contra-dance,  and  as  a  set  of  piano  variations.  Was  this  fourth  use  of 
it  the  persistent  exploitation  of  a  particularly  workable  tune,  or  the  orchestral  realization 
for  which  the  earlier  uses  were  as  sketches  1  The  truth  may  lie  between. 

[copyrighted] 

[32] 


Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

(Seventy-sixth  Season,  1956-1957) 
CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 

RICHARD   BURGIN,  Associate  Conductor 


Violins 

Richard  Burgin 
Concert-master 

Alfred  Krips 
George   Zazofsky 
Rolland  Tapley 
Norhert  Lauga 
Vladimir  Resnikoff 
Harry  Dickson 
Gottfried  Wilfinger 
Einar   Hansen 
Joseph  Leibovici 
Emil  Kornsand 
Roger  Shermont 

Minot  Beale 
Herman  Silberman 
Stanley  Benson 
Leo    Panasevich 
Sheldon  Rotenberg 
Fredy  Ostrovsky 

Clarence  Knudson 
Pierre  Mayer 

Manuel  Zung 
Samuel  Diamond 

Victor  Manusevitch 
James  Nagy 

Melvin  Bryant 
Lloyd  Stonestreet 
Saverio  Messina 
William  Waterhouse 
William  Marshall 
Leonard  Moss 
Jesse  Ceci 
Noah  Bielski 
Alfred  Schneider 
Joseph  Silvers  tein 

Basses 

Georges  Moleux 
Gaston  Dufresne 
Ludwig  Juht 
Irving  Frankel 
Henry  Freeman 
Henry  Portnoi 
Henri  Girard 
John  Barwicki 


PERSONNEL 

Violas 
Joseph  de  Pasquale 
Jean  Cauhape 

Eugen  Lehner 
Albert  Bernard 

George  Humphrey 
Jerome  Lipson 

Robert   Karol 
Reuben  Green 

Bernard   Kadinoff 
Vincent  Mauricci 

John  Fiasca 
Earl  Hedberg 

Violoncellos 
Samuel  Mayes 
Alfred  Zighera 

Jacobus  Langendoen 
Mischa  Nieland 
Karl  Zeise 
Josef  Zimbler 

Bernard   Parronchi 
Martin  Hoherman 
Louis   Berger 
Richard  Kapuscinski 
Robert  Ripley 

Flutes 
Doriot  Anthony  Dwyer 
James  Pappoutsakis 
Phillip  Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George  Madsen 

Oboes 
Ralph  Gomberg 
Jean   Devergie 
John   Holmes 

English  Horn 
Louis  Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino  Cioffi 
Manuel  Valerio 
Pasquale  Cardillo 

E\)  Clarinet 

Bass  Clarinet 
Rosario  Mazzeo 


Bassoons 
Sherman  Walt 
Ernst  Panenka 
Theodore  Brewster 

Contra-Bassoon 
Richard  Plaster 

Horns 

James  Stagliano 
Charles  Vancich 

Harry  Shapiro 
Harold  Meek 
Paul  Keaney 
Osbourne  McConathy 

Trumpets 

Roger  Voisin 
Marcel  Lafosse 
Armando  Ghitalla 
Gerard  Goguen 

Trombones 

William  Gibson 
William  Mover 
Kauko  Kahila 
Josef  Orosz 

Tuba 
K.  Vinal  Smith 

Harps 
Bernard  Zighera 
Olivia  Luetcke 

Timpani 

Everett  Firth 
Harold  Farberman 

Percussion 
Charles  Smith 
Harold  Thompson 
Arthur  Press 

Piano 
Bernard  Zighera 

Library 
Victor  Alpert 


'.   .■■..:■■     '  :     '         •  .  •      ':':.    :.-■■■.   '■   ''     .  '  V\  :   .:  ' 


|?s|-pfe:i-«::5 


you  double  your  enjoyment 

when  you  have  them  both 

In  homes  where  music  is  a  member  of  the  family,  you'll  find 
both  the  beautiful  Baldwin  Grand  Piano  and  the  wonderfully 
companionable  Orga-sonic  Spinet  Organ  by  Baldwin.  Truly, 
two  hearts  that  beat  as  one. 


BALDWIN    GRAND    PIANOS 
HAMILTON    STUDIO    PIANOS 


THE  BALDWIN  PIANO  COMPANY 

CINCINNATI 

OHIO 


ACROSONIC    SPINET    AND    CONSOLE    PIANOS 
BALDWIN   AND    ORGA-SONIC    ELECTRONIC    ORGANS 


5il 


U.        f/'i 


■V. 


BOSTON 

SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 


FOUNDED  IN  1881  BY 
HENRY  LEE  HIGGINSON 


& 


a 


■m 


"////■ 


$ 


Jr~pf(i 


nwui 


r 


SEVENTY-SIXTH   SEASON 
1956-1957 

Carnegie  Hall,  New  York 


"BOSTON  VISITS  MOSCOW" 

Jack  Phipps,  a  London  manager  of  this 
Orchestra's  European  tour,  travelled  into 
Russia  with  the  orchestra,  and  has  con- 
tributed comments  of  his  own,  under  the 
above  title,  to  the  magazine  "Tempo": 

From  the  first  rather  overwhelming 
welcome  on  the  tarmac  at  Leningrad  it 
was  clear  that  no  effort  would  be  spared 
to  make  the  visit  a  success.  The  hotels 
were  provided  by  the  Government  and 
we  had  our  own  restaurants,  where  four 
enormous  meals  were  served  each  day. 
Never  less  than  five  interpreters  were 
available  both  for  official  business  and 
for  the  well-arranged  sightseeing  tours  of 
which  everyone  took  full  advantage,  and 
throughout  we  were  conscious  of  a  feel- 
ing of  immense  goodwill,  official  and 
unofficial,  on  all  sides. 

In  general  the  organisation  of  the  tour 
was  good  and  the  orchestra  was  flown  on 
the  journeys  from  Helsinki  to  Leningrad, 
and  from  Moscow  to  Prague.  As  Russian 
passenger  planes  seat  only  21  passengers 
and  the  party  numbered  120,  this  in- 
volved three  planes  on  a  shuttle  service 
for  the  first  trip,  and  six  on  the  leg  from 
Moscow  to  Prague,  with  three  additional 
machines  for  the  eight-and-a-half  tons  of 
instruments.  Throughout  our  stay  in  the 
Soviet  Union  we  had  buses  permanently 
at  our  disposal  for  trips  to  and  from  the 
restaurants  and  halls,  and  cars  were  also 
always  available.  Our  only  difficulty 
from  the  organisational  angle  was  to  dis- 
cover exactly  what  had  been  decided  by 
our  hosts.  To  a  request  for  information 
on,  say,  the  departure  time  of  a  train  or 
plane  the  usual  reply  was  "Do  not  worry. 
All  is  arranged." 

It  was  a  condition  of  the  subsidy  pro- 
vided by  ANTA  for  the  orchestra's  visit 
to  Europe  that  each  programme  played 
on  the  tour  should  contain  a  modern 
American  work,  and  we  were  interested 
to  see  the  reactions  of  the  Russian  audi- 
ences to  the  works  chosen.  They  were 
all  well  received,  and  there  was  no  mis- 
taking the  enjoyment  produced  by  the 


second  movement  of  the  Piston  sym- 
phony, which  in  both  Leningrad  and  Mos- 
cow evoked  spontaneous  chuckles  and  a 
round  of  applause.  The  Soviet  authori- 
ties were  anxious  that  more  than  the  two 
concerts  in  each  city  originally  agreed 
upon  should  be  given  if  possible.  So  on 
the  last  day  in  Moscow  one  concert  was 
given  at  mid-day,  and  a  second  at  7:30 
p.m.,  this  being  followed  by  an  official 
reception  given  by  the  Ministry  of  Cul- 
ture at  which  Kabalevsky  and  Oistrakh 
both  spoke. 

To  say  that  the  concerts  were  well 
received  would  be  an  understatement 
paralleled  only  by  that  made  by  Monteux 
to  Munch  after  the  first  Leningrad  con- 
cert. There  had  been  vociferous  applause 
which  brought  the  conductor  back  and 
back;  an  encore  was  played  and  finally 
the  orchestra  left  the  platform.  Still  the 
audience  stood  solidly  in  the  hall  calling 
for  Dr.  Munch,  who  by  then  had  started 
to  change.  Mr.  Monteux  suddenly 
appeared  in  the  dressing  room  crying 
"Charles,  Charles,  on  vous  appelle!" 
The  same  sort  of  demonstrations  fol- 
lowed each  concert,  those  in  Moscow 
being  even  more  noisy  and  enthusiastic 
than  those  in  Leningrad. 

At  each  of  the  concerts  we  met  dis- 
tinguished Soviet  musicians,  composers 
and  writers  who  came,  headed  by 
Oistrakh  pere  et  fils  and  Katchaturian, 
to  pay  tribute  to  the  orchestra  and  the 
conductors.  Everyone  was  obviously 
enormously  impressed  by  the  technical 
achievements  of  the  players  and  by  the 
sense  of  unity  of  purpose,  based  on  re- 
spect and  affection,  that  exist  between 
the  musical  director,  Dr.  Munch,  and  his 
orchestra. 

Certainly  the  enthusiasm  and  goodwill 
on  all  sides  seemed  sincere  and  unforced 
and  one  was  left  with  an  abiding  impres- 
sion of  a  friendly  people,  happy  to  have 
an  opportunity  of  sharing  in  an  artistic 
event  that  by  its  language  was  interna- 
tional and  non-political. 


Carnegie  Hall,   New  York 
Seventy-First  Season  in  New  York 


SEVENTY-SIXTH  SEASON,   1956-1957 

Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 
Richard  Burgin,  Associate  Conductor 


Concert  Bulletin  of  the 

Second  Concerts 

WEDNESDAY  EVENING,  December  12,  at  8:45 
SATURDAY  AFTERNOON,  December  15,  at  2:30 

with  historical  and  descriptive  notes  by 

John  N.  Burk 

The  TRUSTEES  of  the 

BOSTON  SYMPHONY  ORCHESTRA,  Inc. 

Henry  B.  Cabot  .         President 

Jacob  J.  Kaplan  .         Vice-President 

Richard  C.  Paine  .         Treasurer 

Talcott  M.  Banks,  Jr.  Michael  T.  Kelleher 

Theodore  P.  Ferris  Palfrey  Perkins 

Alvan  T.  Fuller  Charles  H.  Stockton 

Francis  W.  Hatch  Edward  A.  Taft 

Harold  D.  Hodgkinson  Raymond  S.  Wilkins 

C.  D.  Jackson  Oliver  Wolcott 

TRUSTEES  EMERITUS 
Philip  R.  Allen  M.  A.  DeWolfe  Howe 

N.  Penrose  Hallo  well  Lewis  Perry 

Thomas  D.  Perry,  Jr.,  Manager 
G.  W.  Rector  |  Assistant  J.  J.  Brosnahan,  Assistant  Treasurer 

N.  S.  Shirk        )  Managers         Rosario  Mazzeo,  Personnel  Manager 


[1] 


Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

(Seventy-sixth  Season,  1956-1957) 
CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 

RICHARD   BURGIN,  Associate   Conductor 
PERSONNEL 
Violins  Violas 

Joseph  de  Pasquale 
Jean   Cauhape 

Eugen  Lehner 
Albert  Bernard 

George  Humphrey 
Jerome  Lipson 
Robert  Karol 
Reuben   Green 

Bernard   Kadinoff 
Vincent  Mauricci 

John  Fiasca 
Earl  Hedberg 


Richard  Burgin 
Concert-master 

Alfred  Krips 

George   Zazofsky 
Roll  and  Tapley 

Norbert  Lauga 
Vladimir  Resnikoff 

Harry  Dickson 
Gottfried  Wilfinger 

Einar   Hansen 
Joseph  Leibovici 

Emil   Kornsand 
Roger  Shermont 

Minot  Beale 
Herman  Silberman 
Stanley  Benson 
Leo    Panasevich 

Sheldon  Rotenberg 
Fredy  Ostrovsky 

Clarence  Knudson 
Pierre  Mayer 

Manuel  Zung 
Samuel  Diamond 

Victor  Manusevitch 
James   Nagy 

Melvin  Bryant 
Lloyd  Stonestreet 

Saverio  Messina 
William  Waterhouse 

William  Marshall 
Leonard  Moss 

Jesse  Ceci 
Noah  Bielski 

Alfred  Schneider 
Joseph  Silvers tein 

Basses 

Georges  Moleux 
Gaston  Dufresne 
Ludwig  Juht 
Irving  Frankel 
Henry  Freeman 
Henry  Portnoi 
Henri  Girard 
John  Barwicki 


Violoncellos 
Samuel  Mayes 
Alfred  Zighera 

Jacobus   Langendoen 
Mischa  Nieland 

Karl  Zeise 
Josef  Zimbler 

Bernard  Parronchi 
Martin  Hoherman 

Louis   Berger 
Richard   Kapuscinski 

Robert  Ripley 

Flutes 
Doriot  Anthony  Dwyer 
James  Pappoutsakis 
Phillip  Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George  Madsen 

Oboes 
Ralph  Gomberg 
Jean   Devergie 
John   Holmes 

English  Horn 
Louis  Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino  Cioffi 
Manuel  Valerio 
Pasquale  Cardillo 

E\)   Clarinet 

Bass  Clarinet 
Rosario  Mazzeo 


Bassoons 

Sherman  Walt 
Ernst  Panenka 
Theodore  Brewster 

Contra-Bassoon 
Richard  Plaster 


Horns 

James  Stagliano 
Charles  Yancich 

Harry  Shapiro 
Harold  Meek 
Paul  Keaney 
Osbourne  McConathy 


Trumpets 
Roger  Voisin 
Marcel  Lafosse 
Armando  Ghitalla 
Gerard  Goguen 

Trombones 

William  Gibson 
William   Moyer 
Kauko  Kahila 
Josef  Orosz 

Tuba 
K.  Vinal  Smith 

Harps 

Bernard  Zighera 
Olivia  Luetcke 

Timpani 
Everett  Firth 
Harold  Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles  Smith 
Harold  Thompson 
Arthur  Press 

Piano 
Bernard  Zighera 

Library 
Victor  Alpert 


[*] 


seventy-sixth  season  •  nineteen  hundred  fifty-six  and  fifty-seven 
Seventy-First  Season  in  New  York 

Second  Evening  Concert 

WEDNESDAY,  December  12 


Program 

Honegger Symphony  No.  2,  for  String  Orchestra 

I.     Molto  moderato 
II.    Adagio  mesto 
III.     Vivace,  non  troppo 

Bach "Wedding"  Cantata,  "Weichet  nur,  betrubte  Schatten" 

("Vanish  now,  ye  winter  shadows"),  for  Soprano,  No.  202 

Adagio:   "Weichet  nur,  betrubte  Schatten" 

Recitativo:   "Die  Welt  wird  wieder  neu" 

Aria:  "Phoebus  eilt  mit  schnellen  Pferden" 

Recitativo:   "D'rum  sucht  auch  Amor" 

Aria:  "Wenn  die  Fruhlingslufte  streichen"  (with  violin  solo) 

Recitativo:   "Und  dieses  ist  das  Gliick" 

Aria:  "Sich  uben  im  lieben"  (with  oboe  solo) 

Recitativo:  "So  sei  das  Band  der  keuschen  Liebe" 

Gavotte:   "Sehet  in  Zufriedenheit" 

Violin  Solo,  Richard  Burgtn 

Oboe  Solo,  Ralph  Gomberg 

Harpsichord,  Daniel  Pinkham 

INTERMISSION 

Hindemith  .  .  Songs  from  "Das  Marienleben"  for  Soprano  and  Orchestra 

I.     Geburt  Maria  (The  Birth  of  Mary) 

II.     Argwohn  Josephs  (Joseph's  Doubt) 

III.     Geburt  Christi  (The  Birth  of  Christ) 

Roussel "Bacchus  et  Ariane,"  Suite  No.  2,  Op.  43 


SOLOIST 

IRMGARD  SEEFRIED,  Soprano 


Performances  by  this  orchestra  are  broadcast  each  week  on  Monday 
evenings  from  8:05  to  9:00  P.M.  on  the  NBC  Radio  Network. 

Music  of  these  programs  is  available  at  the  Music  Library, 
58th   Street   Branch,    the   New  York    Public   Library. 

BALDWIN  PIANO  RCA  VICTOR  RECORDS 

[3] 


SYMPHONY  FOR  STRING  ORCHESTRA 

By  Arthur  Honegger 

Born  in  Le  Havre,  March  10,  1892;  died  in  Paris,  November  27,  1955 


The  Symphonie  pour  Orchestra  a  Cordes  is  dated  1941.  It  was  published  in  1942 
with  a  dedication  to  Paul  Sacher*  and  has  been  performed  by  him  in  Zurich  and 
other  Swiss  cities.  The  first  American  performance  was  by  the  Boston  Symphony 
Orchestra,  December  27,  1946,  Charles  Munch  conducting  as  guest.  Dr.  Koussevitzky 
conducted  it  in  the  Friday  and  Saturday  series,  October  31  and  November  1,  1947, 
and  again  on  October  8,  1948. 

A  t  the  end  of  the  printed  score  is  written,  "Paris,  October,  1941." 
-**•  Willi  Reich,  writing  from  Basel  for  the  Christian  Science  Monitor, 
May  19,  1945,  remarked  that  the  Symphony  for  Strings  "embodies 
much  of  the  mood  of  occupied  Paris,  to  which  the  composer  remained 
faithful  under  all  difficulties." 

The  first  movement  opens  with  an  introductory  Molto  moderato, 
pp,  with  a  viola  figure  and  a  premonition  in  the  violins  of  things  to 
come.  The  main  Allegro  brings  full  exposition  and  development.  The 
introductory  tempo  and  material  returns  in  the  course  of  the  movement 
for  development  on  its  own  account  and  again  briefly  before  the  end. 

The  slow  movement  begins  with  a  gentle  accompaniment  over  which 
the  violins  set  forth  the  melody  proper.  The  discourse  is  intensified  to 
ff,  and  gradually  subsides. 

The  finale,  6/8,  starts  off  with  a  lively,  rondo-like  theme  in  duple 
rhythm,  which  is  presently  replaced  by  another  in  the  rhythmic  signa- 
ture. The  movement  moves  on  a  swift  impulsion,  passes  through  a 
tarantella  phase,  and  attains  a  presto  coda,  wherein  the  composer  intro- 
duces a  chorale  in  an  ad  libitum  trumpet  part,  doubling  the  first  violins 
(a  procedure  unprecedented  in  a  piece  for  string  orchestra).  The  chorale 
theme  is  the  composer's  own. 


*  Paul  Sacher  is  the  conductor  of  the  orchestra  of  the  Collegium  Musicum  Zurich,  founded  in 
1941.    It  was  for  him  and  his  orchestra  that  many  important  works  have  been  composed. 

[copyrighted] 


Q^, 


[4] 


"WEDDING"  CANTATA,  "WEICHET  NUR,  BETROBTE 

SCHATTEN,"  No.  202,  for  Soprano  and  Orchestra 

By  Johann  Sebastian  Bach 

Born  at  Eisenach,  March  21,  1685,  died  at  Leipzig,  July  28,  1750 


This  Cantata,  believed  to  have  been  composed  in  the  Cothen  period,  has  survived 
through  a  copy  made  by  Johann  Peter  Kellner. 
The  orchestra  consists  of  an  oboe,  violins,  viola  and  continue 

This,  the  second  of  two  "Wedding  Cantatas"  (the  first  is  "O  holder 
Tag,  erwunschte  Zeit,"  No.  201)  is  aptly  called  in  France  the 
"Cantate  du  Printemps"  There  is  no  record  of  whose  wedding  was 
celebrated,  nor  when  it  took  place.  The  music  could  well  have  perished 
unknown,  the  score  having  disappeared.  Fortunately,  J.  C.  H.  Rinck, 
an  organist  of  a  later  day,  preserved  a  copy  from  Johann  Peter  Kellner, 
who  had  copied  much  of  Bach's  music.  (The  practice  of  copying  scores 
in  that  pre-publication  era  has  thus  led  to  the  survival  of  important 
music,  as  well  as  to  confusion  about  the  authorship  of  certain  works.) 

The  writer  of  this  tenderly  joyous  text,  an  apostrophe  to  nature  and 
to  love,  is  unknown.  It  may  well  have  pleased  the  master,  if  we  may 
judge  by  the  lovely  music  it  has  inspired.  Albert  Schweitzer  has 
described  the  poem  as  "much  superior  to  the  ordinary  'occasional'  text 
that  came  Bach's  way.  The  theme  is  the  passing  of  winter  and  the 
coming  of  spring.  Phoebus  and  his  horses  gallop  through  the  new 
world;  Cupid  runs  through  the  fields  whenever  he  sees  a  pair  of  lovers 
kissing;  May  the  love-spring  of  the  newly-wedded  pair  overcome  and 
outlast  the  transitoriness  of  outward  things." 

Dr.  Schweitzer  has  found  in  this  secular  cantata  prime  examples  of 
his  favorite  theory  that  Bach  constantly  resorted  to  descriptive  figures 
in  his  scores.  He  points  out  how  the  "vaporous  semi-quavers  ascending 
in  the  strings  in  the  opening  aria  depict  the  mists  vanishing  before  the 
breeze  of  spring,  while  the  oboe  sings  a  dreamy,  yearning  melody  of  the 
type  of  which  Bach  alone  seems  to  have  the  secret." 

"The  aria  that  deals  with  the  fleet  steeds  with  which  Phoebus  flies 
through  the  newly-awakened  world,"  moves  to  a  light,  galloping  bass 
arpeggio.  The  similarity  of  this  theme  to  a  sketch  for  the  final  allegro  of 
the  Sixth  Violin  Sonata  written  in  Cothen  leads  Dr.  Schweitzer  to  sup- 
pose that  this  Wedding  Cantata  was  also  a  product  of  Cothen. 

A  dagio  — 

Weichet  nur,  betriibte  Schatten,  Vanish  now,  ye  winter  shadows, 

Frost  und  Winde,  geht  zur  Ruh!  Frost  and  tempest  all  are  gone. 

Florens  Lust  will  der  Brust  Spring  delight  is  in  sight, 

Nichts  als  frohes  Gliick  verstatten.  Flowers  fair  adorn  the  meadows 

Denn  sie  trdget  B lumen  zu.  Fill  the  field  and  deck  the  lawn. 

[5] 


Recitativo  — 

Die  Welt  wird  wieder  neu,  auf  Bergen 
und  in  Grunden  will  sich  die  Anmuth 
doppelt  Schon  verbinden,  der  Tag  is  von 
der  Kdlte  frei. 

A  ria  — 

Phoebus  eilt  mit  schnellen  Pferden, 

Durch  die  neugeborne  Welt, 

Ja,  weil  sie  ihm  wohl  gefallt 

Will  er  selbst  ein  Buhler  werden. 


The  world  is  dressed  anew.  O'er  hill  and 
dale  enchanting  the  budding  leaves  and 
flowers  go  gallivanting.  The  air  is  warm, 
the  sky  is  blue. 


Phoebus  drives  his  horses  prancing 

Swiftly  through  the  sky  above. 

Even  he  must  stoop  to  love 

Ah- 

All  the  world  is  so  entrancing. 


Recitativo  — 

D'rum  sucht  auch  Amor  sein  Vergnugen, 
tuenn  Purpur  in  die  Wiesen  lacht,  wenn 
Florens  Pracht  sich  herrlich  macht,  und 
wenn  in  seinem  Reich,  den  schonen 
B  lumen  gleich,  auf  Herzen  feurig  sie  gen. 

Aria  — 

Wenn  die  Fruhlingslufte  streichen 
Und  durch  bunte  Felder  weh'n, 
Pflegt  auch  Amor  auszuschleichen 
Um  nach  seinem  Schmuck  zu  seh'n 
Welcher,  glaubt  man,  dieser  ist: 
Dass  ein  Herz  das  andre  kusst. 


And  then  it  is,  Love  seeks  his  pleasure 
amid  the  purple  meadows  gay,  where 
flowers  display  their  bright  array,  and  all 
their  rich  attire;  and  hearts  with  love  on 
fire  can  carry  all  before  them. 


When  in  spring  the  breezes  blowing 
With  the  springtime 
Stroke  the  fields  with  soft  caress, 
Out  steals  Cupid  bent  on  showing 
All  the  world  his  choicest  dress 
Ah:  his  choicest  dress  is  this  — 
That  he  see  two  lovers  kiss. 


Recitativo  — 

Und  dieses  ist  das  Gliicke:  dass  durch 
ein  hohes  Gunstgeschicke  zwei  Seelen 
einen  Schmuck  erlanget,  an  dem  viel 
Heil  und  Segen  pranget. 

A  ria  — 

Sich  uben  im  Lieben,  in  Scherzen  sich 

herzen 
1st  besser  als  Florens  vergangliche  Lust 
Hier  quellen  die  Wellen,  hier  lachen  und 

wachen 
Die  siegenden  Palmen  auf  Lippen  und 

Brust. 


When  two  pure  souls  are  plighted  and 
true  and  steadfast  are  united,  both  filled 
with  hope  of  high  endeavor,  they  are 
content  and  blessed  ever. 


Oh  Maytime's  the  gay  time  for  cooing 

and  wooing, 
Far    better     than     flowers'     so     fleeting 

delight. 
The  clover's  soon  over,  but  never  will 

sever 
The  bonds  of  devotion   that   true  love 

unite. 


Recitativo  — 

So  sei  das  Band  der  keuschen  Liebe, 
verlobte  Zwei,  vom  Unbestand  des  Wech- 
sels  frei.  Kein  jaher  Fall,  noch  Donner- 
knall  erschrecke  die  verliebten  Triebe! 

Gavotte  — 

Sehet  in  Zufriedenheit 
Tausend  helle  Wohlfahrtstage, 
Dass  bald  bei  der  Folgezeit 
Eure  Liebe  B lumen  trase. 


Inspired  by  purest  love's  emotion  you 
two  may  be;  from  fickleness  and  mean- 
ness free,  may  no  rude  jolt  nor  thunder- 
bolt deter  you  from  your  firm  devotion. 


May  you  live  in  sweet  content 
Free  from  want  and  care  and  sadness, 
Years  of  joy  together  spent 
Flower  rich  in  hope  and  gladness. 


The  translation  of  the  text  was  made  by  Henry  S.  Drinker  for  the 
Association  of  American  Colleges  in  New  York  City. 

[copyrighted] 


[6] 


!j$jg«g8BaflteojgtB| 


UP!!l.m"|.^«W'«IU»!r!U^Mi^«^l||«JUg||jmillim«IIIIIIIJ^')la 

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Munch 

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PASTORAL  SYMPHONY 

Boston  Symphony        ' 
Orchestra 


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sacred  calling.  And  this  dedication,  combined  with  the 
magnificence  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra,  brings 
you  performances  of  unmatched  power  and  beauty.  You 
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[7] 


IRMGARD  SEEFRIED 

trmgard  Seefried,  born  in  Vienna,  studied  music  from  childhood  and 
■*■  attended  the  Augsburg  Conservatory.  Her  talents  came  to  the  atten- 
tion of  Herbert  von  Karajan  at  Aachen,  resulting  in  various  operatic 
engagements  and  her  debut  in  1943  at  the  Vienna  State  Opera.  Miss 
Seefried  has  sung  in  the  principal  opera  houses  of  Europe  (the  Dresden 
Opera,  La  Scala,  Coven t  Garden,  the  festivals  at  Glyndebourne,  Salz- 
burg, Florence,  Wiesbaden,  and  Edinburgh)  as  well  as  with  orchestras 
and  in  recital. 

She  first  came  to  this  country  in  1951  and  has  since  been  active  here 
each  season,  making  her  Metropolitan  debut  in  1953  as  Susanna  in 

Mozart's  The  Marriage  of  Figaro. 


THREE  SONGS  WITH  ORCHESTRA  FROM 
"LIEDER  AUS  DEM  MARIENLEBEN" 

By  Paul  Hindemith 

Born  at  Hanau,  Germany,  November  16,  1895 


It  was  in  the  years  1922-1923  that  Hindemith  first  made  a  musical  setting  of  the 
cycle  of  poems  by  Rainer  Maria  Rilke*  based  upon  the  life  of  the  Virgin  Mary.  The 
cycle  was  first  performed  on  June  2,  1923  at  a  festival  of  modern  chamber  music 
in  Donaueschingen,  Baden. 

Years  later,  specifically  in  1938,  he  made  a  drastic  revision  of  four  of  the  fifteen 
songs,  with  orchestral  instead  of  piano  accompaniment.  This  briefer  orchestral  group 
was  first  sung  by  Henrietta  Sala  at  Scheveningen  (Holland),  August  13,  1939.  The 
first  three  of  these  are  to  be  sung  by  Irmgard  Seefried  at  these  concerts.  Miss  Seefried 
sang  these  three  with  the  Chicago  Symphony  Orchestra,  on  November  23,  1954. 

In  June,  1948,  the  composer  revised,  and  in  some  cases  entirely  rewrote  the  entire 
cycle  of  fifteen  songs,  again  with  piano  accompaniment,  keeping  the  notation  of  his 
orchestral  setting  of  four  of  them. 

The  orchestration  consists  of  2  flutes  and  piccolo,  2  clarinets,  2  oboes,  2  bassoons, 
2  horns,  2  trumpets,  2  trombones,  timpani,  cymbals,  bass  drum,  triangle,  and  strings. 

Rilke's  cycle  of  poems  on  the  life  of  Mary  moved  Hindemith,  at  the 
age  of  twenty-seven,  to  set  fifteen  poems  to  music.  A  quarter  of  a 
century  later,  long  after  the  poet's  death,  when  Hindemith  was  in  New 


*  Reiner  Maria  Rilke  (1875-1926)  was  a  German  poet,  born  in  Prague,  who  spent  years  of  his 
life  in  Russia,  Italy,  and  France.  His  book  Auguste  Rodin  is  the  result  of  his  sojourn  in  Paris, 
beginning  in  1902,  as  secretary  to  the  French  sculptor.  He  is  best  known  by  his  poetry,  some 
of  which  has  been  translated.  A  Parable  of  Death,  translated  by  Anthony  Hecht  from  the 
Geschichten  von  lieben  Gott,  was  set  for  chorus,  orchestra  and  soloists  by  Lukas  Foss.  One  of 
several  performances  took  place  at  the  Berkshire  Festival,  July  26,  1953. 

[8] 


Haven  as  Battell  Professor  of  Musical  Theory  at  Yale  University,  he 
was  again  moved  by  these  affecting  verses  of  rustic  religious  fervor  to 
recast  them  in  the  light  of  his  matured  insight  and  ability.  In  1938  he 
had  already  reconsidered  the  subject  in  his  revision  and  orchestration 
of  four  of  the  songs*.  In  a  preface  to  the  publication  of  the  entire  cycle 
with  piano  accompaniment,  in  1954,  he  gives  interestingly  and  at  length 
his  apologia  for  returning  to  what  he  considers  a  sin  of  his  youth  in 
an  effort  to  do  closer  justice  to  the  text,  with  music  more  appropriate 
to  the  subject  and  incidentally  more  grateful  to  the  singer.  A  portion 
of  the  preface  will  be  translated  in  these  pages. 

The  text  of  the  songs  is  as  follows: 

Geburt  Maria  (No.  1) 

O  was  muss  es  die  Engel  gekostet  haben 

Nicht  aufzusingen  plotzlich, 

Wie  man  aufweint,  da  sie  doch  wussten: 

In  dieser  Nacht  wird  dem  Knaben 

Die  Mutter  geboren,  dem  Einen  der  bald  erscheint. 

Schwingend  verschwiegen  sie  sich  und  zeigten  die  Richtung, 

Wo,  allein,  das  Gehoft  lag  des  Joachim, 

Ach,  sie  fuhlten  in  sich  und  im  Raum  die  reiner  Verdichtung, 

Aber  es  durfte  keiner  nieder  zu  ihm. 

Denn  die  beiden  waren  schon  so  ausser  sich  vor  Getue. 

Eine  Nachbarin  ham  und  klugte  und  wusste  nicht  wie, 

Und  der  A  Ite,  vorsichtig,  ging  und  verhielt 

Das  Gemuhe  einer  dunkelen  Kuh. 

Denn  so  war  es  noch  nie. 

The  Birth  of  Mary 

Oh  what  it  must  have  cost  the  angels  not  to  burst  into  singing  or  weep  on  knowing 
what  was  to  come.  In  this  night  there  was  born  the  destined  mother  of  One  the  world 
would  know.  Poised,  they  were  silent  and  turned  their  faces  downward  where  lay 
the  lonely  home  of  Jehoiakim.  They  felt  within  and  about  them  a  pure  impulsion 
in  that  direction,  but  none  could  go  down.  The  two  were  restless  and  eager.  A 
neighbor  came  and  spoke,  but  could  not  advise.  The  old  man,  cautious,  went  and 
stopped  the  mooing  of  his  cow.  For  such  as  this  had  never  been. 

Argwohn  Josephs  (No.  5) 

Und  der  Engel  sprach  und  gab  sich  Miih  an  dem  Mann, 

Der  seine  Fauste  ballte:  Aber  siehst  du  nicht  an  jeder  Falte, 

Dass  sie  ktihl  ist  wie  die  Gottesfriih. 

Doch  der  andre  sah  ihn  finster  an,  murmelnd  nur: 

Was  hat  sie  so  verwandelt? 

Doch  da  schrie  der  Engel:  Zimmermann, 

Merkst  du's  noch  nicht,  dass  der  Herrgott  handelt? 

Weil  du  Bretter  machst,  in  deinem  Stolze, 

Willst  du  wirklich  Den  zur  Rede  stelVn, 

Der  bescheiden  aus  dem  gleichen  Holze 

Blatter  treiben  macht  und  Knospen  schwell'n? 

Er  begriff. 

Und  wie  er  jetzt  die  Blicke,  recht  erschrocken,  zu  dem  Engel  hob, 

War  der  fort. 

Da  schob  er  seine  dicke  Miitze  langsam  ab. 

Dann  sang  er  Lob. 


*  The  fourth  is  "The  Rest  and  Flight  into  Egypt,"  not  included  in  the  present  performances. 

[9] 


Joseph's  Doubt 

And  the  angel  spoke  and  reassured  the  man  as  he  stood  with  clenched  fists:  "Do 
you  not  see  by  every  fold  that  she  is  as  composed  as  God's  dawn?"  But  the  other  looked 
at  him,  darkly  murmuring:  "Why  is  she  so  changed?"  But  the  angel  cried:  "Carpen- 
ter, do  you  not  see  that  the  Lord  God  is  in  this?  While  you  work  in  wood  with  all 
your  pride,  will  you  take  Him  to  task  who  performs  miracles  with  wood,  bringing 
forth  leaves  and  buds?"  He  understood  and  when  he  raised  his  eyes  filled  with  awe 
the  angel  had  gone.  Slowly  he  pushed  aside  his  cap  of  coarse  cloth,  then  sang  in 
praise. 

Geburt  Christi  (No.  7) 

Hdttest  du  der  Einfalt  nicht,  wie  sollte  dir  gescheh'n, 

Was  jetzt  die  Nacht  erhellt? 

Sieh,  der  Gott,  der  iiber  Volkern  grollte, 

Macht  sich  mild  und  kommt  in  dir  zur  Welt. 

Hast  du  dir  ihn  grosser  vorgestellt? 

Was  ist  Grossef 

Quer  durch  alle  Masse,  die  er  durchstreicht, 

Geht  sein  grades  Los. 

Selbst  ein  Stern  hat  keine  solche  Strasse. 

Siehst  du,  diese  Konige  sind  gross, 

Und  sie  schleppen  dir  vor  deinen  Schoss 

Schatze,  die  sie  fiir  die  grossten  halten, 

Und  du  staunst  vielleicht  bei  dieser  Gift: 

Aber  schau  in  deines  Tuches  Falten,  wie  er  jetzt  schon  alles  iibertrifft. 

Aller    Amber,    den    man    zueit    verschifft,    jeder    Goldschmuck    und    das 

Luftgewiirze, 
Das  sich  triXbend  in  die  Sinne  streut: 
A  lies  dieses  war  von  rascher  Kurze, 
Und  am  Ende  hat  man  es  bereut. 
Aber  (du  wirst  sehen):  Er  erfreut. 

The  Birth  of  Christ 

Were  it  not  for  thy  simplicity,  how  could  this  happen  which  makes  the  night 
resplendent?  See,  the  God  who  has  frowned  upon  folk  now  comes  into  the  world  in 
all  gentleness!  Hadst  imagined  him  greater?  What  is  greatness?  His  glance  pierces 
straight  through  the  multitude.  No  star  has  so  direct  a  course.  Behold!  These  kings 
are  great  and  the  treasure  they  bring  is  the  greatest  they  know,  and  you  perhaps 
are  astonished,  but  look  and  know  how  this  one  excels  all.  All  the  amber  that  man 
can  bring  across  the  sea,  every  gold  ornament  and  spices  which  stir  the  senses  — 
all  this  will  have  quickly  passed  and  at  the  end  is  repentance.  But  (thou  wilt  see) 
he  is  now  rejoicing. 

Hindemith,  in  a  long  preface  to  the  published  score  of  the  revised 
version  (the  full  cycle  with  piano  accompaniment)  has  admitted  the 
reader  into  the  sanctum  of  his  work  shop,  freely  confessed  the  short- 
comings of  his  early  attempt,  and  shown  how  in  his  maturity  he  has 
striven  to  rectify  them.  Once  momentarily  tempted  by  the  experimental 
enticements  of  twelve- tonalism,  this  composer's  basic  character  as  artist 
inevitably  brought  him  back  to  a  healthy  respect  for  what  he  calls  the 
"klingende  Apparate"  the  natural  properties  of  the  sounding  instru- 
ment or  the  human  voice  which  physics  and  physiology  have  provided. 
A  portion  of  this  preface  is  here  freely  translated: 

"Twenty-five  years  ago,  I  first  made  known  Das  Marienleben  on  the 
text  of  Rainer  Maria  Rilke.  At  that  time  I  felt  that  I  could  defend  my 
main  plan  as  an  experiment,  a  test  of  ability,   a  venture  into  the 

[10] 


unknown  which  invited  mastery.  I  was  not  yet  sure  what  the  cycle  really 
offered  for  musical  development  in  general  and  for  me  in  particular. 
Since  then  the  Lieder  have  found  general  musical  attention  in  the  West. 
They  were  eagerly  received  on  account  of  the  nature  of  the  subject, 
while  the  musical  setting  presented  practical  difficulties  which  were  put 
up  with  (perhaps  the  utmost  that  a  composer  should  wish  for). 

"The  strong  impression  which  the  initial  performance  made  on  the 
hearers  (I  had  never  expected  this)  brought  home  to  me  for  the  first 
time  in  my  musical  experience  the  ethical  necessity  of  music  and  the 
moral  obligation  of  its  composer.  If  I  had  indeed  done  my  best  with 
the  Marienleben  and  if  this  best,  in  spite  of  my  good  intentions,  was 
still  not  good  enough,  it  fell  upon  me  to  provide  a  version  of  lasting 
worth.  I  envisioned  a  nobler  ideal  and  more  finished  music  which  I 
might  be  eventually  able  to  realize  and  I  knew  that  Das  Marienleben 
was  leading  me  toward  this  goal.  This  consideration,  in  part  senti- 
mental, in  part  challenging,  of  a  work  already  existing,  soon  led  to  a 
tentative  search  for  its  betterment.  There  followed  basic  changes,  both 
technical  and  spiritual,  and  there  emerged  at  last,  thus  renewed  but 
firmly  resting  upon  its  original  basis,  the  Marienleben  which  I  herewith 
present.  They  are  the  result  of  a  continuous  testing  toward  improve- 
ment. Some  of  the  songs  have  gone  through  as  many  as  five  entirely 
different  versions.  Some,  although  they  maintained  the  approximate 
outline,  had  to  undergo  as  many  as  twenty  alterations  in  a  particular 
place. 

"I  do  not  intend  to  enumerate  these  changes.  At  the  same  time  it 
has  seemed  to  me  necessary  to  present  a  general  outline  of  their  new 
form  and  content.  Not  with  a  raised  finger  ('see  how  fine  it  all  is!'), 
but  as  an  invitation  to  those  interested  in  such  problems,  especially  the 
less  obvious  ones  which  at  the  same  time  seem  to  me  significant:  They 
are  the  kinds  of  questions  which  in  our  own  day  confront  composers  in 
general. 

"One  of  the  outstanding  weaknesses  of  the  old  version  was  my  limited 
consideration  of  the  possibilities  and  requisites  of  the  singing  voice. 
The  shape  of  the  vocal  line  was  in  many  cases  not  natural  and  took  a 
difficult  (and  sometimes  almost  impossible)  direction,  ungrateful 
chromaticism,  difficult  intervals  and  tonal  ambiguities.  It  is  easy  to  see 
now  why  that  happened.  There  was  a  search  then  toward  a  new  melodic 
expression,  but  the  preliminary  technical  steps  were  lacking.  Indeed 
the  most  expert  composers  at  times  make  new  melodic  material  pre- 
sentable. At  the  same  time  the  laws  of  melodic  construction  as  we  now 
know  them  in  the  more  popular  field  are  insufficient  for  true  flights  of 
melody.  Then  came  ultra-modern  ways  which  singers  could  conquer 
only  by  great  effort.  Did  composers  pursuing  these  ways  believe  them- 


selves  in  good  company?  Were  not  Bach's  melodic  lines  in  the  highest 
degree  instrumental!  Did  not  Beethoven  write  the  most  fearful  voice 
parts?  Were  we  not  accustomed  to  the  Wagnerian  school  and  its  vocal 
exactions? 

"Now  we  know  how  false  this  position  was.  It  presents  for  singing 
and  also  for  instrumental  playing  two  kinds  of  technical  difficulties. 
One,  created  in  a  full  understanding  of  sound  production,  aims  to 
utilize  its  resources  to  the  utmost;  the  other,  without  special  concern 
for  natural  musical  production,  assembles  sounds  as  a  musical  abstrac- 
tion. To  what  extent  the  first  source  can  succeed  depends  upon  the 
technical  ability  of  the  performer.  If  he  is  a  very  good  singer  or  player 
he  can  ascend  the  technical  ladder  to  a  higher  point  than  the  lesser  ones. 
In  the  other  class  it  happens  only  too  often  that  even  after  a  hundred 
rehearsals  and  many  weeks  of  practice  the  task  does  not  lessen.  Even  if 
he  knows  enough  to  grasp  the  meaning,  he  must  gird  himself  at  every 
new  performance  from  the  abundance  of  his  will  power  and  technical 
control  —  for  the  music  is  in  opposition  to  the  medium.  In  vocal  com- 
positions it  is  doubly  difficult.  Unfortunately,  the  musical  training  of 
singers  does  not  equip  them  to  compete  in  matters  of  pitch  with  instru- 
mentalists (who  also  often  leave  much  to  be  desired!),  and  it  is  cause 
for  rejoicing  to  find  a  singer  who  can  manage  an  unconventional  me- 
lodic line  at  first  reading  without  depending  upon  the  piano.  If  after 
zealous  effort  the  singer  makes  no  progress  the  composer  may  well  ask 
himself  whether  these  fruitless  exactions  are  worth  while.  As  I  see  it 
the  composer  should  keep  reasonably  within  the  capacities  of  per- 
formers and  listeners." 

The  advanced  composer  may  tell  himself  that  "perhaps  the  world  of 
singers,  players  and  listeners,  some  200  years  hence,  will  at  last  perform 
and  rightly  understand  his  work."  He  should  examine  the  validity  of 
his  own  conception,  his  technical  equipment,  his  mastery  of  his  art. 
"A  method  which  cannot  avoid  unnecessary  and  disproportionate  dif- 
ficulties is  worth  nothing;  and  people  will  react  to  music  200  years  hence 
in  much  the  same  way  as  they  react  to  it  now  and  as  they  reacted  to  it 
a  hundred  years  ago.    Their  ears  have  indeed  become  used  to  many 


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[12] 


things  in  the  course  of  time,  but  our  band  players  will  be  as  little  dis- 
posed to  master  unnatural  difficulties  as  a  trombonist  would  be  disposed 
to  use  the  technique  of  a  flutist. 

"The  careful  observer  will  find  that  the  new  version  is  developed 
throughout  according  to  this  point  of  view.  Of  course  it  does  not  go 
so  far  as  to  make  concessions  to  the  singer  to  the  degree  of  trite  common- 
place. If,  on  the  other  hand,  the  singer  looks  for  difficulty  she  will  find 
plenty  of  nuts  to  crack. 

"Still  another  factor  was  responsible  for  the  unsingable  places  in  Das 
Marienleben.  A  quarter  of  a  century  ago  many  composers  believed  that 
they  were  experiencing  a  new  incursion  of  counterpoint.  The  one  who 
wishes  to  write  contrapuntal  music  needed,  so  it  seemed,  to  find  voice 
parts  which  were  in  themselves  significant.  For  their  combination  and 
their  logical  working  out,  he  looked  to  heaven.  Whether  or  not  the  old 
Marienleben  depended  in  any  way  upon  this  now  outdated  attitude,  it 
sinned  in  any  case  in  the  following  respect:  the  vocal  line  moved  often 
so  arbitrarily  that  the  combination  with  the  piano  resulted  in  a  dis- 
turbing harshness  and  in  obstructive  divagations,  which  were  not  at  all 
helpful  to  the  text  and  the  general  style  of  the  work. 

"It  is  not  always  easy  to  decide  how  far  individualism  can  go  in  the 
treatment  of  a  single  voice;  at  times  not  only  technical  considerations 
but  personal  taste  bespeak  the  style.  .  .  .  Here  the  vocal  melody  in 
itself  is  without  exception  the  controlling  factor  in  the  composition, 
even  in  the  songs  of  highly  developed  counterpoint.  Although  it  is 
followed  through  on  a  harmonic  scheme  and  on  a  certain  basis  of  dis- 
sonant tension,  its  sonorous  and  expressive  purpose  is  never  lost  sight 
of." 

The  composer  confesses  that  in  the  first  version  he  merely  followed 
the  lead  and  order  of  the  text,  without  attempt  at  a  musical  construc- 
tive scheme.  In  rewriting  the  cycle  he  has  followed  a  constructive  plan, 
dividing  the  fifteen  songs  into  four  groups,  graphing  the  whole  to 
demonstrate  the  progress  throughout,  the  dynamic  and  expressive  peaks. 
The  first  group  of  four,  concerned  with  the  personal  experience  of 
Mary,  opens  with  the  lyric  Geburt  Maria.  The  Argwohn  Josephs 
dramatically  opens  the  second  group  which  includes  the  Geburt  Christi, 


EDNA  NITKIN,  M.Mus. 

PIANIST 

ACCOMPANIST        TEACHER 

Studio :  500  Boylston  St.,  Copley  Sq. 

Boston  KE  6-4062 


[*S] 


referred  to  by  the  composer  as  "in  part  at  least,  an  idyllic  reversion  to 
the  first  group  of  songs."*  In  the  third  group  (Nos.  10-12)  we  behold 
the  suffering  Mary  ''as  the  cycle  reaches  its  highest  emotional  point." 
In  the  fourth  and  last  group  the  composer  reaches  "a  high  point  of 
purely  musical  abstractions,  an  epilogue  in  which  people  and  action 
have  no  part."  It  consists  of  three  songs  entitled,  "Vom  Tode  Maria," 
the  second  a  theme  with  variations. 

Mr.  Hindemith  writes  of  the  changes  he  has  made  in  his  second 
version.  Of  his  recasting  of  the  songs  here  performed  he  tells  us:  "The 
first  song,  Geburt  Maria,  was  little  altered.  Bars  31-32  in  the  first  ver- 
sion were  too  obtrusive  and  harsh  in  harmony  to  serve  as  a  bridge 
between  two  significant  sections."  In  the  orchestral  version  this  bridge 
is  characterized  by  the  flutes  and  clarinets  in  a  gentle,  sinuous  figure 
('In  dieser  Nacht  wird  dem  Knaben  die  Mutter  geboren"). 

The  Argwohn  Josephs,  like  the  Maria  Heimsuchung  which  follows, 
"has  been  freely  set  to  rights  in  tones  and  tone  groups,  and  through  a 
few  slight  changes  harmonically  and  melodically  clarified  without 
disturbing  the  subject  in  hand." 

About  the  Geburt  Christi,  Mr.  Hindemith  declares  a  mea  culpa: 
"It  was  in  the  original  version  the  weakest  of  all.  Not  only  was  the 
melodic  material  of  less  worth  than  in  the  other  songs;  the  harmony 
was  obscured  both  in  cadences  and  compactness.  As  a  tonal  conception 
neither  the  plan  nor  its  culmination  were  sufficiently  considered.  More- 
over it  was  in  point  of  expression  chopped  up  ['verhauen']  since  its 
scherzando  character  stood  in  disturbing  contrast  to  the  contemplative, 
almost  resigned  mood  of  the  text.  The  new  version  seeks  to  elude  all 
these  faults." 

In  setting  these  four  songs  later  for  piano  accompaniment  the  com- 
poser has  not  altered  the  notation,  save  in  an  occasional  simplification 
of  dramatic  string  passages.  The  orchestral  score  bears  no  explanatory 
remarks  (indeed  it  has  never  been  published  in  engraved  form),  yet  it 
can  surely  be  assumed  that  this  significantly  painstaking  musical  con- 
structor has  carefully  considered  and  ordered  his  shorter  sequence. 


*  Der  Rast  und  Fluch  nach  Egypt   (No.  8)    immediately  follows.    It  has  been  orchestrated  as 
a  fourth  so»g. 

[copyrighted] 


-&3 


[14] 


"BACCHUS  ET  ARIANE/'  Ballet,  Second  Suite,  Op.  43 
By  Albert  Charles  Roussel 

Born  at  Turcoing  (Nord),  France,  on  April  5,  1869;  died  at  Royan  (near 
Bordeaux),  France,  August  23,  1937 


Roussel  composed  the  Ballet  Bacchus  et  Ariane.  between  June  and  December, 
1930,  at  Vasterival  and  Paris.  It  was  first  performed  May  22,  1931,  at  the  Theatre 
de  I'Opera.  Serge  Lifar  (Bacchus),  Peretti  (Thes£e)  and  Spessiwtzewa  (Ariane) 
were  the  principal  dancers.  Philippe  Gaubert  conducted.  The  choreography  was 
planned  by  Abel  Hermant,  and  executed  by  Lifar.  The  Second  Suite,  drawn  from 
Act  II,  was  published  in  1932.  It  was  performed  by  the  Societe"  Philharmonique  de 
Paris  November  26,  1936,  Charles  Munch  conducting.  Mr.  Munch  introduced  the 
Suite  to  Boston,  as  guest,  December  26-27,  1946, 

The  required  orchestra  consists  of  2  flutes  and  piccolo,  2  oboes  and  English  horn, 

2  clarinets  and  bass  clarinet,  2  bassoons  and  contra-bassoon,  4  horns,  4  trumpets, 

3  trombones  and  tuba,  timpani,  celesta,  2  harps,  cymbals,  tambourine,  bass  drum, 
triangle,  military  drum  and  strings.  The  score  is  dedicated  to  Helene  Tony-Jourdan. 

npHE  legend  of  Ariadne  on  the  Island  of  Naxos,  once  used  by  Richard 
**■  Strauss,  has  furnished  Roussel  with  a  ballet  in  the  Greek  classical 
tradition.  According  to  the  plot  of  Abel  Hermant,  Theseus  does  not 
abandon  Ariadne  on  Naxos,  where  he  has  taken  her  after  she  has 
rescued  him  from  the  Minotaur,  but  is  chased  from  the  Island  by 
Bacchus.  The  God  has  first  laid  a  spell  of  sleep  upon  Ariadne,  whereby 
she  partakes  of  his  revels  as  in  a  dream,  but  does  not  know  until  she 
wakes  that  Theseus  has  gone. 

The  following  directions  are  printed  in  the  score:   Introduction 
(Andante).   Awakening  of  Ariadne  —  She  looks  around  her  surprised 

—  She  rises,  runs  about  looking  for  Theseus  and  his  companions  —  She 
realizes  that  she  has  been  abandoned  —  She  climbs  with  difficulty  to  the 
top  of  the  rock  —  She  is  about  to  throw  herself  into  the  stream  —  She 
falls  in  the  arms  of  Bacchus,  who  has  appeared  from  behind  a  boulder 

—  Bacchus  resumes  with  the  awakened  Ariadne  the  dance  of  her  dream- 
ing —  Bacchus  dances  alone  (Allegro  —  Andante  —  Andantino)  —  The 
Dionysiac  spell  —  A  group  marches  past  (Allegro  deciso)  —  A  faun  and 
a  Bacchante  present  to  Ariadne  the  golden  cup,  into  which  a  cluster  of 
grapes  has  been  pressed  —  Dance  of  Ariadne  (Andante)  —  Dance  of 
Ariadne  and  Bacchus  (Moderato  e  pesante)  —  Bacchanale  (Allegro 
brillante). 

According  to  the  legend,   Bacchus  immortalizes  her  with  a  kiss, 
ravishes  stars  from  the  heavens  and  sets  them  as  a  crown  upon  her  brow. 

[copyrighted] 


[15] 


asked  the  brahmin  of  the  brewer. .  • 


'Pray  tell,  good  fellow,  why  not  a  beverage 
Brewed  in  a  fashion  a  bit  above  the  average? 
A  light-hearted  ale,  dry  refreshing  beer 
Worthy  of  a  connoisseur,  worthy  of  a  Peer?" 


"Matey,  you're  in  luck",  said  the  Brewer  to  the  Brahmin, 
"You  and  the  missus  and  the  Beacon  Hill  barman, 
For  Carling's  now  in  Natick,  brewing  ale  and  beer 
Worthy  of  a  connoisseur,  worthy  of  a  Peer." 


CARLING    BREWING    CO. 


[i«] 


SEVENTY-SIXTH  SEASON  •   NINETEEN  HUNDRED  FIFTY-SIX  AND  FIFTY-SEVEN 


Seventy-First  Season  in  New  York 


Second  Afternoon  Concert 

SATURDAY,  December  15 


Program 

Stravinsky "Jeu  de  Cartes"  ("Card  Game")  Ballet  in  Three  Deals 

Barber Medea's  Meditation  and  Dance  of  Vengeance,  Op.  2  3- A 

INTERMISSION 

Beethoven Symphony  No.  6,  in  F  major,  "Pastoral,"  Op.  68 

I.    Awakening  of  serene  impressions  on  arriving  in  the  country;  Allegro 
ma  non  troppo 

II.     Scene  by  the  brookside:  Andante  molto  moto 

III.  Jolly  gathering  of  country  folk:  Allegro;  in  tempo  d'allegro;  Thunder- 

storm; Tempest:  Allegro 

IV.  Shepherd's   Song:    Gladsome   and   thankful   feelings   after   the   storm: 

Allegretto 


Performances  by  the  orchestra  are  broadcast  each  week  on  Monday 
evenings  from  8:05  to  9:00  P.M.  on  the  NBC  Radio  Network. 

Music  of  these  programs  is  available  at  the  Music  Library, 
58th   Street   Branch,    the  New  York   Public   Library. 

BALDWIN  PIANO  RCA  VICTOR  RECORDS 


[17] 


"JEU  DE  CARTES,  Ballet  en  trois  donnes" 
By  Igor  Stravinsky 

Born  in  Oranienbaum,  near  St.  Petersburg,  on  June  17,  1882. 


Stravinsky  composed  his  ballet  "The  Card  Game"  between  the  summer  of  1936 
and  the  end  of  the  year.  The  piece  was  performed  by  the  American  Ballet  (for 
which  it  was  composed)  on  April  27  of  1937,  at  the  Metropolitan  Opera  House  in 
New  York.  George  Balanchine  was  in  charge  of  the  choreography;  Mr.  Stravinsky 
conducted.  The  ballet  as  a  concert  piece  (which  uses  the  score  unaltered)  was 
presented  by  the  Philadelphia  Orchestra,  Eugene  Ormandy  conducting,  January 
14,  1938.  It  was  first  heard  in  Boston  when  Stravinsky  conducted  the  Boston 
Symphony  Orchestra,  December  1,  1939,  repeated,  again  under  the  composer's  direc- 
tion, January  14,  1944,  and  under  the  direction  of  Charles  Munch  on  January  27, 
1950.  Guido  Cantelli  conducted  it  on  January  30-31,  1952. 

The  orchestration  of  the  suite  is  as  follow:  2  flutes  and  piccolo,  2  oboes  and 
English  horn,  2  clarinets  2  bassoons,  4  horns,  2  trumpets,  3  trombones  and  tuba, 
timpani,  bass  drum,  and  strings. 

TTThen  Stravinsky  was  asked  by  Mr.  Warburg  for  a  new  piece  to 
*  *be  presented  by  the  American  Ballet,  he  had  already  contem- 
plated a  ballet  with  an  interplay  of  numerical  combinations,  with 
"Chiffres  dansants"  not  unlike  Schumann's  "Lettres  dansantes"  The 
action  was  to  be  implicit  in  the  music.  One  of  the  characters  would 
be  a  malignant  force  whose  ultimate  defeat  would  impart  a  moral 
conclusion  to  the  whole. 

The  ballet,  as  it  was  at  last  worked  out,  presented  an  enormous 
card  table,  the  cards  of  the  pack  represented  by  individual  dancers. 
The  shuffling  and  dealing  made  a  ceremonial  introduction  to  each  of 
the  three  deals.  According  to  the  mis-en-scene,  at  the  end  of  each  play, 
giant  fingers,  which  might  have  been  those  of  invisible  croupiers, 
removed  the  cards. 

The  following  summary  is  that  of  the  composer: 

"The  characters  in  this  ballet  are  the  cards  in  a  game  of  poker,  dis- 
puted between  several  players  on  the  green  baize  table  of  a  gaming 
house.  At  each  deal  the  situation  is  complicated  by  the  endless  guiles 
of  the  perfidious  Joker,  who  believes  himself  invincible  because  of  his 
ability  to  become  any  desired  card. 

"During  the  first  deal,  one  of  the  players  is  beaten,  but  the  other 
two  remain  with  even  'straights,'  although  one  of  them  holds  the 
Joker. 

"In  the  second  deal,  the  hand  which  holds  the  Joker  is  victorious, 
thanks  to  four  Aces  who  easily  beat  four  Queens. 

"Now  comes  the  third  deal.  The  action  grows  more  and  more  acute. 
This  time  it  is  a  struggle  between  three  'Flushes.'  Although  at  first 
victorious  over  one  adversary,  the  Joker,  strutting  at  the  head  of  a 

[18] 


sequence  of  Spades,  is  beaten  by  a  'Royal  Flush'  in  Hearts.  This  puts 
an  end  to  his  malice  and  knavery.  As  La  Fontaine  once  said: 

'One  should  ever  struggle  against  wrongdoers. 

Peace,  I  grant,  is  perfect  in  its  way, 

But  what  purpose  does  it  serve 

With  enemies  who  do  not  keep  faith?'  " 

First  Deal  Second  Deal 

Introduction  Introduction 

Pas  d'action  March 

Dance  of  the  Joker  Variations  of  the  four  Queens 

Little  Waltz  Variation  of  the  Jack  of  Hearts  and  Coda 

March,  and  Ensemble 

Third  Deal 
Introduction 
Waltz-Minuet 

Presto  (Combat  between  Spades  and  Hearts) 
Final  Dance  (Triumph  of  the  Hearts) 

The  music  is  played  without  interruption. 

[copyrighted] 


"MEDEA'S  MEDITATION  AND  DANCE  OF  VENGEANCE," 

Op.  23-A 

By  Samuel  Barber 
Born  in  West  Chester,  Pennsylvania,  March  9,  1910 


The  Ballet  Medea,  from  which  this  is  an  excerpt,  was  composed  by  commission 
of  the  Alice  M.  Ditson  Fund  of  Columbia  University  and  was  first  danced  by  Martha 
Graham,  to  whom  it  is  dedicated,  and  her  company  at  the  Macmillan  Theater  of  the 
University  in  May  1946.  (The  Ballet  was  at  first  entitled  "The  Serpent  Heart,"  and 
later  "The  Cave  of  the  Heart.")  An  orchestral  suite  in  seven  movements  was  derived 
from  this  score  and  performed  by  the  Philadelphia  Orchestra  under  the  direction 
of  Eugene  Ormandy  on  December  5,  1947.  In  1955  Mr.  Barber  rescored  "Medea's 
Meditation  and  Dance  of  Vengeance"  for  a  full  orchestra. 

The  instruments  required  are  3  flutes  and  piccolo,  2  oboes  and  English  horn,  2 
clarinets,  E-flat  clarinet  and  bass  clarinet,  2  bassoons  and  contra-bassoon,  4  horns, 
3  trumpets,  3  trombones  and  tuba,  timpani,  triangle,  cymbals,  side  drums,  tom-tom, 
bass  drum,  tam-tam,  whip,  xylophone,  and  strings. 

The  tragedy  of  Medea  by  Euripides,  which  was  produced  in  Greece 
431  b.c,  has  furnished  Mr.  Barber  with  the  subject  for  his  Ballet. 
He  was  drawn  by  its  dark  and  ferocious  theme  of  vengeance,  which 
becomes  the  dominating  purpose  of  Medea,  the  princess  of  Colchis 
endowed  with  magic  powers,  who,  having  enabled  Jason  to  obtain  the 
Golden  Fleece  in  Colchis,  has  fled  with  him  to  Corinth.  Two  children 
have  been  born  of  their  union,  but  Jason  has  abandoned  her  to  marry 

[19] 


the  daughter  of  the  Corinthian  king,  leaving  her  without  status,  grief- 
stricken  but  proud,  jealous,  passionately  vengeful.  To  bring  down  the 
pride  of  Jason,  her  unfaithful  lover,  she  goes  to  the  length  of  murdering 
her  children  which  are  also  his. 

The  "Dance  of  Vengeance"  is  the  peak  of  intensity  and  the  culminat- 
ing point  of  the  Ballet.  Samuel  Barber  has  explained  that  the  excerpt 
"is  directly  related  to  the  central  character  in  Medea,  tracing  her  emo- 
tions from  her  tender  feelings  towards  her  children,  through  the  mount- 
ing suspicions  and  her  decision  to  avenge  herself.  The  piece  increases 
in  intensity  to  close  in  the  frenzied  Dance  of  Vengeance  of  Medea,  the 
Sorceress  descended  from  the  Sun  God." 

Medea: 

This  thing  was  not  to  be, 

That  thou  shouldst  live  a  merry  life,  my  bed 

Forgotten  and  my  heart  uncomforted, 

Thou  nor  thy  princess:  nor  the  king  that  planned 

Thy  marriage  drive  Medea  from  this  land, 

And  suffer  not.  Call  me  what  thing  thou  please, 

Tigress  or  Skylla  from  the  Tuscan  seas: 

My  claws  have  gripped  thine  heart,  and  all  things  shine. 

Translation  by  Gilbert  Murray 
(Oxford  University  Press) 

About  the  Ballet  Mr.  Barber  has  furnished  the  following  informa- 
tion: 

"Neither  Miss  Graham  nor  the  composer  wished  to  use  the  Medea- 
Jason  legend  literally  in  the  ballet.  These  mythical  figures  served  rather 
to  project  psychological  states  of  jealousy  and  vengeance  which  are 
timeless. 

"The  choreography  and  music  were  conceived,  as  it  were,  on  two  time 
levels,  the  ancient  mythological  and  the  contemporary.  Medea  and 
Jason  first  appear  as  godlike,  superhuman  figures  of  the  Greek  tragedy. 
As  the  tension  and  the  conflict  between  them  increase,  they  step  out  of 
their  legendary  roles  from  time  to  time  and  become  the  modern  man 
and  woman,  caught  in  the  nets  of  jealousy  and  destructive  love;  and  at 
the  end  reassume  their  mythical  quality.  In  both  the  dancing  and 
music,  archaic  and  contemporary  idioms  are  used.  Medea,  in  her  final 
scene  after  the  denouement,  becomes  once  more  the  descendant  of  the 
sun." 

The  following  works  by  Samuel  Barber  have  been  performed  at  the 
Boston  Symphony  Concerts  (Friday  and  Saturday  series): 

1940  (Nov.    15)     Overture,  "The  School  for  Scandal" 

1941  (April  25)     Essay  for  Orchestra  No.  1  (Performed  twice) 

[to] 


1942  (Mar. 

6) 

1942  (Oct. 

16) 

1943  (Oct. 

29) 

1944  (Mar. 

3) 

1946  (April 

5) 

1948  (April 

9) 

1949  (Jan. 

7) 

1950  (Feb. 

10) 

1951  (April 

6) 

1952  (April 

25) 

1953  (Feb. 

27) 

1954  (Dec. 

3) 

Violin  Concerto  (Soloist,  Ruth  Posselt) 
Overture,  "The  School  for  Scandal" 
Commando  March 

Second  Symphony  (Dedicated  to  the  Army  Air  Forces;  First  per- 
formance) 

Violoncello  Concerto  (Soloist,  Raya  Garbousova;  First  performance) 
"Knoxville:  Summer  of  1915"  (Soloist,  Eleanore  Steber,  Soprano; 
First  performance) 

Violin  Concerto  (Soloist,  Ruth  Posselt) 
Overture,  "The  School  for  Scandal" 
Second  Symphony 
Overture,  "The  School  for  Scandal" 
Adagio  for  String  Orchestra* 
"Prayers  of  Kierkegaard,"  Op.  30 

(Assisting:  Cecilia  Society;  Leontine  Price,  Soprano;  Jean  Kraft, 
Contralto;  Edward  Munro,  Tenor;  First  performance) 

*  The  Adagio   for   String   Orchestra  was   performed   in   the   Cathedral   at   Chartres,    France, 
September  21,  1956. 

[copyrighted] 


SAMUEL  BARBER 
By  Nathan  Broder 

Samuel  Barber's  life  has  been  principally  eventful  in  the  inward 
sense  of  his  musical  activity.  He  has  not  known  want,  nor  been 
hampered  in  his  constant  eagerness  and  enterprise  as  a  composer.  His 
association  with  Rosario  Scalero  at  the  Curtis  Institute  of  Music  in 
Philadelphia  was  enormously  helpful  to  him.  Living  abroad  and  later 
doing  service  in  the  Air  Force  during  the  War,  he  was  enabled  to  con- 
tinue composing. 

The  first  chapter  of  the  biography  "Samuel  Barber/'  by  Nathan 
Broder,  (G.  Schirmer,  Inc.,  1954)  gives  an  interesting  picture  of  an 
American  boy  finding  his  vocation. 

Samuel  Barber  began  to  play  the  piano  at  the  age  of  six  and  to  com- 
pose a  year  later,  but,  while  his  mother  helped  him  to  write  down 
his  compositions,  neither  she  nor  her  husband  made  any  attempt  to 
develop  a  possible  prodigy.  Instead,  they  tried  to  encourage  him  to 
indulge  in  the  activities  of  any  normal  American  boy.  His  reaction  is 
indicated  by  a  note  he  left  on  his  mother's  dressing-table  when  he  was 
about  eight.  It  read  in  part:  "To  begin  with,  I  was  not  meant  to  be 
an  athelet  I  was  meant  to  be  a  composer,  and  will  be,  I'm  sure  .  .  . 
Don't  ask  me  to  try  to  forget  this  . . .  and  go  and  play  foot-ball.  —  Please 
—  Sometimes  I've  been  worrying  about  this  so  much  that  it  makes  me 
mad!  (not  very)." 

[21] 


There  were  no  musical  proclivities  on  the  father's  side.  Samuel 
LeRoy  Barber,  who  came  from  a  long  line  of  tradesmen  and  profes- 
sional people  who  had  lived  in  Flemington,  N.  J.,  for  many  generations, 
was  a  doctor,  and  after  settling  down  in  West  Chester,  Pa.,  he  became  a 
prominent  citizen  there,  serving  for  twenty-five  years  as  president  of  the 
school  board.  He  hoped  to  send  young  Samuel  to  Princeton  to  study 
medicine.  To  the  mother's  side  of  the  family,  however,  music  was 
familiar  and  important.  One  of  her  sisters  was  a  contralto  who  had 
gained  a  considerable  reputation  while  still  quite  young,  especially  as 
a  soloist  in  oratorios.  Later,  while  she  was  studying  in  Europe  and 
appearing  in  opera  there,  she  received  an  offer  from  the  Metropolitan, 
and  a  crisis  that  shook  the  family  arose  when  it  was  learned  that  she 
would  be  required  to  wear  boys'  clothes  in  such  roles  as  Siebel  in  Faust 
and  the  Page  in  Les  Huguenots.  The  matter  was  settled  by  the  Metro- 
politan's acceptance  of  her  stipulation  that  she  be  permitted  to  design 
her  own  costumes  —  they  must  be  lengthy  and  loose  —  for  these  roles, 
and  Louise  Homer  embarked  on  her  long  and  successful  career  as  one  of 
the  great  American  singers  of  her  time.  Her  husband,  Sidney  Homer, 
was  a  composer  whose  songs  still  rank  high  among  the  American  songs 
written  during  the  first  quarter  of  this  century.  In  1918  the  Homers 
and  their  six  children  moved  into  their  summer  home  at  Lake  George, 
where,  in  later  years,  Samuel  Barber  was  a  frequent  visitor.  His  Uncle 
Sidney  encouraged  Barber's  efforts  at  composition  from  the  time  Samuel 
was  about  twelve  and  wrote  him  letters  full  of  sound  advice.  In  1927 
Louise  Homer  included  some  songs  by  her  young  nephew  on  her 
recital  programs. 

Barber's  maternal  grandfather,  Dr.  William  Trimble  Beatty,  was  for 
some  years  pastor  of  a  church  in  Pittsburgh.  When  he  died,  his  widow, 
a  descendant  of  Robert  Fulton,  moved  with  her  children,  of  whom 
Samuel's  mother  was  the  youngest,  to  West  Chester,  a  quiet  town  about 
thirty  miles  from  Philadelphia.  It  was  there  that  Marguerite  Beatty 
married  Dr.  Barber,  and  it  was  there,  in  a  large  brick  house  that  was 
over  a  hundred  years  old,  with  its  front  porch  and  four  white  pillars 
and  oak  trees  flanking  the  uneven  pavement  of  South  Church  Street, 
that  SamueJ.  was  born  on  March  9,  1910. 

His  piano-playing  when  he  was  six  years  old  was  not  encouraged  by 
his  mother,  who  had  a  distaste  for  amateur  male  pianists,  and  for  a  year 
or  so  the  boy  was  given  'cello  lessons  instead.  But  his  interest  in  the 
keyboard  instrument  was  too  strong  to  be  denied.  His  parents  per- 
mitted him  to  return  to  the  piano  and  he  began  to  study  with  William 
Hatton  Green,  who  had  been  a  pupil  of  Leschetizky  in  Vienna  and  was 
considered  the  best  teacher  in  West  Chester.  Green  remained  Barber's 
teacher  for  six  years. 

[28] 


When  Barber  was  ten  years  old  he  wrote  an  opera  to  a  libretto  by 
Annie  Sullivan  Brosius  Noble,  the  family's  Irish  cook.  It  was  called 
The  Rose  Tree,  and  dealt  with  a  tenor  of  the  Metropolitan  Opera 
Company  who  came  to  a  small  American  town  on  his  vacation  and  fell 
in  love  with  a  local  beauty.  The  heroine's  part  was  written  for  Barber's 
younger  sister,  a  soprano  (who  can  still  sing  every  note  of  it),  and  the 
hero's  for  the  composer  himself,  then  a  contralto  [he  later  developed  a 
baritone  voice];  and  somehow  a  place  was  found  for  a  Gypsy  chorus. 
After  the  words  and  music  of  the  first  act  were  written,  Annie  ran  out 
of  ideas  and  the  opera  went  no  further.  Barber  has  never  been  able  to 
find  a  satisfactory  libretto  since,  although  his  search  has  been  intensified 
by  a  commission  from  the  Koussevitzky  Foundation  and  by  the  fact  that 
the  Metropolitan  has  expressed  interest  in  any  opera  he  might  write. 

Life  in  West  Chester,  for  the  son  of  a  respected  and  well-to-do 
professional  man,  was  pleasant.    The  atmosphere  of  the  place  was 
compounded  of  two   disparate   elements  —  the   staid   solidity   of   the 
predominantly  Quaker  stock,  and  the  sophisticated  cultural  life  of  the 
circle  surrounding  the  town's  most  celebrated  inhabitant,  Joseph  Her- 
gesheimer,  then  regarded  by  such  a  critic  as  H.  L.  Mencken  as  one  of  the 
greatest  novelists  in  America.  Young  Barber  was  for  a  time  stimulated 
by  this  atmosphere.    He  played  the  piano  at  club  meetings;  in  high 
school  he  organized  a  small  orchestra,  which  gave  concerts,  for  a  fee,  at 
social  events.    But  activities  of  this  sort  did  not  reflect  any  ingrained 
trait.  Even  as  a  boy,  he  drew  upon  his  inner  life  for  sustenance;  he  was 
gay  and  fun-loving  only  when  with  his  sister  or  a  few  intimate  friends, 
shy  and  moody  when  with  others.    He  early  developed  a  passion  for 
reading  and  for  walking  in  the  country.  He  roamed  over  fertile,  rolling 
Chester  County,  to  the  Brandywine,  Valley  Forge,  and  other  near-by 
places  rich  in  historical  associations.  So  enthusiastic  was  he  about  walk- 
ing that,  when  his  parents  gave  him  a  roadster  on  his  sixteenth  birthday, 
he  dutifully  learned  how  to  drive,  got  a  driving  license,  and  then  left 
the  car  in  a  garage  for  a  year.    (In  later  years  this  enthusiasm  branched 
out  to  include  a  more  strenuous  form  of  exercise,  reaching  a  climax  in 
J939>  when  he  and  the  pianist  Rudolf  Serkin  found  themselves  in  a 
Swiss  hospital  after  some  injudicious  experiments  in  a  new  mountain- 
climbing  technique.)   As  he  grew  older  he  withdrew  more  and  more 
from  the  social  life  of  the  town. 

When  Barber  was  about  fourteen  (he  had  recently  entered  high 
school),  he  played  for  Harold  Randolph,  director  of  the  Peabody  Con- 
servatory of  Music  in  Baltimore.  Randolph  advised  him  to  leave  school 
and  devote  all  his  time  to  the  piano  and  to  composition.  The  Curtis 
Institute  of  Music  in  Philadelphia  was  just  then  (1924)  being  organized, 

[23] 


and  before  the  alterations  in  the  buildings  that  were  to  house  the  Insti- 
tute were  completed  Barber  was  accepted  as  a  charter  student. 

At  about  the  same  time,  Barber  was  appointed  organist  of  the  West- 
minster Presbyterian  Church  in  West  Chester,  at  the  princely  salary,  for 
so  young  an  employee,  of  $100  a  month.  He  soon  invested  some  of  his 
earnings  in  a  subscription  to  the  concerts  of  the  Philadelphia  Orchestra, 
then  directed  by  the  brilliant  and  unpredictable  Leopold  Stokowski. 
Barber  did  not  long  retain  his  post  in  the  church.  As  in  the  famous  case 
of  a  great  predecessor  of  his,  far  away  and  long  ago,  his  playing  dis- 
pleased the  authorities.  While  Bach  was  reprimanded  for  confusing  the 
congregation  at  Arnstadt  by  playing  "many  curious  variations"  during 
the  chorale,  Barber  lost  his  job  in  West  Chester  mainly  because  he 
refused  to  play  fermatas  when  none  were  indicated  in  the  hymns  and 
responses. 

Since  Barber's  lessons  at  the  Curtis  took  place  on  Friday  mornings 
and  the  concerts  were  on  Friday  afternoons,  Dr.  Barber,  as  head  of  the 
West  Chester  school  board,  promulgated  a  special  rule,  probably  unique 
in  the  annals  of  American  education,  that  any  high  school  student  who 
was  a  composer  could  take  Fridays  off  to  go  to  the  Philadelphia 
Orchestra  concerts.  Samuel  was  thus  enabled  to  continue  to  attend  the 
high  school  until  he  was  graduated  from  it  in  1926. 


HOW  TO  WRITE  AN  OVERTURE 

The  Rossini  Recipe 


When  I  was  in  Naples  last  year,"  writes  Spike  Hughes  in  the 
Musical  Times,  London,  May  1956,  "I  came  across  a  piece  of 
charmingly  characteristic  Rossiniary  which  I  do  not  think  is  at  all 
widely  known. 

"It  is  an  account,  published  in  a  Neapolitan  paper  of  1848,  of  the 
correspondence  between  the  composer  and  an  unspecified  gentleman 
whom  77  Folletto  ('The  Imp'),  in  its  issue  of  26  October  1848,  intro- 
duces as  one  who,  having  heard  Rossini,  'frequently  spoken  of/  secretly 
wrote  to  the  illustre  maestro  in  the  following  terms:" 
'My  dear  sir, 

'You  have  the  general  reputation  of  being  a  maestro  who  is  great, 
obliging  and  an  epicure.  To  the  epicure  I  send  herewith  a  terrine  of 
pate  de  foie  gras  de  Strasbourg;  to  the  great  and  obliging  maestro  I 
address  the  hope  that  he  will  be  gracious  enough  to  grant  my  request 
to  help  one  of  his  future  rivals.  I  have  a  nephew  who  is  a  musician  and 
does  not  know  how  to  write  the  overture  to  the  opera  he  has  written. 
Would  you,  who  have  composed  so  much,  please  be  so  kind  as  to  let 
me  know  your  recipe?    If  you  were  still  concerned  with  the  joys  of 

[24] 


applause  my  request  might  perhaps  be  indiscreet,  but  now  that  you 
have  renounced  all  claims  to  glory,  you  should  no  longer  be  jealous 
of  anybody. 

'I  am,  dear  Signor  Rossini,  yours,  etc.' 

Rossini,  living  at  that  time  in  retirement  in  Bologna,  was  clearly 
touched  by  the  present  of  a  terrine  of  the  all-important  constituent  of 
the  tournedos  Rossini  and  replied  by  return  of  post  and  in  terms  of 
almost  equally  florid  formality:* 

'I  consider  myself  greatly  flattered,  o  signore,  by  the  preference  you 
show  for  my  recipes  over  those  of  my  colleagues  in  your  concern  for 
the  embarrassing  position  in  which  your  nephew  finds  himself.  But 
first  of  all  I  must  tell  you  that  I  have  never  written  anything  unless 
there  was  no  possible  means  of  avoiding  it.  I  do  not  understand  what 
pleasure  can  be  derived  from  giving  oneself  a  headache,  getting  cramp 
in  one's  hand  and  developing  a  fever  merely  to  amuse  a  public  whose 
greatest  delight  is  to  be  bored  stiff  by  every  effort  to  entertain  it.  I  am 
not  and  never  have  been  in  any  way  a  champion  of  the  right  to  work, 
and  I  find  that  the  most  beautiful  and  precious  of  all  human  rights  is 
that  of  doing  nothing.  I  am  able  to  indulge  in  this  since  acquiring,  not 
thanks  to  my  operas  but  to  one  or  two  happy  financial  speculations  to 
which  (without  my  knowledge)  I  was  made  a  party,  the  incomparable 
privilege,  the  right  par  excellence,  the  right  above  all  rights:  that  of 
doing  nothing.  If,  then,  I  have  any  really  practical  advice  to  offer  your 
nephew,  it  is  to  emulate  me  in  this  rather  than  in  anything  else. 

'If,  however,  he  still  persists  in  his  bizarre  and  inconceivable  idea  of 
wanting  to  work,  then  I  will  tell  you  the  principal  recipes  which  I  had 
to  use  during  the  miserable  period  when  I,  too,  was  obliged  to  do 
something.  Your  nephew  will  be  able  to  choose  the  one  that  suits 
him  best. 

'First  general  and  invariable  rule:  Wait  for  the  eve  of  the  first  per- 
formance before  composing  the  overture.  Nothing  is  better  for  inspira- 
tion than  necessity,  the  presence  of  a  copyist  waiting  for  your  work, 
sheet  by  sheet,  and  the  sinister  spectacle  of  the  impresario  tearing  his 
hair  in  desperation.  All  true  masterpieces  in  this  form  have  always 
been  written  in  this  way.  In  Italy,  in  my  time,  all  impresarios  were  as 
bald  at  thirty  as  the  palm  of  your  hand. 

'Second  recipe:  I  wrote  the  overture  to  Otello  in  a  small  room  in 
Barbaja's  palace  in  Naples,  where  the  fiercest  and  baldest  of  all 
impresarios  locked  me  in  by  force,  with  a  plate  of  boiled  macaroni 
swimming  in  water  and  with  no  seasoning,  threatening  that  I  should 
not  leave  the  room  alive  until  I  had  finished  the  last  note  of  the 
overture.  You  can  try  this  recipe  on  your  nephew,  but,  whatever 
happens,  don't  let  him  smell  the  delicious  smell  of  the  pate  de  foie  gras 
de  Strasbourg  —  this  kind  of  delicacy  is  suitable  only  for  composers 
who  do  nothing,  and  I  thank  you  very  much  for  honouring  me  with 
the  present  you  have  sent  me.' 

[The  overture  to  Otello  which  Rossini  wrote  in  such  depressing 

*  This  letter  in  far  briefer  form  was  published  by  Sylvestri  (Delia  vita  e  delle  opere  di 
Gioacchino  Rossini)  in  1874  and  repeated  verbatim  in  the  letters  edited  by  G.  Mazzatinti  in 
1902.  Sylvestri  had  taken  the  letter  from  the  Pall  Mall  Gazette  in  1874.  Its  authenticity 
cannot  be  proved  (and  it  has  been  doubted).  One  may  at  least  assume  that  Rossini  would  in 
any  case  have  been  pleased  to  be  credited  with  it.  —  J.  N.  B. 

[251 


circumstances  is  one  of  the  gayest  —  and,  one  must  admit,  least  appro- 
priate —  of  his  overtures;  though  it  became  less  so,  perhaps,  after  the 
happy  ending  had  been  thoughtfully  added  to  the  opera  after  the 
original  Naples  premiere.  It  is  an  item  enterprising  conductors  might 
well  add  to  their  repertory  without  doing  anybody  any  harm.] 

'Third  recipe:  I  wrote  the  overture  to  La  gazza  ladra  not  on  the  eve 
but  on  the  very  day  of  the  first  performance,  up  under  the  roof  of  La 
Scala  in  Milan,  where  I  was  sent  by  an  impresario  just  as  bad  and 
almost  as  bald  as  Barbaja,  and  watched  over  by  four  stagehands.  This 
quartet  of  executioners  had  been  ordered  to  throw  my  overture,  phrase 
by  phrase,  out  of  the  window  to  the  copyists  in  the  courtyard  below, 
who  then  delivered  the  parts  to  the  first  violin  to  rehearse.  In  the 
event  of  there  being  no  pages  of  music  to  throw  into  the  courtyard,  the 
barbarians  had  orders  to  throw  me  to  the  copyists.  The  loft  of  your 
house,  dear  sir,  could  be  used  for  the  same  purpose  in  the  case  of  your 
nephew.    God  forbid  that  he  should  ever  suffer  any  bigger  falls.' 

[Rossini's  little  pun  there  was  the  use  of  the  word  'caduta/  which  in 
Italian  means  'fall'  but  also  —  in  the  theatrical  sense  —  a  'flop'.] 

'Fourth  recipe:  I  did  better  with  the  overture  to  The  Barber  of 
Seville.  I  did  not  write  it  specially  to  take  the  place  of  the  one  origi- 
nally written  for  this  extremely  buffa  opera;  instead,  I  used  another, 
composed  for  Elisabetta,  Regina  dTnghilterra,  an  opera  excessively 
seria.  The  public  was  enchanted  by  this  solution.  Your  nephew,  who 
has  so  far  written  no  overture  for  his  new  opera,  might  well  try  this 
and  use  an  overture  he  has  already  composed.' 

[There  is  no  doubt  that,  for  Rossini,  the  E  minor  allegro  vivo  tune 
of  the  Barber  overture  is  very  opera  seria  music  indeed,  and,  of  course, 
it  had  served  for  an  opera  even  more  seria  —  Aureliano  in  Palmira  — 
before  it  was  attached  to  Elisabetta.  What  I  find  interesting  about  that 
fourth  recipe,  however,  is  Rossini's  reference  to  an  overture  specially 
written  for  The  Barber  of  Seville,  but  not  used.  It  is  known  that  he 
did  write  one,  and  there  has  always  been  a  suspicion  that,  though  it 
was  played  at  the  first  performance  of  the  Barber,  what  we  now  call  the 
overture  took  its  place  almost  immediately  after  that.  But,  from  what 
Rossini  says  about  it  in  his  letter,  it  seems  that  the  original  was  never 
played  at  all.] 

'Fifth  recipe:  I  composed  the  overture,  or  rather  the  instrumental 
introduction,  to  Le  Comte  Ory  fishing  with  a  rod,  with  my  feet  in  the 
water  at  Petit-Bourg  in  the  company  of  M.  Aguado,  who  never  ceased, 
the  entire  time  I  was  fishing,  to  talk  to  me  about  Spanish  finance,  which 
I  found  indescribably  tedious.  I  do  not  imagine  for  a  moment,  sir,  that 
in  similar  circumstances  your  conversation  would  have  anything  like 
the  same  unnerving  effect  on  the  imagination  of  your  nephew. 

'Sixth  recipe:  I  found  myself  in  the  same  sort  of  nerve-shattering 
situation  when  I  wrote  the  overture  to  William  Tell  in  an  apartment 
I  occupied  in  the  Boulevard  Montmartre.  Here,  night  and  day,  the 
queerest  characters  in  the  whole  of  Paris  would  wander  in  and  out, 
smoking,  drinking,  chattering,  shouting,  bawling  in  my  ears  while  I 
went  on  composing  and  trying  to  hear  as  little  as  possible.  I  am  certain 
that  in  spite  of  cultural  progress  in  France  you  will  nevertheless  still 
succeed  in  finding  as  many  imbeciles  in  Paris  capable  of  stimulating 
your  nephew  in  the  same  way.' 

[26] 


[On  reflection,  perhaps  that  picture  of  Rossini's  Paris  apartment 
explains  a  little  of  how  William  Tell  came  to  be  the  loudest  overture 
in  history.] 

'Seventh  recipe:  In  the  case  of  Mose  I  composed  no  overture  at  all, 
and  this  is  the  easiest  thing  of  all.  I  am  quite  sure  that  your  nephew 
could  use  this  final  recipe  with  great  success.  It  is  roughly  the  same  as 
that  adopted  by  my  good  friend  Meyerbeer  in  Robert  le  Diable  and 
Les  Huguenots,  and  it  appears  that  he  has  found  it  most  satisfactory. 
I  am  assured  that  he  has  made  use  of  it  in  Le  Prophete  as  well  and  is 
full  of  praise  for  the  efficacy  of  this  recipe. 

'With  my  best  wishes  for  the  glory  of  your  nephew  and  my  thanks  for 
the  pate,  which  I  found  excellent,  believe  me  to  be,  etc. 

Rossini, 

ex-composer.' 


SYMPHONY  NO.  6,  IN  F  MAJOR,  "PASTORAL,"  Op.  68 

By  Ludwig  van  Beethoven 

Born  at  Bonn,  December  16    (?),  1770;  died  at  Vienna,  March  26,  1827 


The  "Pastoral"  Symphony,  completed  in  1808,  had  its  first  performance  at 
the  Theater-an-der-Wien,  in  Vienna,  December  22,  1808,  the  concert  consisting 
entirely  of  unplayed  music  of  Beethoven,  including  the  C  minor  Symphony,  the 
Fourth  Piano  Concerto,  and  the  Choral  Fantasia. 

The  Symphony  is  scored  for  2  flutes  and  piccolo,  2  oboes,  2  clarinets,  2  bassoons, 
2  horns,  2  trumpets,  2  trombones,  timpani,  and  strings.  The  dedication  is  to 
Prince  Lobkowitz  and   Count  Razumoffsky. 

Beethoven  had  many  haunts  about  Vienna  which,  now  suburbs, 
were  then  real  countryside.  Here,  probably  in  the  neighborhood  of 
Heiligenstadt,  he  completed  the  Pastoral  Symphony,  and  the  C  minor 
Symphony  as  well.  The  sketchbooks  indicate  that  he  worked  upon  the 
two  concurrently;  that,  unlike  the  C  minor  Symphony,  which  had 
occupied  him  intermittently,  the  Pastoral  was  written  "with  unusual 
speed."  The  C  minor  Symphony  was,  in  the  opinion  of  Nottebohm, 
completed  in  March,  1808.  The  Pastoral,  as  some  have  argued,  may 
have  been  finished  even  earlier,  for  when  the  two  were  first  performed 
from  the  manuscript  at  the  same  concert,  in  December,  the  program 
named  the  Pastoral  as  "No.  5,"  the  C  minor  as  "No.  6"  —  which  is 
building  a  case  on  what  looks  like  nothing  more  than  a  printer's  error. 


After  the  tension  and  terseness,  the  dramatic  grandeur  of  the  Fifth 
Symphony,  its  companion  work,  the  Sixth,  is  a  surprising  study  in 

[*7] 


relaxation  and  placidity.  One  can  imagine  the  composer  dreaming 
away  lazy  hours  in  the  summer  heat  at  Dobling  or  Grinzing,  linger- 
ing in  the  woods,  by  a  stream,  or  at  a  favorite  tavern,  while  the 
gentle,  droning  themes  of  the  symphony  hummed  in  his  head,  taking 
limpid  shapes.  The  symphony,  of  course,  requires  in  the  listener  some- 
thing of  this  patient  relaxation,  this  complete  attunement  to  a  mood 
which  lingers  fondly  and  unhurried.  There  are  the  listeners  such  as 
an  English  critic  of  1823,  who  found  it  "always  too  long,  particularly 
the  second  movement,  which,  abounding  in  repetitions,  might  be 
shortened  without  the  slightest  danger  of  injuring  that  particular 
part,  and  with  the  certainty  of  improving  the  effect  of  the  whole." 
One  can  easily  reach  this  unenviable  state  of  certainty  by  looking 
vainly  for  the  customary  contrasting  episodes,  and  at  the  same  time 
missing  the  detail  of  constant  fresh  renewal  within  the  more  obvious 
contours  of  thematic  reiteration. 

Opening  in  the  key  of  F  major,  which  according  to  the  testimony 
of  Schindler  was  to  Beethoven  the  inevitable  sunny  key  for  such  a 
subject,  the  symphony  lays  forth  two  themes  equally  melodic  and 
even-flowing.  They  establish  the  general  character  of  the  score,  in 
that  they  have  no  marked  accent  or  sharp  feature;  the  tonal  and 
dynamic  range  is  circumscribed,  and  the  expression  correspondingly 
delicate,  and  finely  graded.  There  is  no  labored  development,  but  a 
drone-like  repetition  of  fragments  from  the  themes,  a  sort  of  mur- 
muring monotony,  in  which  the  composer  charms  the  ear  with  a  con- 
tinuous, subtle  alteration  of  tonality,  color,  position.  "I  believe," 
wrote  Grove,  "that  the  delicious,  natural  May-day,  out-of-doors  feel- 
ing of  this  movement  arises  in  a  great  measure  from  this  kind  of 
repetition.  It  causes  a  monotony  which,  however,  is  never  monotonous 
—  and  which,  though  no  imitation,  is  akin  to  the  constant  sounds 
of  Nature  —  the  monotony  of  rustling  leaves  and  swaying  trees,  and 
running  brooks  and  blowing  wind,  the  call  of  birds  and  the  hum  of 
insects."  One  is  reminded  here  (as  in  the  slow  movement)  of  the 
phenomenon  of  unfolding  in  nature,  of  its  simplicity  and  charm  of 
surface  which  conceals  infinite  variety,  and  organic  intricacy. 

The  slow  movement  opens  suggestively  with  an  accompaniment  of 
gently  falling  thirds,  in  triplets,  a  murmuring  string  figure  which  the 
composer  alters  but  never  forgets  for  long,  giving  the  entire  move- 
ment a  feeling  of  motion  despite  its  long-drawn  songfulness.  The  ac- 
companiment is  lulling,  but  no  less  so  than  the  graceful  undulation  of 
the  melody  over  it.  Professor  Tovey  states  that  the  slow  movement  is 
"one  of  the  most  powerful  things  in  music,"  basing  his  adjective  on 
the  previous  assertion  that  this  symphony  "has  the  enormous  strength 
of  someone  who  knows  how  to  relax."  He  adds:  "The  strength  and 

[28] 


the  relaxation  are  at  their  highest  point  in  the  slow  movement."  The 
analyst  finds  sufficient  proof  for  his  statement  in  the  form,  which  is 
like  a  fully  developed  first  movement.* 

The  episode  of  the  bird-call  inserted  before  the  three  concluding 
measures  has  come  in  for  plentiful  comment,  and  cries  of  "Malcrei."^ 
The  flute  trill  of  the  nightingale,  the  repeated  oboe  note  of  the 
quail  (in  characteristic  rhythm)  and  the  falling  third  (clarinet)  of 
the  cuckoo,  are  blended  into  an  integrated  phrase  in  a  pendant  to 
the  coda  before  its  final  rapturous  cadence.  Beethoven  may  have  re- 
ferred to  these  bars  as  a  "joke"  in  a  conversation  with  Schindler,  but 
it  was  a  whim  refined  so  as  to  be  in  delicate  keeping  with  the  affecting 
pianissimo  of  his  close.  Perhaps  his  most  serious  obstacle  was  to  over- 


*  To  achieve  this  in  a  slow  tempo  always  implies  extraordinary  concentration  and  terseness 
of  design;  for  the  slow  tempo,  which  inexperienced  composers  are  apt  to  regard  as  having 
no  effect  upon  the  number  of  notes  that  take  place  in  a  given  time,  is  much  more  rightly 
conceived  as  large  than  as  slow.  Take  a  great  slow  movement  and  write  it  out  in  such  a 
notation  as  will  make  it  correspond  in  real  time  values  to  the  notes  of  a  great  quick  move- 
ment; and  you  will  perhaps  be  surprised  to  find  how  much  in  actual  time  the  mere  first 
theme  of  the  slow  movement  would  cover  of  the  whole  exposition  of  the  quick  movement. 
Any  slow  movement  in  full  sonata  form  is,  then,  a  very  big  thing.  But  a  slow  movement  in 
full  sonata  form  which  at  every  point  asserts  its  deliberate  intention  to  be  lazy  and  to  say 
whatever  occurs  to  it  twice  in  succession,  and  which  in  so  doing  never  loses  riow  and  never 
falls  out  of  proportion,  such  a  slow  movement  is  as  strong  as  an  Atlantic  liner  that  should 
bear  taking  out  of  water  and  supporting  on  its  two  ends. 

fBeethoven  at  first  inscribed  this  warning  on  the  title-page  of  his  score :  "More  an  expres- 
sion of  feeling  than  painting." 


Carnegie  Hall,  New  York 


Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 


Third  Pair  of  Concerts 

Wednesday  Evening,  January  9 
Saturday  Afternoon,  January  12 

RICHARD  BURGIN,  Conductor 


[29] 


come  the  remembrance  among  his  critics  of  cruder  devices  in  bird 
imitation. 

The  third  movement  is  a  scherzo  in  form  and  character,  though 
not  so  named,  and,  as  such,  fills  symphonic  requirements,  fits  in  with 
the  "program"   scheme  by  providing  a  country  dance,   and  brings 
the  needed  brightness  and  swift  motion  after  the  long  placidities.  The 
trio  begins  with  a  delightful  oboe  solo,  to  a  simple  whispered  ac- 
companiment for  the  violins  and  an  occasional  dominant  and  octave 
from  the  bassoon,  as  if  two  viMage  fiddlers  and  a  bassoon  were  doing 
their  elementary  best.  Beethoven  knew  such  a  rustic  band  at  the 
tavern  of  the  "Three  Ravens"  in  the  Upper  Bruhl,  near  Modling. 
"Their  music  and  their  performance  were  both  absolutely  national 
and  characteristic,   and  seem   to  have  attracted   Beethoven's  notice 
shortly  after  his  first  arrival  in  Vienna.  He  renewed  the  acquaintance 
at  each  visit  to  Modling,  and  more  than  once  wrote  some  waltzes 
for  them.  In  1819  he  was  again  staying  at  Modling,  engaged  on  the 
Mass  in  D.  The  band  was  still   there,  and  Schindler  was  present 
when  the  great  master  handed  them  some  dances  which  he  had  found 
time  to  write  among  his  graver  labours,  so  arranged  as  to  suit  the 
peculiarities  which  had  grown  on  them;   and  as  Dean  Aldrich,  in 
his  Smoking  Catch,  gives  each  singer  time  to  fill  or  light  his  pipe, 
or  have  a  puff,  so  Beethoven  had  given  each  player  an  opportunity 
of  laying  down  his  instrument  for  a  drink,  or  even  for  a  nap.  In  the 
course  of  the  evening  he  asked  Schindler  if  he  had  ever  noticed  the 
way  in  which  they  would  go  on  playing  till  they  dropped  off  to 
sleep;  and  how  the  instrument  would  falter  and  at  last  stop  altogether, 
and  then  wake  with  a  random  note,  but  generally  in  tune.  'In  the 
Pastoral  Symphony,'  continued  Beethoven,  'I  have  tried  to  copy  this.' ' 
There  is  a  brief  episode  of  real  rustic  vigor  in  duple  time,*  a  re- 
prise, likewise  brief,  which  rises  to  a  high  pitch  of  excitement,  and  is 
broken  off  suddenly  on  its  dominant  of  F  by  the  ominous  rumble  of 
the  'cellos  and  basses  in  a  tremolo  on  D-flat.  The  storm  is  sometimes 
looked  upon  as  the  fourth  of  five  movements.   It  forms  a  sort  of 
transition  from  the  scherzo  to  the  finale,  which  two  movements  it 
binds  without  any  break.  The  instrumental  forces  which  Beethoven 
calls  upon  are  of  interest.  In  his  first  two  movements,  he  scaled  his 
sonority  to  the  moderation  of  his  subject,  using  only  the  usual  wood 
winds  and  strings,  with  no  brass  excepting  the  horns,  and  no  per- 
cussion. The  scherzo  he  appropriately  brightened  by  adding  a  trumpet 
to  his  scheme.  In  the  storm  music  he  heightened  his  effects  with  a 
piccolo  and  two  trombones,  instruments  which  he  had  used  in  his 

•Berlioz  sees,  in  this  "melody  of  grosser  character  the  arrival  of  mountaineers  with  their 
heavy  sabots,"  while  the  bassoon  notes  in  the  "musette,"  as  he  calls  it,  reminds  him  of 
"some  good  old  German  peasant,  mounted  on  a  barrel,  and  armed  with  a  dilapidated 
instrument." 

[3°] 


symphonies  for  the  first  time  when  he  wrote  his  Fifth.  The  trombones 
are  retained  in  the  Finale,  but  they  are  sparingly  used.  The  timpani 
makes  its  only  entrance  into  the  symphony  when  Beethoven  calls 
upon  it  for  his  rolls  and  claps  of  thunder;  and  he  asks  for  no  other 
percussion.  There  are  those  who  find  Beethoven's  storm  technique 
superseded  by  Liszt,  who  outdid  his  predecessor  in  cataclysmic  effects, 
and  at  the  same  time  put  the  stamp  of  sensationalism  upon  Bee- 
thoven's chromatics  and  his  diminished  seventh  chords.  Beethoven 
could  easily  have  appalled  and  terrified  his  audience  with  devices 
such  as  he  later  used  in  his  "Battle  of  Victoria,"  had  he  chosen  to 
plunge  his  Pastoral  Symphony  to  the  pictorial  level  of  that  piece, 
mar  its  idyllic  proportions,  and  abandon  the  great  axiom  which  he 
set  himself  on  its  title-page.  Beethoven  must  have  delighted  in  sum 
mer  thunder  showers,  and  enjoyed,  so  his  friends  have  recorded, 
being  drenched  by  them.  This  one  gives  no  more  than  a  momentary 
contraction  of  fear  as  it  assembles  and  breaks.  It  clothes  nature  in 
majesty  always  —  in  surpassing  beauty  at  its  moment  of  ominous 
gathering  and  its  moment  of  clearing  and  relief.  Critics  listening 
to  the  broad  descending  scale  of  the  oboe  as  the  rumbling  dies  away 
have  exclaimed  "the  rainbow"  —  and  any  listener  is  at  liberty  to 
agree  with  them. 

Peaceful  contentment  is  re-established  by  yodelling  octaves  in  peasant 
fashion  from  the  clarinet  and  horn,  which  rises  to  jubilation  in  the 
"Hirtengesang,"  the  shepherd's  song  of  thanks  in  similar  character, 
sung  by  the  violins.  Robert  Haven  Schauffler  went  so  far  as  to  say  that 
"the  bathetic  shepherd's  pipe  and  thanksgiving  hymn  that  follow 
suddenly  reveal  a  degenerate  Beethoven,  almost  on  the  abject  plane 
of  the  'Battle'  symphony."  There  will  be  no  lack  of  dissenters  with 
this  view,  who  will  point  out  that  slight  material  has  been  used  to 
great  ends  —  and  never  more  plainly  than  here.  Beethoven  was  in- 
deed at  this  point  meekly  following  convention,  as  in  every  theme 
of  the  Pastoral  Symphony,  in  writing  which  he  must  have  been  in  a 
mood  of  complacent  good-humor,  having  expended  his  revolutionary 
ardors  upon  the  C  minor.  No  musical  type  has  been  more  conven- 
tion-ridden than  the  shepherd,  with  his  ranz  des  vaches,  and  even 
Wagner  could  "stoop"  to  gladsome  shepherd's  pipings  in  "Tristan," 
clearing  the  air  of  tensity  and  oppression  as  the  ship  was  sighted. 
Beethoven  first  noted  in  the  sketchbooks  the  following  title  for  the 
Finale:  "Expression  of  Thankfulness.  Lord,  we  thank  Thee";  where- 
upon we  need  only  turn  to  Sturm's  "Lehr  und  Erbauungs  Buch," 
from  which  Beethoven  copied  lines  expressing  a  sentiment  very  com- 
mon at  the  time:  the  "arrival  at  the  knowledge  of  God,"  through 
Nature  —  "the  school  of  the  heart."  He  echoed  the  sentiment  of  his 


[3i] 


day  in  his  constant  praise  of  "God  in  Nature,"  but  the  sentiment 
happened  also  to  be  a  personal  conviction  with  him,  a  conviction 
which,  explain  it  how  you  will,  lifted  a  music  of  childlike  simplicity 
of  theme  to  a  rapturous  song  of  praise  without  equal,  moving  sus- 
tained and  irresistible  to  its  end.  One  cannot  refrain  from  remarking 
upon  the  magnificent  passage  in  the  coda  where  the  orchestra  makes 
a  gradual  descent,  serene  and  gently  expanding,  from  a  high  pitched 
fortissimo  to  a  murmuring  pianissimo.  There  is  a  not  unsimilar  pas- 
sage before  the  close  of  the  first  movement. 

•    • 
Berlioz,  who  could  admire,  and  practice,  a  fine  restraint  in  music, 
if  not  always  in  prose,  was  moved  to  an  infectious  rapture  by  this 
symphony,  in  its  attainment  of  the   true  pastoral   ardor,   the  clear 
supremacy  of  his  own  art  over  the  poets  of  all  time: 

"But  this  poem  of  Beethovenl  —  these  long  periods  so  richly 
coloured  1  —  these  living  pictures  1  —  these  perfumes!  —  that  light!  — 
that  eloquent  silence!  —  that  vast  horizon!  —  those  enchanted  nooks 
secreted  in  the  woods!  —  those  golden  harvests!  —  those  rose-tinted 
clouds  like  wandering  flecks  upon  the  surface  of  the  skv!  —  that  im- 
mense plain  seeming  to  slumber  beneath  the  rays  of  the  mid-day 
sun!  —  Man  is  absent,  and  Nature  alone  reveals  itself  to  admiration! 
—  and  this  profound  repose  of  everything  that  lives!  This  happy  life 
of  all  which  is  at  rest!  —  the  little  brook  which  runs  rippling  towards 
the  river!—  the  river  itself,  parent  of  waters,  which,  in  majestic  silence, 
flows  down  to  the  great  seal  —  Then,  Man  intervenes;  he  of  the  fields, 
robust  and  God-fearing  —  his  joyous  diversion  is  interrupted  by  the 
storm  —  and  we  have  his  terror,  his  hymn  of  gratitude. 

"Veil  your  faces!  ye  poor,  great,  ancient  poets  —  poor  Immortals! 
Your  conventional  diction  with  all  its  harmonious  purity  can  never 
engage  in  contest  with  the  art  of  sounds.  You  are  glorious,  but  van- 
quished! You  never  knew  what  we  now  call  melody;  harmony;  the 
association  of  different  qualities  of  tone;  instrumental  colouring; 
modulation;  the  learned  conflict  of  discordant  sounds,  which  first  en- 
gage in  combat,  only  afterwards  to  embrace;  our  musical  surprises; 
and  those  strange  accents  which  set  in  vibration  the  most  unexplored 
depths  of  the  human  soul.  The  stammerings  of  the  childlike  art  which 
you  named  Music  could  give  you  no  idea  of  this.  You  alone  were  the 
great  melodists  and  harmonists  —  the  masters  of  rhythm  and  expres- 
sion for  the  cultivated  spirits  of  your  time. 

"But  these  words  bore,  in  all  your  tongues,  a  meaning  quite  dif- 
ferent from  that  which  is  nowadays  their  due.  The  art  of  sounds, 
properly  so-called  and  independent  of  everything,  is  a  birth  of  yester- 
day. It  is  scarcely  yet  of  age,  with  its  adolescence.  It  is  all-powerful; 
it  is  the  Pythian  Apollo  of  the  moderns.  We  are  indebted  to  it  for 
a  whole  world  of  feelings  and  sensations  from  which  you  were  en- 
tirely shut  out. 

"Yes!  great  and  adored  poets!  you  are  conquered:  Inclyte  sed  victi*' 

[copyrighted] 
[32] 


RCA    VICTOR    RECORDS 

BOSTON  SYMPHONY  ORCHESTRA 


Recorded  under  the  leadership  of  CHARLES  MUNCH 

Beethoven  Overtures  Leonore  Nos.  1,  2,  3 ;  "Fidelio"  ;  "Coriolan" 
Symphonies  Nos.  5,  6,  7 
Violin  Concerto  (Heifetz) 
Berlioz  "Fantastic    Symphony" ;     Overture    to    "Beatrice    and    Benedick" ; 
"Romeo  and  Juliet"  (complete)  ;  "Summer  Nights"  (De  Los  Angeles); 
"The  Damnation  of  Faust"  (complete) 
Brahms  Piano  Concerto  No.  2  (Rubinstein) 

Symphonies  Nos.  2,  4 ;  "Tragic  Overture" 
Bruch  Violin  Concerto  No.  1  (Menuhin) 
Chausson  "Poeme"  for  Violin  and  Orchestra  (Oistrakh) 
Chopin  Piano  Concerto  No.  2  (Brailowsky) 
Debussy  "The  Martyrdom  of  St.  Sebastian" ;  "Prelude  to  the  Afternoon  of  a 

Faun";  "The  Blessed  Damozel"  (De  Los  Angeles) 
Handel  "Water  Music"  Suite  (arr.  Harty) 
Haydn  Symphony  No.  104 
Honegger  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  5 
Lalo  Overture  to  "Le  Roi  d'Ys" 
Menotti  Violin  Concerto  (  Spivakovsky  ) 
Mozart  Overture  to  "The  Marriage  of  Figaro" 
Ravel  "Daphnis  and  Chloe"  (complete)  ;  "Pa vane" 

Newly  Recorded ;   "Bolero"  ;  "La  Valse"  ;  "Rapsodie  Espagnole" 
Roussel  "Bacchus  and  Ariane,"  Suite  No.  2 
Saint-Saens  "Introduction  and  Rondo  Capriccioso"  (Oistrakh) 
Overture  to  "La  Princesse  Jaune" 
Piano  Concerto  No.  4  (Brailowsky) 
Schubert  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  8  ("Unfinished"  Symphony) 
Schumann  Overture  to  "Genoveva"        Symphony  No.  1 
Strauss  "Don  Quixote"  (Soloist,  Piatigorsky) 

Tchaikovsky  Violin  Concerto    (Milstein)  ;  "Francesca  da  Rimini";  "Romeo 
and  Juliet" ;  Symphony  No.  4 

Among  the  recordings  under  the  leadership  of  SERGE  KOUSSBVITZKY 


Bach  Brandenburg  Concertos  Nos.  1,  6; 

Suites  Nos.  1,  4 
Beethoven  Symphonies  Nos.  3,  5,  9 
Berlioz  "Harold  in  Italy"  (Primrose) 
Brahms   Symphony  No.   3;   Violin   Con- 
certo (Heifetz) 

Copland  "A  Lincoln  Portrait" ;  "Appala- 
chian Spring" ;  "El  Salon  Mexico" 
Hanson  Symphony  No.  3 
Harris  Symphony  No.  3 

Haydn  Symphonies  Nos.  92,  "Oxford" ; 
94,  "Surprise" 

Khatchaturian  Piano  Concerto  (Kapell) 

Mendelssohn  Symphony  No.  4,  "Italian" 


Mozart  "Eine  kleine  Nachtmusik"  ;  Sere- 
nade No.  10,  for  Woodwinds;  Sym- 
phonies Nos.  36,  "Linz" ;  39 

Prokofieff  "Classical"  Symphony;  "Lt. 
Kije"  Suite  ;  "Romeo  and  Juliet,"  Suite 
No.  2 ;  Symphony  No.  5 ;  Violin  Con- 
certo No.  2  (Heifetz) 

Rachmaninoff  "Isle  of  the  Dead" 

Ravel  "Bolero" ;  "Ma  Mere  L'Oye"  Suite 

Schubert  Symphony  in  B  Minor,  "Un- 
finished" 

Sibelius  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  5 

Strauss,  R.  "Don  Juan" 

Tchaikovsky  Serenade  in  C ;  Symphonies 
Nos.  4,  5 

Wagner  Siegfried  Idyll 


Recorded  under  the  leadership  of  PIERRE  MONTEUX 

Debussy  "La  Mer" ;  "Nocturnes"  Tchaikovsky  Symphony  No.  6,   "Pathe- 

Liszt  "Les  Preludes"  tique" 
Mozart  Piano  Concertos  Nos.  12, 18  (Lili 

Kraus)  Delibes  Ballets  "Sylvia,"  "Coppelia"  by 

Scriabin  "The  Poem  of  Ecstasy"  Members    of    the    Boston    Symphony 

Stravinsky  "Le  Sacre  du  Printemps"  Orchestra 

Recorded  under  the  leadership  of  Leonard  Bernstein 
Stravinsky  "L'Histoire  du  Soldat" ;  Octet  for  Wind  Instruments 


The  above  recordings  are  available  on  Long  Play  (33%  r.p.m.)  and  (in  some  cases) 
45  r.p.m. 


for  your  briefest 

leisure  moment 


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we  would  like  to  introduce  you  to  today's  newest  and 

most  rewarding  hobby  .  .  .  music  you  play 

yourself  on  the  Orga-sonic  Spinet  Organ. 

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•   absolutely  yes!  But  don't  take  our  word  for  it — 

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THE  BALDWIN:  PIANO  COMPANY 

CINCINNATI 

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Baldwin,  Acrosonic  and  Hamilton  Pianos  •  Baldwin  and  Orga-sonic  Organs 


U,       >l'\ 


2. 


BOSTON 

SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 


FOUNDED  IN  1881  BY 
HENRY  LEE  HIGGINSON 


Q) 


$ 


UHUUL 


<r — 


H 


SEVENTY. SIXTH   SEASON 

I956"I957 

Carnegie  Hall,  New  York 


TANGLEWOOD     1957 

The 

Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 


The  Berkshire  Festival 

Twentieth  Season 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Conductor 


The  Berkshire  Music  Center 

Fifteenth  Season 
CHARLES  MUNCH,   Director 


To  receive  further  announcements,  write  to 
Festival  Office,  Symphony  Hall,  Boston 


Carnegie  Hall,   New  York 
Seventy-First  Season  in  New  York 


SEVENTY-SIXTH  SEASON,   1956-1957 

Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 
Richard  Burgin,  Associate  Conductor 


Concert  Bulletin  of  the 

Third  Concerts 

WEDNESDAY  EVENING,  January  9,  at  8:45 
SATURDAY  AFTERNOON  January  12,  at  2:30 

with  historical  and  descriptive  notes  by 

John  N.  Burk 

The  TRUSTEES  of  the 
BOSTON  SYMPHONY  ORCHESTRA,  Inc. 

Henry  B.  Cabot  .        President 

Jacob  J.  Kaplan  .         Vice-President 

Richard  C.  Paine  .         Treasurer 

Talcott  M.  Banks,  Jr.  Michael  T.  Kelleher 

Theodore  P.  Ferris  Palfrey  Perkins 

Alvan  T.  Fuller  Charles  H.  Stockton 

Francis  W.  Hatch  Edward  A.  Taft 

Harold  D.  Hodgkinson  Raymond  S.  Wilkins 

C.  D.  Jackson  Oliver  Wolcott 

TRUSTEES  EMERITUS 
Philip  R.  Allen  M.  A.  DeWolfe  Howe 

N.  Penrose  Hallo  well  Lewis  Perry 

Thomas  D.  Perry,  Jr.,  Manager 
G.  W.  Rector  |  Assistant  J.  J.  Brosnahan,  Assistant  Treasurer 

N.  S.  Shirk        /  Managers         Rosario  Mazzeo,  Personnel  Manager 


[1] 


Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

(Seventy-sixth  Season,  1956-1957) 
CHARLES   MUNCH.  Music  Director 

RICHARD    BURGIN,   Associate   Conductor 


Violins 

Richard  Burgin 
Concert-master 

Alfred  Krips 
George   Zazofsky 
Roll  and  Tapley 

Norbert  Lauga 
Vladimir  Resnikoff 
Harry   Dickson 
Gottfried  Wilfinger 
Einar   Hansen 
Joseph  Leibovici 

Emil   Kornsand 
Roger  Shermont 

Minot  Beale 
Herman   Silberman 

Stanley  Benson 
Leo    Panasevich 

Sheldon  Rotenberg 
Fredy  Ostrovsky 

Clarence  Knudson 
Pierre  Mayer 

Manuel  Zung 
Samuel  Diamond 

Victor  Manusevitch 
James   Nagy 

Melvin  Bryant 
Lloyd  Stonestreet 
Saverio  Messina 
William  Waterhouse 
William   Marshall 
Leonard  Moss 

Jesse  Ceci 
Noah  Bielski 

Alfred  Schneider 
Joseph  Silverstein 

Basses 

Georges  Moleux 
Gaston  Dufresne 
Ludwig  Juht 
Irving  Frankel 
Henry  Freeman 
Henry  Portnoi 
Henri  Girard 
John   Barvvicki 


PERSONNEL 

Violas 
Joseph  de  Pasquale 
Jean   Cauhape 

Eugen   Lehner 
Albert   Bernard 

George  Humphrey 
Jerome  Lipson 
Robert   Karol 
Reuben  Green 

Bernard    Kadinoff 
Vincent  Mauricci 

John  Fiasca 
Earl  Hedberg 

Violoncellos 
Samuel  Mayes 
Alfred  Zighera 

Jacobus   Langendoen 
Mischa  Nieland 
Karl  Zeise 
Josef  Zimbler 

Bernard   Parronchi 
Martin  Hoherman 
Louis   Berger 
Richard   Kapuscinski 
Robert  Ripley 

Flutes 
Doriot  Anthony  Dwyer 
James  Pappoutsakis 
Phillip  Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George  Madsen 

Oboes 
Ralph  Gomberg 
Jean   Devergie 
John   Holmes 

English  Horn 
Louis  Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino  Cioffi 
Manuel  Valerio 
Pasquale  Cardillo 

E\y   Clarinet 

Bass  Clarinet 
Rosario  Mazzeo 


Bassoons 

Sherman  Walt 
Ernst  Panenka 
Theodore  Brewster 

Contra-Bassoon 
Richard  Plaster 

Horns 

James  Stagliano 
Charles  Yancich 

Harry  Shapiro 
Harold  Meek 
Paul  Keaney 
Osbourne  McConathy 

Trumpets 

Roger  Voisin 
Marcel  Lafosse 
Armando  Ghitalla 
Gerard  Goguen 

Trombones 

William  Gibson 
William   Mover 
Kauko  Kahila 
Josef  Orosz 

Tuba 
K.  Vinal  Smith 

Harps 
Bernard  Zighera 
Olivia  Luetcke 

Timpani 

Everett  Firth 
Harold  Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles  Smith 
Harold  Thompson 
Arthur  Press 

Piano 
Bernard  Zighera 

Library 
Victor  Alpert 


[2] 


SEVENTY-SIXTH  SEASON  •   NINETEEN  HUNDRED  FIFTY-SIX  AND  FIFTY-SEVEN 

Seventy-First  Season  in  New  York 

Third  Evening  Concert 

WEDNESDAY,  January  9 


RICHARD  BURGIN,  Conductor 

Program 

Vaughan  Williams Fantasia  on  a  Theme  by  Thomas  Tallis, 

for  Double  String  Orchestra 

Beethoven Symphony  No.  5,  in  C  minor,  Op.  67 

I.  Allegro  con  brio 

II.  Andante  con  moto 

III.  J  Allegro;  Trio 

IV.  I  Allegro 

INTERMISSION 


Shostakovitch Symphony  No.  5,  Op.  47 

I.  Moderato 

II.  Allegretto 

III.  Largo 

IV.  Allegro  non  troppo 


Performances  by  this  orchestra  are  broadcast  each  week  on  Monday 
evenings  from  8:05  to  9:00  P.M.  on  the  NBC  Radio  Network. 

Music  of  these  programs  is  available  at  the  Music  Library, 
58th   Street   Branch,    the   New   York    Public   Library. 

BALDWIN  PIANO  RCA  VICTOR  RECORDS 


[3] 


RICHARD  BURGIN 

T)  ichard  Burgin  studied  with  Lotto,  later  with  Joachim  in  Berlin, 
*-*-  and  from  the  years  1908  to  1912  with  Leopold  Auer  in  Leningrad, 
where  he  was  a  fellow  pupil  with  Toscha  Seidel  and  a  boy  named 
Jascha  Heifetz.  His  first  public  appearance  was  at  the  age  of  eleven  as 
soloist  with  the  Warsaw  Philharmonic  Society  on  December  7,  1903. 
He  was  concertmaster  and  soloist  of  the  Leningrad  Symphony  Orches- 
tra, the  Helsinki  Symphony  Orchestra,  the  Christiania  (now  Oslo) 
Philharmonic  Society,  and  the  Stockholm  Concert  Society.  As  concert- 
master  he  had  served,  before  he  came  to  Boston,  under  two  former 
conductors  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra,  Messrs.  Max  Fiedler 
and  Arthur  Nikisch,  likewise  as  concertmaster  under  Richard  Strauss, 
Schneevoigt,  the  Finnish  conductor,  and  under  Sibelius  in  Helsinki. 
At  Stockholm  and  Christiania  he  was  assistant  teacher  with  Auer  in 
1916-17.  In  Christiania  he  led  a  string  quartet,  and  in  Stockholm 
formed  the  Burgin  Quartet.  In  the  fall  of  1920  he  came  to  America 
to  be  concertmaster  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra.  In  1921,  he 
organized  the  Burgin  String  Quartet.  Mr.  Burgin  is  the  Associate 
Conductor  of  the  Orchestra,  and  has  conducted  many  concerts.  On 
the  faculty  of  the  Berkshire  Music  Center  at  Tanglewood  he  is  in 
charge  of  the  chamber  music  and  has  often  conducted  amateur  or 
student  orchestras. 

France  made  him  Chevalier  of  the  Legion  of  Honor  in  1955. 


FANTASIA  ON  A  THEME  BY  THOMAS  TALLIS,  for  Double 

String  Orchestra 

By  Ralph  Vaughan  Williams 

Born  at  Down  Ampney,  between  Gloucestershire  and  Wiltshire,  England, 

October  12,  1872 


This  Fantasia  was  written  for  the  Gloucester  Festival  of  1910,  where  it  had  its. 
first  performance  in  the  Cathedral  on  September  6.  It  was  published  in  1921.  The 
first  performance  in  this  country  was  by  the  Symphony  Society  of  New  York, 
March  9,  1922.  The  first  Boston  performance  was  by  the  Boston  Symphony  Or- 
chestra, October  27,  1922. 

"thhe  Fantasia  is  scored  for  string  orchestra  divided  into  three  sec- 
A  tions,"  so  the  composer  explains.  "  (1)  Full  body  of  strings.  (2) 
Small  orchestra  of  nine  players.  (3)  Solo  quartet.  These  three  bodies 
of  players  are  used  in  various  ways,  sometimes  playing  as  one  body, 
sometimes  antiphonally,  and  sometimes  accompanying  each  other." 

[4] 


Vaughan  Williams  in  the  score  specifies  the  second  orchestra  as  con- 
sisting of  nine  players,  "two  first  violin  players,  two  second  violin 
players,  two  viola  players,  two  violoncello  players,  and  one  doublebass 
player. .  .  .The  solo  parts  are  to  be  played  by  the  leader  of  each  group." 
In  1567,  Thomas  Tallis,  Gentleman  of  the  Chapel  Royal  in  the 
Court  of  Elizabeth  of  England,  wrote  eight  tunes,  each  in  a  different 
mode,  for  the  Metrical  Psalter  of  Archbishop  Parker.  The  Psalter, 
which  now  lies  in  the  British  Museum,  shows  the  tunes  in  four-part 
harmony,  each  part  printed  separately.  The  cantus  firmus,  according 
to  the  following  note,  is  in  the  tenor  part:  "The  Tenor  of  these  partes 
be  for  the  people  when  they  will  syng  alone,  the  other  parts,  put  for 
greater  queers  [choirs],  or  to  such  as  will  syng  or  play  priuatelye."  Of 
the  eight  tunes,  Vaughan  Williams  has  chosen  the  third  for  the  subject 
of  his  Fantasia.  Each  of  them,  and  its  corresponding  mode,  is  charac- 
terized in  the  following  eight  rhyming  lines: 

"The  first  is  meeke:  deuout  to  see, 
The  second  sad:  in  maiesty. 
The  third  doth  rage:   a  roughly  brayth, 
The  fourth  doth  fawne:  and  flattry  playth. 
The  fyfth  delight:  and  laugheth  the  more, 
The  sixth  bewayleth:  it  weepeth  full  sore. 
The  seuenth  tredeth  stoute:  in  froward  race, 
The  eyghte  goeth  milde:  in  modest  pace." 

Hearers  of  the  twentieth  century  may  look  in  vain  for  any  suggestion 
of  raging  or  rough  braying  in  the  tune  of  Vaughan  Williams'  choice. 

"Although  this  Fantasy  may  vividly  conjure  up  for  the  hearer  the 
England  of  Henry  VIII,  or  of  Elizabeth,"  writes  Eric  Blom,  in  his 
illuminating  notes  for  the  program  of  the  B.  B.  C.  Orchestra,  "it 
must  be  listened  to  as  a  modern  work  and,  but  for  the  theme  it  bor- 
rows, an  entirely  original  composition.  Its  form,  however,  approxi- 
mates one  that  was  current  in  Tallis's  own  time  —  the  fantasia  or 
fancy  for  a  consort  of  viols.  It  flourished  greatly  in  the  first  half  of 
the  seventeenth  century  and  was  revised  by  Purcell  near  its  end." 

Vaughan  Williams  gives  the  indication  largo  sostenuto,  and  opens 
his  Fantasia  softly  with  chords  for  the  full  orchestra,  followed  by  a 
foreshadowing  of  the  theme  in  the  lower  strings.  The  theme  is  then 
fully  stated  largamente  under  tremolo  chords  of  the  violins.  A  restate- 
ment with  an  ornamental  figure  in  the  second  violins  leads  to  a 
cadence  and  a  portion  where  the  first  orchestra  and  the  second,  its 
slighter  "echo,"  here  muted,  play  alternate  phrases  in  antiphonal 
fashion.  Then,  over  the  alternate  groups,  there  is  heard  a  portion  of 
the  tune  newly  developed  by  the  viola  solo  and  the  violin  solo  in 
turn.  The  solo  quartet  also  enters,  and  a  varied  fabric  is  woven  be- 
ts] 


tween   the   different  groups.   By   these  divisions  of  large   and  small 
groups  and  solos,  a  rich  variety  of  tone  color  is  obtained. 

Thomas  Tallis  is  conjectured  to  have  been  born  in  the  first  years 
of  the  sixteenth  century,  for  it  is  known  that  he  was  alive  just  before 
the  close  of  the  reign  of  Henry  VII.  A  vaguer  conjecture  gives  his 
birthplace  as  Leicestershire.  He  may  have  been  a  chorister  at  St.  Paul's 
Cathedral.  The  first  definite  record  of  his  career  finds  him  at  Waltham 
Abbey,  where  he  was  chosen  Gentleman  of  the  Chapel  Royal  in  the 
reign  of  Henry  VIII.  In  this  capacity  he  adorned  the  courts  in  turn 
of  Edward  VI,  Mary,  and  Elizabeth. 

He  was  married  in  1552  and,  according  to  the  inscription  upon  his 
tombstone,  lived  with  his  Joan  "in  Love  full  thre  and  thirty  Yeres." 
In  1557  he  received  from  Mary  Tudor  a  twenty-one  years'  lease  of 
the  manor  of  Minster,  which  he  later  designated  as  the  only  royal 
favor  shown  him  in  nearly  forty  years  of  service.  A  petition  to  Queen 
Elizabeth,  made  jointly  with  William  Byrd,  brought  the  grant  in  1575 
of  a  royal  patent  whereby  the  two  musicians  (Byrd  was  almost  forty 
years  younger)  were  entitled  to  the  monopoly  of  music  printing  and 
music  paper  in  England.  Tallis  and  Byrd,  as  joint  organists  of  the 
Chapel  Royal,  published  songs  of  their  own  composition.  Tallis  died 
at  his  house  in  Greenwich  November  23,  1589.  A  brass  plate  in  the 
parish  church  in  Greenwich  bore  this  legend:— 

Entered  here  doth  ly  a  worthy  Wyght 
Who  for  long  Tyme  in  Musick  bore  the  Bell: 
His  Name  to  shew,  was  Thomas  Tallys  hyght. 
In  honest  vertuous  Lyff  he  did  excell. 
He  serv'd  long  Tyme  in  Chappel  with  grete  prayse 
Fower  Soveregnes  Reygnes   (a  thing  not  often  seen) 
I  mean  Kyng  Henry  and  Prynce  Edward  Dayes, 
Quene  Mary,  and  Elizabeth  our  Quene. 
He  maryed  was,  though  Children  he  had  none 
And  lyv'd  in  Love  full  thre  and  thirty  Yeres, 
Wyth  loyal  Spowse,  whose  Name  yclipt  was  Jone. 
Who  here  entomb'd  him  Company  now  bears. 
•  As  he  did  lyve,  so  also  did  he  dy. 
In  myld  and  quyet  Sort   (O!  happy  Man) 
To  God  full  oft  for  Mercy  did  he  cry. 
Wherefore  he  lyves,  let  Death  do  what  he  can. 
[copyrighted] 


Q^, 


[6] 


THE  VIRTUOSO  OBCMECTIUl  "«V™»  l«*J 

»w>o» 8>ij>(»)  OrtWn ...CWfc» M»0    ::  ■       .> 


munch  in  person 

on  rca  Victor  records 


To  Charles  Munch,  conducting  is  not  a  profession  but  a 
sacred  calling.  And  this  dedication,  combined  with  the 
magnificence  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra,  brings 
you  performances  of  unmatched  power  and  beauty.  You 
feel  and  hear  this  devotion  whether  he  conducts  Ravel, 
Berlioz  or  Beethoven  . . .  whether  the  performance  is  in 
Symphony  Hall  or ...  on  RCA  Victor  Records,  of  course! 


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[7] 


SYMPHONY  NO.  5,  IN  C  MINOR,  Op.  67 

By  Ludwig  van  Beethoven 
Born  at  Bonn,  December  16   (?),  1770;  died  at  Vienna,  March  26,  1827 


The  Fifth  Symphony  was  completed  near  the  end  of  the  year  1807,  and  first 
performed  at  the  Theater  an  der  Wien,  Vienna,  December  22,  1808,  Beethoven 
conducting.  The  parts  were  published  in  April,  1809,  and  the  score  in  March,  1826. 
The  dedication  is  to  Prince  von  Lobkowitz  and  Count  Rasumovsky. 

The  Symphony  is  scored  for  2  flutes  and  piccolo,  2  oboes,  2  clarinets,  2  bassoons 
and  double-bassoon,  2  horns,  2  trumpets,  3  trombones,  timpani  and  strings  (the 
piccolo,  trombones  and  contra-bassoon,  here  making  their  first  appearance  in  a 
symphony  of  Beethoven,  are  used  only  in  the  Finale) . 

It  is  possible  to  find  an  affinity  of  rhythmic  units  through  the  four 
movements  of  the  Fifth  Symphony.  But  the  similarity  (and  it  is 
nothing  more)  should  be  kept  within  the  bounds  of  a  superficial  obser- 
vation. Beethoven  may  not  have  been  even  aware  of  it  —  he  was  too 
deep  an  artist  to  pursue  a  unifying  theory.  A  still  greater  mistake  is  to 
look  upon  the  initial  four-note  figure  with  its  segregating  hold  as 
more  than  a  segment  of  the  theme  proper.  Weingartner  and  others 
after  him  have  exposed  this  fallacy,  and  what  might  be  called  the 
enlightened  interpretation  of  this  movement  probably  began  with 
the  realization  that  Beethoven  never  devised  a  first  movement  more 
conspicuous  for  graceful  symmetry  and  even,  melodic  flow.  An  isolated 
tile  cannot  explain  a  mosaic,  and  the  smaller  the  tile  unit,  the  more 
smooth  and  delicate  of  line  will  be  the  complete  picture.  Just  so 
does  Beethoven's  briefer  "motto"  devolve  upon  itself  to  produce  long 
and  regular  melodic  periods.  Even  in  its  first  bare  statement,  the 
"motto"  belongs  conceptually  to  an  eight-measure  period,  broken 
for  the  moment  as  the  second  fermata  is  held  through  an  additional 
bar.  The  movement  is  regular  in  its  sections,  conservative  in  its 
tonalities.  Its  very  regularity,  its  incredible  compactness,  adds  to  the 
power  of  the  symphony  which,  when  it  was  first  heard,  disrupted 
all  contemporary  notions  of  what  a  symphony  was  supposed  to  be. 

The  Andante  con  moto  (in  A-flat  major)  is  the  most  irregular  of 
the  four  movements.  It  is  not  so  much  a  theme  with  variations  as  free 
thoughts  upon  segments  of  a  theme  with  certain  earmarks  and  re- 
currences of  the  variation  form  hovering  in  the  background.  The  first 
setting  forth  of  the  melody  cries  heresy  by  requiring  48  bars.  The 
first  strain  begins  regularly  enough,  but,  instead  of  closing  on  the 
tonic  A-flat,  hangs  suspended.  The  wood  winds  echo  this  last  phrase 
and  carry  it  to  a  cadence  which  is  pointedly  formal  as  the  strings 
echo  it  at  the  nineteenth  bar.  Formal  but  not  legitimate.  A  close  at 
the  eighth  bar  would  have  been  regular,  and  this  is  not  a  movement 
of  regular  phrase  lengths.  Regularity  is  not  established  until  the  end 
of  the  movement  when  this  phrase  closes  upon  its  eighth  bar  at  last! 

[8] 


The  whole  andante  is  one  of  the  delayed  cadences.  The  second  strain 
of  the  melody  pauses  upon  the  dominant  and  proceeds  with  an  out- 
burst into  C  major,  repeats  in  this  key  to  pause  at  the  same  place 
and  dream  away  at  leisure  into  E-flat.  The  two  sections  of  melody 
recur  regularly  with  varying  ornamental  accompaniment  in  the  strings, 
but  again  the  questioning  pauses  bring  in  enchanting  whispered 
vagaries,  such  as  a  fugato  for  flutes,  oboes  and  clarinets,  or  a  pianis- 
simo dalliance  by  the  violins  upon  a  strand  of  accompaniment.  The 
movement  finds  a  sudden  fortissimo  close. 

The  third  movement  (allegro,  with  outward  appearance  of  a 
scherzo)  begins  pianissimo  with  a  phrase  the  rhythm  of  which  crystal- 
lizes into  the  principal  element,  in  fortissimo.  The  movement  restores 
the  C  minor  of  the  first  and  some  of  its  rhythmic  drive.  But  here  the 
power  of  impulsion  is  light  and  springy.  In  the  first  section  of  the 
Trio  in  C  major  (the  only  part  of  the  movement  which  is  literall) 
repeated)  the  basses  thunder  a  theme  which  is  briefly  developed, 
fugally  and  otherwise.  The  composer  begins  what  sounds  until  its 
tenth  bar  like  a  da  capo.  But  this  is  in  no  sense  a  return,  as  the 
hearer  soon  realizes.  The  movement  has  changed  its  character,  lost  its 
steely  vigor  and  taken  on  a  light,  skimming,  mysterious  quality.  Ii 
evens  off  into  a  pianissimo  where  the  suspense  of  soft  drum  beats 
prepares  a  new  disclosure,  lightly  establishing  (although  one  does  not 
realize  this  until  the  disclosure  comes)  the  quadruple  beat.  The  bridge 
of  mystery  leads,  with  a  sudden  tension,  into  the  tremendous  out- 
burst of  the  Finale,  chords  proclaiming  C  major  with  all  of  the  power 
an  orchestra  of  1807  could  muster  —  which  means  that  trombones, 
piccolo  and  contra-bassoon  appeared  for  the  first  time  in  a  symphony. 
The  Finale  follows  the  formal  line  of  custom,  with  a  second  section 
in  the  dominant,  the  prescribed  development  section,  and  a  fairly 
close  recapitulation.  But  as  completely  as  the  first  movement  (which 
likewise  outwardly  conforms),  it  gives  a  new  function  to  a  symphony 
—  a  new  and  different  character  to  music  itself.  Traditional  precon- 
ceptions are  swept  away  in  floods  of  sound,  joyous  and  triumphant. 
At  the  end  of  the  development  the  riotous  chords  cease  and  in  the 
sudden  silence  the  scherzo,  in  what  is  to  be  a  bridge  passage,  is  recalled. 
Again  measures  of  wonderment  fall  into  the  sense  of  a  coda  as  the 
oboe  brings  the  theme  to  a  gentle  resolution.  This  interruption  was 
a  stroke  of  genius  which  none  could  deny,  even  the  early  malcontents 
who  denounced  the  movement  as  vulgar  and  blatant  —  merely  because 
they  had  settled  back  for  a  rondo  and  found  something  else  instead. 
The  Symphony  which  in  all  parts  overrode  disputation  did  so  no- 
where more  unanswerably  than  in  the  final  coda  with  its  tumultuous 
C  major. 

[copyrighted] 

[9] 


ENTR'ACTE 

THE  JUKE-BOX:  A  SYMBOL 

By  Jacques  Barzun 


In  his  book  "Music  in  American  Life"  (Doubleday  &  Co.,  1956)  Mr.  Barzun 
surveys  the  place  of  music  in  the  United  States  in  its  present  development.  Music 
in  mechanical  reproduction,  its  advantages  and  disadvantages,  are  discussed  in  the 
chapter  "The  Offering,"  from  which  a  portion  is  here  quoted. 

>t*he  first  gross  fact  of  our  musical  life  repeatedly  touched  on  in 
-*•  these  pages  is  that  for  the  first  time  in  history  music  can  be  cap- 
tured and  reproduced  by  machines.  This,  like  all  mechanical  inven- 
tions, extends  and  limits  the  power  of  individual  choice.  The  manner 
in  which  it  does  this  I  should  like  for  brevity  to  call  the  juke-box 
principle.  If  I  step  into  a  bar  or  popular  restaurant  of  the  type  called 
hash-house,  I  can  for  a  nickel  hear  a  popular  tune  sung  by  and  played 
according  to  the  highest  standards  of  the  genre.  My  pleasure  is  immedi- 
ate, inexpensive,  and  repeatable  at  will.  My  appetite  for  music  need 
not  yearn  for  a  complicated  social  arrangement  of  human  talents  which 
will  vanish  with  the  occasion:  the  machine  stores  up  that  social  com- 
plex and  doles  out  these  talents  again  and  again,  without  loss  and  for 
the  most  trivial  sum.  My  power  is  incalculably  enhanced  and  at  a 
democratic  rate. 

The  machine,  moreover,  is  well-disposed  toward  democratic  variety 
and  offers  me  a  choice  of  twenty  to  forty  tunes,  some  of  which  go  by 
the  name  of  "classical"  —  as  if  to  prove  that  all  terms  are  relative;  for 
juke-box  classical  means  tenth-rate  dinner  music  energized  by  Mr. 
Kostelanetz.  But  behind  the  salamandrine  object,  fashioned  of  colored 
plastic  panels  and  containing  exquisitely  adjusted  parts  that  will  pick 
up  the  subtlest  electrical  impulses  from  hairline  grooves,  one  should 
imagine,  in  addition  to  the  composer  and  other  musicians,  the  genius 
of  a  hundred  men  of  science  going  back  to  Faraday  and  Volta.  All 
this  power  is  concentrated  here  and  parceled  out  again  in  nickels' 
worths. 

But  this  distributed  power  subject  to  my  whim  also  exerts  a  tyranny. 
The  entire  restaurant  where  I  choose  to  eat  has  to  bear  the  brunt  of 
my  passion  for  art.  Silence,  conversation,  contrary  musical  tastes,  are 
violated  without  appeal.  (Sometimes  even  the  volume  control  is  at 
the  mercy  of  the  capitalist  who  has  invested  a  small  coin  in  the  higher 
pleasures  when  one  wishes  he  had  preferred  more  beer.)  If  democracy 
means  majority  rule,  it  seems  to  break  down  right  there.  But  this  may 
well  be  an  appearance  only,  for  just  as  the  fact  is  that  it  has  never 
occurred  to  me  to  activate  a  juke-box,  so  the  probability  is  that  when 

[10] 


it  plays  I  am  the  only  one  inconvenienced.  The  democratic  safeguard 
is  actually  exercised  at  an  earlier  stage  and  in  two  ways:  the  "taste" 
of  all  the  selections  is  unemphatic  and  therefore  unobjectionable  to 
the  great  majority;  and  the  quality  of  the  playing  is  high,  so  that  the 
widespread  judgment  of  performance  is  not  offended.  As  regards  this 
popular  music  I  cannot  even  pretend  to  be  invariably  in  a  minority  of 
one,  for  occasionally  I  have  truly  enjoyed,  for  its  rhythm  or  counter- 
point, one  of  the  pieces  casually  thrust  upon  me  in  this  way.  And  1 
am  bound  to  declare  that  the  worst  of  Kostelanetz  is  better  than  what 
one  often  has  to  endure  at  more  fashionable  places  where  a  pianist  or 
string  trio  of  mediocre  musicianship  incessantly  whines  as  you  dine. 
What  the  machine  has  done,  therefore,  can  be  summed  up  in  a  few 
words:  it  has  made  music  portable  and  cheap,  improved  technique  and 
the  judgment  of  it,  spread  the  demand  for  the  average  product,  and 
opened  the  way  to  the  diffusion  of  every  kind  of  product  —  average, 
lower  than  average,  and  higher  than  average. 

The  lowest  of  the  low,  by  common  consent,  is  the  singing  commer- 
cial —  the  jingle  with  the  properties  of  the  Chinese  torture  by  water- 
drop.  Unlike  its  effect,  the  preparation  of  what  is  euphemistically 
known  as  "the  musical  announcement"  is  anything  but  primitive. 
Rather,  it  is  Chinese  once  more  in  its  solemn  intricacy,  which  one  may 
learn  about  from  Mr.  Thomas  Whiteside's  ingenious  and  informative 
work,  The  Relaxed  Sell.  According  to  him,  "The  successful  composer 
of  singing  commercials  appears  to  be  one  with  a  talent  ideally  suited 
to  the  creation  of  a  work  lasting  no  longer  than  thirty  seconds.  .  .  . 
The  composition  of  such  works,  the  supervision  of  their  recording, 
and  all  the  attendant  negotiations  usually  kept  Kant  and  Johnson  (two 
masters  of  the  genre)  terribly  busy.  .  .  .  For  'Pillsbury's  Pancake 
Serenade'  the  two  men  provided  a  score  calling  for  twenty-three  brass 
instruments,  a  Hammond  organ,  and  several  male  voices.  The  theme 
was  set  in  a  minor  key,  with  many  rich  shadings  designed  to  appeal 
to  lady  listeners.  'My  work  (said  Johnson)  is  often  strongly  influenced 
by  Delius.' " 

The  mention  of  Delius  invites  one  to  modulate  promptly  to  a  major 
key  and  re-introduce  our  second  theme,  which  is   the  opportunity 


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[>»] 


offered  by  the  machine  to  disseminate  a  musical  product  higher  than 
average.  Today  this  is  no  longer  to  be  regarded  as  a  compensatory 
loophole  but  as  a  great  floodgate.  Any  description  of  music  in  Ameri- 
can life  must  dwell  on  the  fact  that  the  extension  of  the  art  by  tech- 
nology is  not  solely  horizontal  and  measured  by  the  number  of  people 
reached  and  involved;  it  is  also  vertical  and  measured  by  the  kinds  of 
music  —  from  native  folk  to  foreign  experimental  —  that  are  simul- 
taneously brought  into  our  awareness.  And  still  beyond  this,  it  is  an 
extension  in  time,  measured  by  the  amount  recovered  from  the  past  in 
all  traditions  —  which  includes  the  dying  echoes  of  our  Indian  past  as 
recorded,  say,  by  Professor  Manfred  Bukofzer  in  California. 

Rare  as  it  is  for  the  historian  to  be  able  to  make  a  positive  assertion 
of  firstness,  one  can  say  without  fear  of  contradiction  that  today  for 
the  first  time,  thanks  to  the  machine,  we  possess  a  genuine  repertory 
of  music,  a  treasury  comparable  to  the  kindred  treasuries  established 
earlier  for  literature  and  the  graphic  arts.  Hitherto,  what  went  by  the 
name  of  musical  repertory  was  but  a  thin  slice  of  the  recent  and  local 
music  still  in  favor.  Only  fifty  years  ago  Frederic  Harrison  could  justly 
complain:  "As  to  old  music,  reverence  is  carried  so  far  that  too  often 
we  do  not  perform  it  at  all."  Between  his  time  and  ours  contemporary 
music  pretty  steadily  ran  the  risk  of  turning  posthumous  on  its  makers, 
even  when  it  was  printed.  Now  all  that  is  needed  is  one  performance 
in  front  of  a  tape-recorder  —  the  reproducible  sounds  having  a  far 
greater  chance  of  making  converts  than  the  most  beautifully  engraved 
plates  or  the  most  seductive  critical  praise.  Two  examples  will  suffice: 
we  owe  our  contemporary  knowledge  of  Bartok  and  Berlioz  to  the 
long-playing  disc  and  frequency  modulation  —  nothing  else. 

We  may  be  ready  to  accept  this  as  a  generality,  but  we  hardly  take 
in  the  full  extent  of  the  "revelation."  As  one  who  has  been  partic- 
ularly concerned  with  the  work  of  the  composers  just  named,  I  occa- 
sionally receive  unsought  expressions  of  opinion  about  them.  Here 
are  two  from  distinguished  sources  —  one  a  man  of  letters,  the  other 
a  living  American  composer.  About  Berlioz  and  the  moderns  the 
musician  writes:  "I  am  having  the  opportunity  for  a  new  insight  into 
the  man's  music  with  my  new  FM  tuner.  KPFA,  the  Berkeley,  non- 
commercial subscription  station,  broadcasts  his  music  quite  frequently, 
and  it  is  wonderful  to  hear  it  and  also  much  contemporary  music 
which  I  wasn't  even  aware  existed." 

And  the  literary  man:  "Like  so  many  thousands  of  others,  I  did  not 
really  discover  music  until  the  modern  phonograph  came  along.  And 
like  so  many  of  those,  I  began  with  Handel  and  Mozart.  I  had  just 
about  got  to  Berlioz  when  your  book  appeared"  —  that  is  to  say:  when 
the  discs  appeared,  without  which  the  Berlioz  repertory  would  have 

[12] 


continued  to  be  made  up  of  exactly  three  pieces  —  one  symphony,  one 
overture,  and  one  march.  For  in  those  not  distant  days  before  LPs, 
the  conductors  of  live  orchestras  were  Lord  Keepers  of  the  Privy  Seal, 
and  with  the  exception  of  Koussevitzky,  they  rarely  broke  routine.  In 
the  instances  I  have  chosen  they  did  not  lead  but  followed  the  public 
after  it  had  made  its  own  discoveries. 


The  present  situation  in  the  production  of  long-playing  recordings 
is  in  this  regard  highly  instructive.  Though  exact  figures  are  not 
available,  it  is  estimated  that,  in  1954,  $70,000,000  was  spent  on 
classical  records  alone.  This  means  a  distribution  of  some  seventeen 
million  discs.  Twenty  years  earlier  the  expenditure  amounted  to 
something  like  $750,000,  and  at  the  rates  then  prevailing  this  sum 
represented  but  300,000  discs,  each  containing  only  one-fifth  the 
amount  of  music  now  recorded  in  microgrooves.  In  1934  the  Beethoven 
Ninth  Symphony  was  bought  by  about  500  people  a  year;  in  1954  over 
130,000  bought  Toscanini's  recording  of  the  work  —  one  of  several  — 
and  its  sales  have  continued  at  a  scarcely  diminished  rate.  In  1934,  a 
symphony  on  six  highly  perishable  records,  giving  but  four  minutes 
of  music  at  a  time,  cost  some  twenty  dollars.  In  1954  the  same  sym- 
phony could  be  had  on  a  single  disc  playing  two  movements  without 
interruption  and  costing  officially  six  dollars,  though  often  obtainable 
for  four.  By  the  end  of  that  year,  the  list  price  was  cut  again  and 
marketing  groups  patterned  after  the  book  clubs  offered  two  such  discs 
or  "six  masterpieces  for  one  dollar."  There  were  even  lures  baited 
with  Beethoven  at  ten  cents  plus  a  coupon. 

All  these  "introductory  offers"  naturally  brought  the  customer  only 
short  works  played  by  lesser  orchestras,  but  the  parallel  had  been 
established  with  the  equally  familiar  forms  of  democratized  culture: 
the  paperback  book  for  a  dollar  or  less,  and  the  art  portfolio  of  ten 
reproductions  for  a  dollar.  The  almighty  dollar,  fancy  free,  creates 
dollar  culture  as  well  as  dollar  imperialism. 

One  of  the  most  unexpected  musical  results  of  this  particular 
economic  revolution  is  the  revival  of  interest  in  opera.  Or  one  should 
say  more  exactly:  a  revival  of  interest  in  operatic  music,  for  it  is 
invisible  opera  that  listeners  have  taken  up.  Few  of  the  purchasers 
of  operas  on  discs  have  seen  or  heard  the  originals,  and  the  accepta- 
bility of  the  music  by  itself  is  shown  in  the  increasing  number  of  live 
performances  of  Orpheus,  Carmen,  and  even  such  stagy  characters  as 
Traviata,  in  concert  form. 


[iS] 


SYMPHONY  NO.  5,  Op.  47 

By  Dmitri  Shostakovitch 

Born  September  25,  1906,  at  St.  Petersburg 


Shostakovitch  composed  his  Fifth  Symphony  for  performance  in  celebration  of 
the  twentieth  anniversary  of  the  Republic  of  Soviet  Russia.  The  first  of  a  series  of 
performances  was  given  at  Leningrad,  November  21,  1937.  The  first  performance  at 
Moscow  was  on  the  20th  of  January  following.  The  Symphony  had  its  first  American 
hearing  at  a  broadcast  concert  of  the  National  Broadcasting  Company,  in  New 
York,  April  9,  1938,  Artur  Rodzinski  conducting.  The  Symphony  was  performed 
by  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra,  January  20,  1939,  Richard  Burgin  conducting, 
and  under  the  direction  of  Serge  Koussevitzky,  October  18,  1940,  January  3,  1941, 
December  26,  1941,  April  30,  1943,  November  12,  1943,  November  24,  1944  (Leonard 
Bernstein  conducting),  March  5,  1948,  and  October  24-25,  1952  (Richard  Burgin 
conducting). 

The  Symphony  is  scored  for  2  flutes  and  piccolo,  2  oboes,  clarinets  in  A,  B-flat, 
and  E-flat,  2  bassoons  and  contra-bassoon,  4  horns,  3  trumpets,  3  trombones  and 
tuba,  timpani,  bass  drum,  cymbals,  triangle,  tambour  militaire,  tam-tam,  xylophone, 
bells,  celesta,  piano,  two  harps  and  strings. 

npHE  Fifth  Symphony  is  conceived,  developed  and  scored  for  the 
■*-  most  part  with  great  simplicity.  The  themes  are  usually  melodic 
and  long-breathed  in  character.  The  manipulation  of  voices  is  plastic, 
but  never  elaborate.  The  composer  tends  to  present  his  material  in 
the  pure  medium  of  the  string  choirs,  notably  in  the  opening  and 
slow  movements,  where  wind  color  and  sonority  are  gradually  built 
up.  The  first  movement  and  the  last  gain  also  in  intensity  as  they 
unfold  by  a  gradual  increase  of  tempo  throughout,  effected  by  con- 
tinual metronomic  indications. 

The  first  movement  opens  with  an  intervallic  theme,  stated  antiph- 
onally  between  the  low  and  high  strings.  From  it  there  grows  a  theme 
(violins)  in  extensive,  songful  periods.  The  development  is  in  the 
nature  of  melodic  cumulative  growth.  The  first  theme  returns  in  horns 
and  trumpets,  and  subsides  to  the  gentle  voice  of  the  violins,  over 
a  characteristic  triple  rhythmic  figure.  As  the  tempo  quickens,  the 
rhythms  tighten  and  become  more  propulsive,  while  the  melody, 
sounding  from  the  brass  choir,  becomes  exultant  in  animation.  The 
recapitulation  suddenly  restores  the  initial  slow  tempo  as  the  first 
theme  is  repeated  by  the  orchestra  in  unison,  largamente.    The  for- 


EDNA  NITKIN,  M.Mus. 

PIANIST 

ACCOMPANIST        TEACHER 

Studio:   500  Boylston  St.,  Copley  Sq. 

Boston  KE  6-4062 


[Ml 


tissimo  strings  and  deep  brass  give  way  to  a  gentler  reminiscent  mood, 
as  the  wood-wind  voices,  here  first  fully  exploited,  bring  the  move- 
ment to  a  close. 

The  second  movement  is  in  the  historical  scherzo  form  with  clear 
traces  in  the  course  of  the  music  of  the  traditional  repeats,  trio  section 
and  da  capo.  The  themes  are  in  the  triple  time  of  the  Austrian 
Landler,  from  which,  in  the  past,  scherzos  have  sprung.  The  slow 
movement,  like  the  first,  is  one  of  gradual  melodic  growth,  from  string 
beginnings.  The  theme,  too,  is  reminiscent  of  the  first  theme  in  the 
opening  movement.  The  individual  voices  of  the  wood  wind  enter, 
and  the  tension  increases  as  the  strings  give  a  tremolo  accompaniment, 
and  sing  once  more,  muted  and  in  the  high  register.  The  movement 
attains,  at  its  climax,  an  impressive  sonority  without  the  use  of  a  single 
brass  instrument. 

The  finale,  in  rondo  form,  devolves  upon  a  straightforward  and 
buoyant  march-like  rhythm  and  a  theme  unmistakably  Russian  in 
suggestion.  There  is  a  slow  section  in  which  the  characteristic  triple 
rhythm  of  the  first  movement  reappears.  The  first  theme  of  that  move- 
ment is  treated  by  the  violin  solo  with  fresh  melodic  development. 
There  is  a  constant  increase  in  tempo  as  the  conclusion  is  approached. 

[COPYRIGHTED] 


•  THE    BOSTON    SYMPHONY    CONCERT    BULLETIN 

•  THE    BERKSHIRE    FESTIVAL    PROGRAM 

•  THE    BOSTON    POPS    PROGRAM 

-XXV  .xxx 

The  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

PUBLICATIONS 

offer  to  advertisers  wide  coverage  of  a  special  group 

of  discriminating  people.  For  both  merchandising  and 

institutional  advertising  they  have  proved  over  many 
years  to  be  excellent  media. 


Total  Circulation  More  Than  500,000 


For  Information  and  Rates  Call     ::    Mrs.  Dana  Somes,  Advertising  Manager 
Tel.  CO  6-1492,  or  write:  Symphony  Hall,  Boston  IS,  Mass. 


[15] 


asked  the  brahmin  of  the  brewer. . . 


Tray  tell,  good  fellow,  why  not  a  beverage 
Brewed  in  a  fashion  a  bit  above  the  average? 
A  light-hearted  ale,  dry  refreshing  beer 
Worthy  of  a  connoisseur,  worthy  of  a  Peer?" 


"Matey,  you're  in  luck",  said  the  Brewer  to  the  Brahmin, 
"You  and  the  missus  and  the  Beacon  Hill  barman, 
For  Carling's  now  in  Natick,  brewing  ale  and  beer 
Worthy  of  a  connoisseur,  worthy  of  a  Peer." 


CARLING    BREWING    CO. 


[16] 


seventy-sixth  season  •  nineteen  hundred  fifty-six  and  fifty-seven 
Seventy-First  Season  in  New  York 

Third  Afternoon  Concert 

SATURDAY,  January   12 


RICHARD  BURGIN,  Conductor 

Program 

Honegger "Rugby,  Mouvement  symphonique" 

Debussy "Rondes  de  printemps  "   (Image  No.  3) 

Ravel "Pavane  pour  une  Infante  defunte" 

Ravel "Alborada  del  gracioso" 

interm  ission 

Mahler Symphony  No.  4,  in  G  major   (with  Soprano  Voice) 

I.  Bedachtig  (Deliberately) 

II.  In  gemachlicher  Bewegung  (with  leisurely  motion) 

III.  Ruhevoll  (Peacefully) 

IV.  Sehr  behaglich  (Very  easily) 


SOLOIST 

NANCY  CARR,  Soprano 


Performances  by  this  orchestra  are  broadcast  each  week  on  Monday 

evenings  from  8:05  to  9:00  P.M.  on  the  NBC  Radio  Network. 

Music  of  these  programs  is  available  at  the  Music  Library, 
58th   Street   Branch,    the   New  York    Public   Library. 

BALDWIN  PIANO  RCA  VICTOR  RECORDS 


[17] 


''RUGBY,  MOUVEMENT  SYMPHONIQUE" 
By  Arthur  Honegger 

Born  in  Le  Havre,  March  10,  1892;  died  in  Paris,  November  27,  1955 


Arthur  Honegger  composed  Rugby  in  1928.  It  was  first  performed  by  L'Orchestre 
Symphonique  de  Paris  at  its  inaugural  concert  on  October  19  of  that  year,  under 
the  direction  of  Ernest  Ansermet.  The  piece  was  introduced  to  Boston,  January 
11-12,  1929,  when  the  composer  conducted  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra  as 
guest  in  a  program  consisting  entirely  of  his  own  music. 

The  orchestration  is  as  follows:  2  flutes  and  piccolo,  2  oboes  and  English  horn, 

2  clarinets  and  bass  clarinet,  2  bassoons  and  contra-bassoon,  4  horns,  3   trumpets, 

3  trombones  and  timpani,  strings. 

T  Tonegger  composed  three  works  which  he  entitled  "Mouvement 
*  **  symphonique":  the  first  was  Pacific  2-yi  (1923);  the  second, 
Rugby  (1928);  the  third,  composed  in  1932-1933,  had  no  descriptive 
title.*  The  literalness  with  which  the  composer  had  presented  a  tonal 
locomotive  was  not  to  be  found  in  Rugby,  wherein  he  disclaimed 
anything  more  graphic  than  a  general  exuberance  of  muscularity 
rhythmically  expressed,  a  formal  approximation  of  the  motions,  the 
checks  and  balances  sensed  in  the  opposing  teams.  The  third  "Orches- 
tral Movement"  remained  noncommittal. 

When  Rugby  was  first  performed,  commentators  were  struck  at  once 
by  the  absence  of  percussion.  In  Pacific  2-yi  Honegger  had  depended 
heavily  upon  drums,  cymbals,  or  tam-tam  to  convey  the  clash  and  grind 
of  machine  power  in  motion,  mechanical,  inflexible;  in  Rugby  he 
seemed  to  avoid  hard  percussive  rigidities  as  if  seeking  the  supple 
interplay  of  athleticism. 

Honegger  had  admitted  a  great  interest  in  locomotives.  He  pro- 
tested in  1928  a  similar  fondness  for  "le  sport."  He  told  his  biographer, 
Willy  Tappolet,  that  he  had  played  football  at  school  at  the  age  of 
six,  or  rather  rugby,  which  he  preferred.  "I  am  very  fond  of  the  game 
of  foot-ball  (sic),  but  rugby  appeals  to  me  even  more.  It  seems  to  be 
more  spontaneous,  more  direct,  closer  to  nature,  than  the  game  of 
foot-ball,  which  is  more  scientific.  I  am  fully  aware  of  the  studied 
rhythms  of  foot-ball,  but  I  feel  even  more  attracted  to  the  savage, 
sudden,  unorganized,  and  abandoned  rhythm  of  rugby.  It  would  be  a 
mistake  to  look  upon  my  work  as  program  music.  I  have  sought  simply 
to  express  in  my  language  as  a  musician  the  thrusts  and  counter-thrusts 
of  the  game,  the  rhythm  and  color  of  a  match  in  the  stadium  of 
Colombes  (I  feel  honor-bound  to  indicate  my  source).  That  is  the 
reason  that  this  short  composition  carries  the  name  'Rugby.' ' 

Mr.  Honegger  gave  an  account  of  his  triple  intentions  to  Andre" 

*  Pacific  2-3-1  was  introduced  at  the  Boston  Symphony  concerts  by  Serge  Koussevitzky  October 
10,  1924;  Rugby,  January  11,  1929;  Mouvement  symphonique  No.  3,  November  3,   1933. 

[18] 


Obey:  "1.  It  opens  with  a  kind  of  euphoria,  an  outburst  of  hopeful, 
abundant  enthusiasm.  2.  It  conveys  the  phases  of  the  game  at  the 
same  time  unexpected  and  fateful  —  the  sudden  action  of  dribbling 
in  the  front  line,  the  descent  of  the  three-quarterbacks,  fumbles,  scrim- 
mage, dodging,  cross  plays.  3.  Finally,  the  general  sense  of  well-being, 
vibrant  in  the  open  air.  For  each  of  these  visual  or  active  elements 
there  is  a  corresponding  theme,  a  rhythmic  motive,  a  melodic  contour, 
these  interacting  according  to  the  laws  of  a  sort  of  musical  rugby.  They 
build  up  the  work  according  to  the  rules  of  orchestral  play  and  with 
the  same  rigor  in  development  and  progression  that  is  usually  required 
in  absolute  music." 

LcopyrightedJ 


"RONDES  DE  PRINT EMPS"  (IMAGE  NO.  3) 
By  Claude  Debussy 

Born  at  St.  Germain  (Seine-et-Oise),  France,  August  22,  1862; 
died  at  Paris,  March  25,  1918 


Rondes  de  Printemps,  completed  in  1909,  the  third  of  the  Images,  was  first 
performed  on  March  2,  1910  at  a  concert  organized  by  Debussy's  publisher  Durand, 
the  composer  conducting.  The  first  performance  in  America  was  on  November  15, 
1910,  by  the  New  York  Philharmonic  Society,  conducted  by  Gustav  Mahler.  Ten 
days  later  (November  25)  it  was  introduced  in  Boston  by  the  Boston  Symphony 
Orchestra.  Max  Fiedler,  the  conductor,  repeated  it  ("by  request")  on  December 
16.  There  were  later  performances  on  April  13,  1917  and  January  19,  1923.  The 
score  is  dedicated  "A   Emma   Claude  Debussy   .   .  .  p.m.,  son   mari,   C.  D.   (1909)." 

The  orchestra  called  for  consists  of  3  flutes  and  piccolo,  2  oboes  and  English 
horn,  3  clarinets,  3  bassoons  and  contra-bassoon,  4  horns,  timpani,  triangle,  tam- 
bourine, cymbals,  celesta,  2  harps,  and  strings. 

tn  the  year  1905  Debussy  planned  three  "Images"  as  compositions 
-*■  for  two  pianos.  They  were  to  be  called,  so  wrote  the  composer 
to  his  publisher,  "Gigues  Tristes,"  "Iberia,"  and  "Valse."  Debussy 
lingered  over  the  scores,  and  they  gradually  took  orchestral  form. 
By  Christmas  of  1908,  Iberia  was  completed  in  full  orchestral  draft. 
Rondes  was  completed  and  delivered  on  the  19th  of  May  of  the  year 
following.  Gigues  did  not  come  into  the  publisher's  hands  until  1911, 
when  final  details  of  the  orchestration  were  left  to  Andre  Caplet. 

There  is  nothing  canonic  about  the  "Spring  Rounds/'  Debussy, 
working  upon  the  piece,  warned  his  publisher,  Durand,  not  to  expect 
anything  formal  that  the  title  might  imply.  He  wrote  on  August  23, 
1908:  "The  Images  will  be  ready  if  I  can  manage  to  finish  'Rondes' 
as  I  wish  and  as  it  should  be.   The  music  of  this  piece  has  an  insub- 

[19] 


stantiality  of  its  own,  and  is  not  to  be  handled  like  a  robust  symphony 
which  walks  on  four  feet    (sometimes  they  get  through  on  three). 

"I  tell  myself  with  increasing  assurance  that  music  in  its  very  nature 
is  not  a  thing  to  pour  into  a  rigid  and  traditional  form.  It  is  a  thing 
of  color  and  rhythms.  That  idea  is  a  stupidity  of  cold-blooded  imbe- 
ciles who  climb  upon  the  backs  of  the  Masters,  these  having  for  the 
most  part  simply  made  the  music  of  their  epoch! 

''Only  Bach  foresaw  the  truth.* 

"In  any  case,  music  is  a  youthful  art,  both  in  manner  and  in  theory." 

On  the  score  of  Rondes  de  Print emps  is  a  motto  taken  from  the 
Maggiolata,  the  spring  festival  of  medieval  Florence: 

Vive  le  Mai,  bienvenu  soit  le  Mai 
Avec  son  gonfalon  sauvage! 

It  has  been  pointed  out  by  Laloy  that  each  of  the  three  Images  has  a 
different  national  thematic  germ.  Iberia,  of  course,  derives  from  Spain, 
Gigues  is  suggestive  of  an  English  or  Scottish  jig  tune,  Rondes  de 
Printemps  turns  to  a  French  play  song  "Nous  n' irons  plus  au  bois/' 
this  last  having  also  appeared  in  Debussy's  "Estampe"  for  piano, 
Jardins  sous  la  pluie.  The  three  works  are  not  unified  into  a  suite 
by  this  slightest  of  common  denominators,  nor  yet  by  the  vague  and 
noncommittal  title  "Images." 

Although  the  composer  numbered  this  as  the  third  in  order,  it  is 
more  like  a  scherzo  than  a  finale  (in  spirit,  not  in  form).  The  mood 
is  light,  transparent,  opening  and  proceeding  in  a  shimmering  atmos- 
phere of  tremolo  strings.  The  integrating  characteristic  of  the  entire 
piece  is  a  persistent  triplet  rhythm,  taking  the  form  of  6-8,  15-8,  or 
9-8  measures,  lively  and  lilting  always,  increasing  in  urgency  up  to  the 
last  chord,  a  harp  glissando.  The  use  of  the  folk  tune  is  subtle  rather 
than  naive.  It  is  lightly  alluded  to  rather  than  boldly  quoted,  frag- 
mentarily  (and  piquantly)  worked  in  rather  than  traditionally  devel- 
oped. Louis  Laloy,  Debussy's  militant  champion  when  the  Images 
first  appeared,  summed  up  Rondes  when  he  described  its  "single  idea, 
which  now  glides,  now  runs  through  light  fronds  of  melody,  until  it 
joins  in  a  .breathless  dance,  whirls  wildly  for  a  moment,  then  grows 
calm  and  vanishes  into  clear  air." 

Philip  Hale  has  written  in  these  programs: 

"Both  the  air  of  'Nous  n'irons  plus  au  bois'  and  the  refrain  appear 
in  veiled  form  and  rhythmically  changed;  the  former,  as  in  the  theme 
for  oboe  solo,  'gracefully  and  gaily'  early  in  the  work  and  in  the  forte 
passage  for  strings,  wood-wind  instruments,  and  horns  that  follows 
soon  afterwards. 


*  Debussy   admired   the   free   fantasy,    formally   speaking,    of   Bach's    preludes.     La   Mer   and 
Iberia  "walked  on  three  legs,"  but  were  certainly  in  no  way  symphonic. 

[lO] 


"It  may  be  said  that  the  composition  is  based  on  two  sections:  the 
first,  a  sort  of  introduction,  moderement  animc,  with  a  short  figure 
first  occurring  in  the  bassoons;  the  second,  un  peu  plus  mouvementc 
(15-8)  with  a  triplet  figure  given  to  wood-wind  instruments. 

"The  music  of  this  round,  for  a  long  time  one  of  the  most  popular 
with  little  girls  of  France,  may  be  found  in  Weckerlin's  Chansons 
Populaires  du  Pays  de  France.  One  girl  stands  in  the  middle  of  the 
ring  formed  by  her  companions  holding  hands.  With  each  verse  one 
enters  the  ring,  sometimes  two,  and  this  continues  until  they  who 
turn  about  them  are  exhausted. 

"The  chief  characteristic  of  the  Rondo  or  Rondeau  is  the  return  of 
some  pregnant  thought,  a  recurring  refrain.  The  first  section  was  so 
contrived  that  it  could  furnish  the  end,  and  the  reprises  were  usually 
three  or  four  in  number.  Johannes  Mattheson  in  1737  declared  that 
the  rondeau  awakened  cheerfulness:  'The  136th  Psalm  is  nothing  but 
a  Rondeau.  Luther  names  it  a  litany.  I  do  not  know  whether  this 
kind  of  melody  is  often  used  for  dancing;  but  it  is  used  for  singing  and 
still  more  in  concerts  of  instruments.  In  a  good  Rondeau  the  prevail- 
ing characteristic  is  steadiness,  or  better  a  constant  confidence;  at 
least  the  Rondeau  portrays  admirably  this  disposition  of  the  soul.' 
But  Debussy,  writing  Rondes  de  Printemps,  was  not  obsessed  by  aca- 
demic thoughts." 

[copyrighted] 


"PAVANE  POUR  UNE  INFANTE  DEFUNTE" 
By  Maurice  Ravel 

Born  at  Ciboure,  Basses-Pyrenees,  March  7,  1875 


Ravel  composed  his  "Pavane"  as  a  piece  for  piano  in  1899,  and  in  this  version 
it  was  first  played  in  public  by  Ricardo  Vines  at  a  Societe  Nationale  concert  on 
April  5,  1902.  In  1910  Ravel  set  the  work  for  the  following  orchestra:  2  flutes,  oboe, 
2  clarinets,  2  bassoons,  2  horns,  harp  and  strings. 

'T^he  fanciful  title  with  its  antique  air  (it  is  usually  translated 
-■-  "Pavane  for  a  Dead  Infanta")  suggests  an  elegy  for  a  princess  in 
the  old  courtly  Spain  where  this  dance  was  much  cultivated  in  its 
time.  The  pavane,  known  in  England  as  "pavan"  or  "pavin,"  was  a 
grave  and  ceremonious  dance  of  the  16th  and  17th  centuries.  It  was 
often  followed  by  a  lively  galliard,  a  succession  which  was  later  sup- 
planted in  instrumental  suites  by  the  saraband  and  gigue.  "According 
to  some  authorities,"  writes  W.  B.  Squire  in  his  article  on  the  pavane, 
contributed  to  Groves  Dictionary,  "the  name  is  derived  from  the 
Latin  'pavo/  owing  to  the  fancied  resemblance  to  a  peacock's  tail, 
caused  by  the  robes  and  cloaks  worn  by  the  dancers,  as  they  swept  out 

[21] 


in  the  stately  figures  of  the  dance.  ...  At  state  balls  the  dancers  wore 
their  long  robes,  caps  and  swords,  and  the  music  was  performed  by 
sackbuts  and  oboes.  In  masquerades,  pavans  were  played  as  proces- 
sional music,  and  were  similarly  used  at  weddings  and  religious  cere- 
monies. Like  all  early  dances,  the  pavan  was  originally  sung  as  well 
as  danced." 

Victor  I.  Seroff,  in  his  informative  biography  of  Ravel,  tells  us  that 
this  "Pavane/'  composed  in  1899  as  a  piano  piece,  drew  what  might 
be  called  popular  attention  to  the  young  composer  for  the  first  time. 
He  was  not  too  pleased  that  his  first  taste  of  wide  favor  should  have 
come  through  what  he  later  called  "an  incomplete  and  unaudacious 
work." 

"This  piece,"  wrote  Seroff,  "became  a  favorite  with  the  ladies,  young 
and  old,  who  gave  the  composition  all  sorts  of  romantic  backgrounds. 
Those  who  wished  it  to  be  of  Spanish  origin  attributed  its  inspiration 
to  Ravel's  mother,  who  was  supposed  to  have  told  him  about  the  ritual 
dances  at  the  cathedral  in  Seville.  Others  pointed  at  the  pictures  of 
Velasquez  and  finally,  a  decade  later,  some  wove  into  it  Raymond 
Schwab's  fable  L' Infante  porque-porque,  written  and  dedicated  to 
Ravel  in  1910.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  none  of  these  had  anything  to  do 
with  the  title  of  the  piece  which,  as  Ravel  himself  said,  he  chose 
solely  because  of  the  alliteration. 

"In  1925,  when  Ravel  visited  the  interpretation  course  at  L'Ecole 
Normale  in  Paris,  he  is  quoted  to  have  said,  'Do  not  attach  to  the 
title  any  more  importance  than  it  has.  Do  not  dramatize  it.  It  is  not 
a  funeral  lament  for  a  dead  child  but  rather  an  evocation  of  the  pavane 
which  could  have  been  danced  by  such  a  little  princess  as  painted  by 
Velasquez  at  the  Spanish  court.'  And  to  a  young  pianist  whom  he 
heard  play  the  composition  Ravel  said,  'The  next  time  remember  that 
I  have  written  a  "Pavane  for  a  deceased  princess"  and  not  a  "Deceased 
pavane  for  a  princess"  .  .  .' 

"Thus,  at  the  age  of  twenty-five,  with  a  dozen  pieces  composed  and 
either  already  discarded  as  the  products  of  his  youth  or  used  as  sources 
for  his  later  compositions,  Maurice  Ravel  met  the  twentieth  century 
rather  poorly  armed  except  for  a  small  group  of  followers  who  believed 
in  him,  and  his  own  assertion  that  he  had  found  what  he  wanted  to 
say  and  that  he  was  sure  he  would  say  it,  a  century  in  which  —  if  he 
did  not  entirely  change  the  course  of  French  music  —  he  certainly  left 
a  definite  imprint  of  his  own." 

[copyrighted] 


[22] 


ALBORADA  DEL  GRACIOSO 
By  Maurice  Ravel 

Born  at  Ciboure,  Basses-Pyrenees,  March  7,  1875 


The  Alborada  del  Gracioso,  in  its  orchestral  version,  had  its  first  public  per- 
formance under  Georges  Longy  from  the  manuscript,  at  the  Boston  Orchestral 
Club  in  Boston,  February  16,  1921.  The  orchestral  score  was  published  in  1923, 
and  was  performed  at  the  Boston  Symphony  concerts  January  18,  1929,  with 
E.  Fernandez  Arbos  as  guest  conductor.  It  was  performed  January  30-31,  1942, 
and  October  27-28,  1944,  Richard  Burgin  conducting. 

The  orchestration  consists  of  wood  winds  in  twos,  with  piccolo,  English  horn 
and  contra-bassoon,  4  horns,  2  trumpets,  3  trombones,  tuba,  timpani,  crotales, 
triangle,  tambourine,  castanets,  side  drum,  cymbals,  bass  drum,  xylophone  2  harps 
and  strings. 

IN  1905  Ravel  wrote  a  set  of  five  piano  pieces  under  the  title 
"Miroirs."  They  were  "Noctuelles,"  "Oiseaux  tristes,"  "Une  barque 
sur  V Ocean,"  "Alborada  del  Gracioso,"  and  "La  Vallee  des  cloches." 
Alborada  del  Gracioso,  as  well  as  Une  barque  sur  V Ocean  and  La  Vallee 
des  cloches,  he  later  set  for  orchestra.  Ravel  exploits  a  characteristic 
rhythm  through  the  score  of  the  Alborada,  but  (unlike  his  later 
"Bolero")  with  variation  in  the  treatment,  and  with  great  flexibility. 
The  rhythmic  signature  is  6-8,  changing  to  9-8,  and  reverting  to  6-8 
at  the  final  climax. 

Alborada  del  Gracioso  is  not  only  an  evocative  title,  but  an  elusive 
one.  The  alborada*  of  Ravel  must  be  taken  as  something  far  more 
subtle  than  the  Galician  folk  piece  of  that  name  "played  on  bagpipes 
to  the  accompaniment  of  a  side  drum";  subtler  even  than  the  alborada 
which  figures  so  prominently  in  Rimsky-Korsakov's  Capriccio 
Espagnole.  G.  Jean-Aubry  in  his  study  of  Ravel  tries  "Morning  song  of 
the  gracioso,"  and  decides  that  the  word  "gracioso"  is  untranslatable. 
"It  implies  a  kind  of  buffoon  full  of  finesse,  with  mind  always  alert, 
and  with  irony  ever  in  readiness  —  a  sort  of  Figaro.  For  the  ever  alert 
mind  of  this  type  of  character,  it  would  seem  as  if  night  were  never 
present;  for  him  it  is  ever  the  hour  of  the  aubade,  always  the  hour  of 
smiles  and  of  delicacy.  He  is  skilled  in  pleasant  mockery,  and  is  loath 
to  vociferate.  He  enjoys  the  sweetness  of  living,  and  is  not  unaware 
of  its  reflections.  He  dreams  of  charming  memories,  and,  long  before, 
composed  a  pavane  to  the  memory  of  a  defunct  infanta,  and  its  delicacy 
and  finesse  are  such  that  the  idea  of  death  is  screened  behind  them." 
Whereby,  not  without  skill  of  his  own,  this  writer  fuses  the  character 
and  its  author. 


♦Morning  serenade   (French,  "aubade"). 

[23] 


Ravel's  admirers  have  often  pointed  out  his  strong  Spanish  leanings, 
evident  in  the  Rapsodie  Espagnole,  L'Heure  Espagnole,  Bolero; 
then  there  is  the  early  Habanera  from  Les  Sites  Auriculaires  for 
two  pianos,  and  other  smaller  pieces.  It  is  an  impressive  list,  even 
though  other  French  musicians  as  well  have  been  seduced  by  Spanish 
rhythms,  and  Ravel  himself  has  occasionally  looked  elsewhere  in  quest 
of  the  exotic. 

"Parisian  to  his  finger  tips,"  wrote  Andre  Suares  of  Ravel  (in  the 
Revue  Musical,  April  1925),  "he  is  even  so  the  most  Spanish  of  artists. 
He  answers  better  than  another  to  one's  idea  of  a  great  musician  in 
the  Spanish  cast;  he  has  something  of  Goya  and  the  picaresque.  .  .  . 
Ravel's  originality  was  evident  from  the  start.  At  the  age  when  others 
were  groping  for  their  style,  he  had  already  found  himself,  at  one 
stroke:  he  is  revealed  a  rounded  musician  in  his  first  work,  the 
Habanera  which  he  later  incorporated  in  his  Rapsodie  Espagnole. 
And  let  no  one  think  it  was  by  chance  that  he  made  his  entrance  into 
music  by  way  of  Spain.  It  has  been  claimed  that  he  is  of  Basque  origin. 
I  recognize  Spain  in  every  part  of  Ravel  —  in  what  he  is  and  in  what  he 
does.  This  little  man  is  so  dry,  so  sensitive,  at  once  frail  and  resistant, 
caressing  and  inflexible,  supple  as  tempered  steel;  his  large  nose  and 
hollow  cheeks,  his  angular  and  lean  figure;  his  air  at  once  a  little 
distant  and  yet  always  courteous  —  these  traits  are  reminiscent  of 
Spain.  And  his  art,  still  more  decidedly,  is  of  the  French  tongue, 
touched  with  a  Spanish  accent." 

[copyrighted] 


ENTR'ACTE 
<eLE  CAS  DEBUSSY" 

TT  then  Debussy  had  followed  the  Nocturnes  (1899)  ano^  Pelleas  et 
*  *  Melisande  (1902)  with  La  Mer  (1905),  he  had  put  himself  in  a 
position  .to  command  the  respect,  but  by  no  means  the  endorsement 
of  a  large  part  of  French  opinion.  There  was  no  denying  the  crafts- 
manship of  the  master.  The  legitimacy  of  his  style,  of  his  new  concept 
of  music  was  another  matter.  It  eluded  many  who  were  still  under 
the  domination,  whether  or  not  they  admitted  it,  of  the  robust,  four- 
square, powerful  emotional  spell  of  Bayreuth.  For  three  years  after 
the  emergence  of  La  Mer  no  new  orchestral  work  was  forthcoming 
from  Debussy  and  some  who  would  have  liked  to  believe  that  the 
Debussyan  challenge  was  petering  out  and  that  he  had  nothing  more  to 
say,  accused  him  of  "idleness."  Debussy  was  not  idle;  he  was  deliberate, 

[24] 


as  always.  He  was  like  a  certain  poet  who  would  never  yield  a  line 
from  his  pen  to  a  publisher  until  it  had  lain  a  year  or  so  on  his  desk. 
The  three  Images,  first  conceived  as  two-piano  pieces  in  1905,  develop- 
ing gradually,  taking  orchestral  shape,  were  not  ready  until  1908. 

Meanwhile  Debussy  became  a  subject  for  violent  discussion  in 
musical  circles,  lor  long  polemics  in  the  press  —  for  cynical  assault  and 
heated  defense.  There  was  the  cult  of  snobs,  engendered  by  his  opera, 
and  referred  to  as  "Pelleastres."  There  were  the  younger  composers 
who  imitated  his  style.  Since  nothing  was  easier  than  to  imitate  the 
Debussyan  formula,  and  nothing  harder  than  to  produce  anything 
better  than  a  watered-down  approximation,  their  efforts  moved  some 
critics  to  cry  "cul-de-sac"  with  some  justice.  There  were  the  stout 
champions,  such  as  Louis  Laloy,  almost  too  zealous  to  be  convincing. 
There  were  the  outspoken  denigrators,  more  numerous  and  more 
trenchant.  There  were  those  who  had  followed  Debussy  up  to  a  certain 
point  and  had  lost  faith. 

There  -  was  considerable  disputation  over  Maurice  Ravel  who, 
thirteen  years  younger,  had  developed  more  quickly.  Each  was  accused 
of  deriving  from  the  other,  while  each  individually  respected  the 
other.  A  cooling  off  of  their  friendship  was  due  less  to  musical  than 
to  personal  reasons.  It  is  clear  enough  now,  in  the  perspective  of 
distance,  that  Ravel,  less  original  than  his  colleague,  more  ready  to 
turn  existing  tendencies  to  his  own  uses,  was  no  bloodless  imitator, 
but  an  individual,  outstanding  artist  in  his  own  right.  He  was  a  sub- 
ject for  controversy  but  far  less  noticed  at  the  time,  while  Debussy 
remained  the  principal  storm  center. 

Debussy,  annoyed  at  this  general  fracas,  tried  to  keep  aloof.  He 
probably  felt  that  the  energy  expended  by  both  friends  and  enemies 
in  coining  epithets  about  "Debussyism"  could  have  been  better  used 
in  quiet,  sober  listening.  He  was  especially  annoyed  by  the  "school" 
which  had  grown  up  around  him.  Always  ready  to  express  himself 
vehemently  in  private  conversation,  he  was  drawn  into  an  interview 
by  Maurice  Leclerq,  of  L' Eclair,  in  February,  1908  (he  did  manage 
to  postpone  its  publication).  Victor  I.  Seroff,  in  his  book  on  Debussy, 
reprints  the  interview: 

"The  influence  of  Wagner?"  Debussy  repeated  Leclerq 's  question. 
"Do  you  really  believe  that  there  are  any  influences,  masters  and 
disciples  of  a  school?  There  are  masters,  of  course  .  .  .  that  is,  the 
musicians  on  whom  this  title  is  bestowed.  But  there  are  no  disciples 
...  no  more.  And  if  there  are  no  disciples,  then  there  are  no  leaders, 
no  heads  of  a  school."  Debussy  got  up  from  his  chair  as  he  continued. 
"And  this,  sir,  is  not  only  in  music,  but  also  in  literature,  painting, 
sculpture  —  in  all  the  arts.  Today  all  musicians  and  artists  are  highly 
individual  .  .  .  personal.  They  take  the  greatest  care  not  to  show  any 

[25] 


influence  in  their  works.  .  .  ,"  Debussy  began  to  pace  up  and  down 
the  room.  "Admiration  of  great  works  remains.  We  have  never  had 
as  many  admirers  as  we  have  today,  but  admirers  are  not  disciples. 
No,  there  are  no  heads  of  a  school  which  can  have  an  influence.  The 
head  of  a  school  should  have  an  original  .  .  .  special  technique,  a 
doctrine  of  his  own,  his  own  grammar.  Today  a  musician  or  an 
artist  who  is  famous  has  only  one  occupation  —  to  create  his  own 
individual  works.  He  has  no  time  for  disciples.  This  is  the  case  with 
all  contemporary  musicians  .  .  .  Wagner  and  others.  But  you  are  not 
going  to  publish  this?"  Debussy  suddenly  asked.  "I  was  only  talking. 
If  you  want  to  please  me,  leave  me  out  of  this.  Or  if  you  insist,  then 
write  just  one  line,  something  neutral."  Debussy  returned  to  the  table 
and  wrote  on  a  piece  of  paper:  "I  consider  Wagner's  curve  to  have 
been  accomplished.  Wagner  was  and  will  remain  a  great  artist.  Claude 
Debussy." 

Debussy  thus  became  a  cause  celebre  in  the  prodigious  and  vociferous 
degree  that  can  happen  only  in  France.  The  controversy  was  brought 
to  a  point  of  absurdity  when  the  Revue  du  Temps  Present  published 
over  the  signature  of  Raphael  Cor  (October  1909),  the  -following 
intentionally  provocative  statement:  "His  [Debussy's]  originality  is 
supremely  negative.  If  you  deprive  music  of  all  rhythm,  melody, 
emotion,  you  will  not  be  far  from  a  definition  of  his  art." 

A  result  of  this  was  a  book  entitled  "Le  Cas  Debussy/'  published 
in  1910,  a  compilation  of  answers  to  a  questionnaire  which  was  sub- 
mitted far  and  wide  to  prominent  writers,  artists,  musicians.  Each 
was  asked  to  give  the  "actual  significance  of  Mr.  Claude  Debussy," 
his  "place  in  contemporary  music,"  the  degree  of  his  "originality," 
the  validity  of  the  "new  school'  he  was  said  to  have  created. 

There  were  twenty-eight  answers,  most  of  them  unfavorable.  Some 
of  those  approached  were  too  adroit  to  be  drawn  in.  Romain  Rolland 
wrote: 

"I  have  too  much  work  to  do  to  answer  questionnaires.  My  friend 
Jean  Christophe  would  answer  for  me:  'I  don't  particularly  like  all 
your  modern  French  music  very  much  and  I  am  not  mad  about  your 
M.  Debussy.  But  what  I  can't  understand  is  that,  being  so  poor  in 
artists,  you  have  to  quarrel  about  the  greatest  one  you  have.  As  for 
the  question  of  whether  he  is  the  leader  of  a  school,  and  what  this 
school  will  be  worth,  one  can  simply  say  that  every  great  artist  has 
a  school  and  that  all  schools  are  evil.  Would  it  be  better,  perhaps, 
not  to  have  great  artists?  Jean  Christophe.'  " 

Joseph  (Sar)  Peladan  complained  that  Debussy's  music  made  him 
"suffer  physically,"  and  gave  Debussy  the  worst  label  he  could  think 
of:  "A  salon  d'antan  musician,  akin  to  Matisse."  A.  Cheramy 
wrote:  "I  feel  sure  that  in  ten  years'  time  there  will  be  very  little 
remembered  of  Pelleas  et  Melisande."    Ernest  Ansermet  was  among 

[26] 


those  who  replied.  It  would  be  interesting  to  confront  him  now  with 
what  he  then  wrote:  "M.  Debussy's  important  contributions  to  tech- 
nique find  their  repercussions  in  most  contemporary  composers,  par- 
ticularly in  Richard  Strauss,  in  nearly  every  page  of  Electra."  (Electra 
had  been  produced  in  the  year  previous.) 

There  were  answers  from  beyond  the  Rhine.  Siegmund  von 
Hausegger  stated  that  "Debussy  makes  a  principle  of  the  absence  of 
melody  and  rhythm,"  nor  could  he  accept  his  harmonies.  Felix  Mottl 
admired  L'  Apres-midi  d'un  faune,  but  as  a  Wagnerian  asked  to  be 
excused  from  judging  his  later  music  which  "differed  entirely"  from 
his  "ideal."  This  had  not  prevented  Mottl  from  conducting  Pelleas 
in  Munich  with  skill  and  taste.  Siegfried  Wagner  begged  off  on  the 
grounds  that  he  did  not  know  the  works  about  which  he  was  asked. 
(Siegfried  avoided  hearing  new  music  which  might  supersede  his 
father's.) 

The  cult  of  "Debussyists"  especially  bothered  Debussy.  Rene*  Peter 
once  said  to  him:  "Those  Debussyists  annoy  me!"  "They  annoy  you?" 
answered  Debussy.  "They  are  killing  me." 

Not  before  1913,  when  the  atmosphere  had  considerably  quieted, 
did  Debussy  speak  for  publication  about  his  view  of  the  whole  affair. 
He  then  said  to  Calvocoressi: 

"I  consider  it  almost  a  crime.  The  former  policy  of  allowing  artists 
to  mature  in  peace  was  far  sounder.  It  is  wicked  to  unsettle  them  by 
making  them  the  subjects  of  debates  that  are,  generally,  as  shallow  as 
they  are  prejudiced.  Hardly  does  a  composer  appear  than  people 
start  devoting  essays  to  him  and  weighing  his  music  down  with 
ambitious  definitions.  They  do  far  greater  harm  than  even  the  fiercest 
detractors  could." 

J.  N.  B. 


SYMPHONY  NO.  4  in  G  Major 
By  Gustav  Mahler 

Born  at  Kalischt,  in  Bohemia,  July  7,  i860;  died  at  Vienna,  May  8,  1911 


Mahler  began  his  Fourth  Symphony  at  Ausee  in  the  summer  of  1899  and  finished 
it  there  in  the  following  summer.  It  was  first  performed  by  the  Kaim  Orchestra 
in  Munich,  November  25,  1901,  Felix  Weingartner  conducting.  The  first  perform- 
ance in  this  country  was  by  the  Symphony  Society  of  New  York,  Walter  Damrosch, 
conductor,  in  1904.  The  composer  conducted  a  performance  there  by  the  Philhar- 
monic Orchestra,  January  17,  1911.  The  last  two  movements  were  played  by  the 
Boston  Symphony  Orchestra  (January  30,  1942,  Richard  Burgin  conducting,  Cleora 
Wood,  soloist) ;  the  entire  symphony  March  23,  1945  (Mona  Paulee,  soloist)  and 
March  21,  1947,  when  Bruno  Walter  conducted  and  Desi  Halban  was  the  soloist. 
Mr.  Burgin  conducted  it  March  19-20,  1954,  Anne  English,  soloist. 

The  orchestration  requires  4  flutes  and  piccolo,  3  oboes  and  English  horn,  3  clari- 
nets and  bass  clarinet,  3  bassoons  and  contra-bassoon,  4  horns,  3  trumpets,  Glocken- 
spiel, sleigh  bells,  bass  drum,  cymbals,  tam-tam,  timpani,  triangle,  harp,  and  strings. 

[27] 


The  years  surrounding  the  composition  of  the  Fourth  Symphony 
were  years  of  constant  activity  for  Mahler  as  conductor.  He  was 
then  music  director  of  the  opera  at  Vienna.  Fresh  production  of  the 
operas  of  Gluck,  Mozart,  and  Wagner  exacted  his  time  and  energies. 
It  was  only  after  the  musical  season  that  he  was  able  to  devote  him- 
self to  his  creative  projects.  "A  holiday  composer"  was  what  he  called 
himself  in  a  letter  to  his  friend  Max  Marschalk,  and  hardly  to  be 
compared  with  the  "concert  matadors  of  today,"  who  have  the  year 
around  at  their  disposal.  But  it  must  be  granted  that  he  did  very  well 
as  regards  quantity  in  his  summer  intervals,  for  he  had  then  found  time 
to  compose  his  first  four  symphonies  and  his  song  cycles.  Indeed, 
driven  to  the  end  of  his  life  by  conductorial  obligations,  his  summers 
remained  his  creative  periods.  As  had  been  the  case  with  the  sym- 
phonies which  preceded  this  one,  he  completed  his  sketches  in  the 
little  summer  house  which  he  occupied  on  the  beautiful  Lake  Ausee, 
and,  returning  to  his  duties  as  conductor  in  town,  rose  early  each 
morning  that  he  might  write  a  page  or  two  of  his  score  in  fair  copy, 
before  going  to  his  morning  rehearsal. 

Mahler  was  honored  as  a  conductor,  little  regarded  as  a  composer, 
before  the  arresting  impact  of  the  Fifth  Symphony  compelled  general 
attention.  When  the  Fourth  Symphony  was  first  performed,  loud 
voices  were  raised  pro  and  con.  He  was  badgered  for  a  program, 
as  he  had  always  been  and  always  would  be.*  It  is  hard,  looking  back, 
to  understand  why  hearers  insisted  upon  explanations  of  this  simple- 
hearted,  straightforward,  lyrical  music,  and  why  they  did  not  simply 
accept  the  text  as  self-evident  and  self-sufficient.  It  is  equally  hard  to 
account  for  the  furious  controversy  the  Symphony  aroused  or  such  at- 
tacks as  the  one  by  the  correspondent  of  the  Musical  Courier  at  the 
time,  who  righteously  spared  his  readers  "a  detailed  description  of  that 
musical  monstrosity"  and  dismissed  it  in  this  fashion:  "There  is 
nothing  in  the  design,  content,  or  execution  of  the  work  to  impress 
the  musician,  except  its  grotesquery.  The  only  part  of  the  symphony 
which  is  bearable  is  the  soprano  solo  at  the  end,  and  that  is  not 
symphony." 

The  Fourth  Symphony  is  content  with  an  essentially  simple  style, 
through  which  dance-like  or  songful  measures  have  free  play,  prompted 
by  the  naive  fantasy  of  folk  poetry.  Jean  Paul  Richter  had  furnished 
images  for  the  First  Symphony.  Mahler  later  discovered  Des  Knaben 
Wunderhorn,  and  his  fancy  lingered  over  this  collection  of  old  Ger- 
man songs  compiled  almost  a  century  before  by  Ludwig  von  Arnim 
and  Clemens  Brentano.  He  set  many  of  them,  and  reflected  thoughts 


*  A  significant  line  appeared  on  the  program  when  he  conducted  the  symphony  at  a 
Philharmonic  concert  in  New  York,  January  17,  1911 :  "In  deference  to  Mr.  Mahler's  wishes, 
there  shall  be  no  attempt  at  an  analysis  or  description  here  of  this  symphony." 

[28] 


found  their  way  into  the  Second,  Third,  and  Fourth  symphonies.  The 
extravagant  fairy  folklore  of  an  earlier  romanticism  was  a  curiosity  to 
most  people  in  Mahler's  time,  while  this  strange  figure  of  unabashed 
sentiment  subjected  himself  to  its  spell  and  allowed  it  to  suffuse  his 
music.  The  Fourth  Symphony  is  freer  than  any  of  its  companions  from 
dark  or  morbid  thoughts.  Its  sunny  serenity  is  unclouded,  unless 
one  feels  a  macabre  suggestion  in  the  violin  solo  of  the  scherzo. 
Certainly  no  shadow  passes  over  the  bright  course  of  the  last  two 
movements.  Comparing  the  Fourth  Symphony  with  the  Third,  Bruno 
Walter  remarks  in  his  book  on  Mahler  that  "it  reaches  even  greater 
heights  of  a  strangely  exalted  gayety.  .  .  .  For  now  he  felt  him- 
self carried  on  high  as  in  a  dream  and  no  longer  was  there  any 
ground  under  his  feet.  An  account  of  such  a  floating  condition  is 
given  in  the  Fourth.  In  its  final  movement  it  even  represents,  themat- 
ically,  a  sequel  to  the  'Angel  Movement'  of  the  Third  and,  in  its 
general  tone,  follows  its  spiritual  direction.*  After  the  works  of  pathos, 
a  yearning  for  gaiety  or,  rather,  for  serenity  had  sprung  up  in  Mahler's 
heart,  and  so  he  created  the  idyll  of  the  Fourth  in  which  a  devout 
piety  dreams  its  dream  of  Heaven.  Dream-like  and  unreal,  indeed,  is 
the  atmosphere  of  the  work  —  a  mysterious  smile  and  a  strange  humor 
cover  the  solemnity  which  so  clearly  had  been  manifested  in  the  Third. 
In  the  fairy-tale  of  the  Fourth  everything  is  floating  and  unburdened 

*  The  Finale  of  the  Fourth  was  originally  planned  as  an  additional  movement  of  the  Third 
Symphony,  which  was  to  be  called  "What  the  Angels  tell  me." 


Carnegie  Hall,  New  York 


Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 


Fourth  Pair  of  Concerts 

Wednesday  Evening,  February  6 
Saturday  Afternoon,   February  9 


[29] 


which,  in  his  former  works,  had  been  mighty  and  pathetic  —  the 
mellow  voice  of  an  angel  confirms  what,  in  the  Second  and  Third,  a 
prophet  had  foreseen  and  pronounced  in  loud  accents.  The  blissful 
feeling  of  exaltation  and  freedom  from  the  world  communicates  itself 
to  the  character  of  the  music  —  but,  in  contrast  to  the  Third,  from  afar, 
as  it  were.  The  three  orchestral  movements  take  their  course  without 
a  condensation  of  the  peculiar  moods  out  of  which  they  grew  into  a 
definite  idea. 

"The  first  movement  and  the  'Heavenly  Life'  are  dominated  by  a 
droll  humor  which  is  in  strange  contrast  to  the  beatific  mood  form- 
ing the  key-note  of  the  work.  The  scherzo  is  a  sort  of  uncanny  fairy- 
tale episode.  Its  demoniac  violin  solo  and  the  graceful  trio  form  an 
interesting  counterpart  to  the  other  sections  of  the  symphony  without 
abandoning  the  character  of  lightness  and  mystery.  Referring  to  the 
profound  quiet  and  clear  beauty  of  the  andante,  Mahler  said  to  me 
that  they  were  caused  by  his  vision  of  one  of  the  church  sepulchers 
showing  the  recumbent  stone  image  of  the  deceased  with  the  arms 
crossed  in  eternal  sleep.  The  poem  whose  setting  to  music  forms  the 
last  movement  depicts  in  words  the  atmosphere  out  of  which  the 
music  of  the  Fourth  grew.  The  childlike  joys  which  it  portrays  are 
symbolic  of  heavenly  bliss,  and  only  when,  at  the  very  end,  music 
is  proclaimed  the  sublimest  of  joys  is  the  humorous  character  gently 
changed  into  one  of  exalted  solemnity. 

"In  the  first  four  symphonies  an  important  part  of  the  history  of 
Mahler's  soul  is  unfolded.  The  force  of  spiritual  events  is  matched 
by  the  power  of  musical  language.  The  correlation  of  the  world  of 
sound  and  that  of  imagination,  thoughts,  and  emotions,  is  thus  com- 
mon to  them  both.  While,  however,  in  the  First  the  subjective  experi- 
ence with  its  tempest  of  emotions  is  exerting  its  influence  upon  the 
music,  metaphysical  questions  strive  to  find  an  answer  and  deliver- 
ance in  music  in  the  Second  and  in  subsequent  symphonies.  Three 
times  he  gives  the  answer  and  every  time  from  a  new  point  of  view. 
In  the  Second  he  asks  the  reason  for  the  tragedy  of  human  existence 
and  is  sure  its  justification  is  to  be  found  in  immortality.  In  the  Third, 
with  a  feeling  of  reassurance,  he  looks  out  upon  nature,  runs  the 
rounds  of  its  circles,  and  finishes  in  the  happy  awareness  that  it  is 
'almighty  love  that  forms  all  things  and  preserves  all  things.'  In  the 
Fourth,  he  assures  himself  and  us  of  a  sheltered  security  in  the  sub- 
limely serene  dream  of  a  heavenly  life." 

The  Fourth  Symphony  is  long,  lasting  a  little  short  of  an  hour,  but 
it  is  the  shortest  that  Mahler  wrote.  It  is  the  lightest  in  instrumenta- 
tion: only  four  horns  are  used,  the  solidity  of  trombones  and  tuba 
dispensed  with. 

The  first  movement,  Heiter,  Beddchtig    (Gay,  Deliberate) ,  is  also 

[30] 


marked  Recht  gemdchlich  (Leisurely) .  It  is  based  on  two  ingratiating 
melodies,  the  first  immediately  stated  by  the  first  violins.  Another 
lilting  theme  in  the  lower  strings  is  heard,  and  a  characteristic  horn 
figure  before  the  second  theme,  as  simple  and  diatonic  as  the  first,  is 
played  by  the  'cellos.  Other  themes  or  fragments  of  themes  are  intro- 
duced, but  their  role  is  subservient  or  episodic.  There  are  ingenious 
combinations  and  structures  along  the  way.  The  mood  becomes 
boisterous  for  a  while,  but  the  two  main  themes  dominate  and  the 
sense  of  naive  simplicity  is  never  lost. 

The  second  movement  is  marked  In  gemachlicher  Bewegung  (With 
leisurely  motion) .  It  opens  with  a  delightful  horn  motive,  but  almost 
immediately  the  solo  violin  breaks  in.  The  instrument  is  tuned  one 
tone  higher,  which  gives  it  a  shrill  and  angular  effect.  The  concert 
master  is  directed  to  play  "w ie  ein  Fidel/'  giving  the  antique,  uncouth 
effect  of  an  old-time  village  fiddler.  Paul  Stefan  considers  that  "Only 
one  being  can  play  thus:  Death.  He  is  very  good-natured  and  lets  the 
others  go  on  dancing,  but  they  must  not  forget  who  is  making  the 
music.  When  he  lets  his  bow  fall,  the  other  players  try  to  overtake 
him;  they  are  in  major,  but  even  that  sounds  creepy  enough,  as  in 
the  sermon  to  the  fishes  [in  the  last  movement].  Then  the  piece  be- 
comes somewhat  livelier  (Trio) ,  but  the  ghostly  theme  returns  and  re- 
mains." But  the  movement  is  not  really  sinister,  and  the  surrounding 
material  is  quite  otherwise,  notably  a  tripping  theme  with  trills  first 
heard  from  the  clarinets. 

The  third  movement,  Ruhevoll  (Peacefully) ,  Poco  adagio,  is 
Mahler's  only  full  use  of  the  variation  form  in  his  symphonies.  The 
theme,  broad  and  simple,  is  disclosed  by  the  low  strings.  Several  counter- 
themes  are  woven  in  as  the  score  takes  its  contrapuntal  course.  The 
oboe  gives  forth  one  of  these,  "klagend"  and  the  clarinets,  another  in 
a  faster  tempo.  The  former  tempo  returns,  and  the  movement  ends,  in 
a  long-drawn  pianissimo  with  arpeggios,  harp  glissandi,  horn  calls,  and 
sustained,  widespread  chords. 

The  fourth  movement,  Sehr  behaglich  (Very  easily)  utilizes  verses 
from  an  old  Bavarian  folk  song,  "Der  Himmel  hdngt  voll  Geigen" 
("In  Heaven  Hang  Many  Fiddles") ,  from  "Des  Knaben  Wunderhorn." 
The  movement  takes  strophic  shape,  the  orchestral  portion  being  light 
and  piquant  but  free  and  independent,  in  no  sense  a  mere  accompani- 
ment. Interludes  after  each  verse  are  reminiscent  of  a  jingling  theme 
in  the  opening  movement.  There  are  fleeting  touches  of  realism,  as 
when  the  oboe  suggests  the  bleating  lamb;  the  basses,  the  bellowing 
ox.  St.  Peter  brings  in  sudden  measures  of  quiet  dignity,  with  an 
appropriate  archaic  flavor  of  open  fifths.  The  text  sets  forth  the 
simple  peasant's  idea  of  Heaven  —  a  place  not  solemn  and  awesome, 
but  homely  and  friendly,  where  a  holiday  spirit  prevails,  where  delect- 
able things  to  eat  rise  before  one  at  a  wish,  where  game  runs  con- 
veniently in  the  streets,  and  even  the  saints  are  sociable  souls  contribut- 
ing to  the  general  good  time.  One  is  reminded  that  Marc  Connolly's 
Green  Pastures  was  not  the  first  reflection  of  a  faith  which  is  strong 
because  confiding  and  unquestioning,  which  is  born  of  wonderment, 
is  the  source  of  folklore,  and  gives  birth  to  true  poetry.  Mahler 
wrote  over  the  voice  part  in  his  score:  "With  childlike,  bright  ex- 
pression, always  without  parody!"  It  was  the  composer's  rarest  quality 
that  he  could  enter  quite  simply  into  this  spirit  of  wonder. 

[31] 


The  text  is  as  follows,  together  with  a  literal  translation: 


Wir  geniessen  die  himmlischen  Freuden, 
Drum  tun  wir  das  Irdische  meiden. 
Kein  weltlich  Getummel 
Hort  man  nicht  im  Himmel! 
Lebt  alles  in  sanf tester  Ruh'. 

Wir  fuhren  ein  englisches  Leben, 
Sind  dennoch  ganz  lustig  daneben, 

Wir  tanzen  und  springen, 

Wir  hiip fen  und  singen. 

Sanct  Peter  im  Himmel  sieht  zu! 
Johannes  das  Lammlein  auslasset, 
Der  Metzger  Herodes  drauf  passet! 
Wir  fuhren  ein  unschuldig's 
Unschuldig's  geduldig's 
Ein  Liebliches  Lammlein  zu  Tod! 

Sanct  Lukas  den  Ochsen  tat  schlachten, 
Ohn'  einig's  Bedenken  und  Achten, 
Der  Wein  kost  kein  Heller, 
Im  himmlischen  Keller, 

Die  Englein,  die  backen  das  Brot. 

Gut  Krauter  von  allerhand  Arten, 
Die  wachsen  im  himmlischen  Garten! 
Gut  Spar  gel,  Fisolen 
Und  was  wir  nur  wollen! 
Ganze  Schiisseln  voll  sind  uns  bereit! 

Gut  Apfel,  gut  Birn,  und  gut  Trauben, 
Die  Gartner  die  alles  erlauben! 
Willst  Rehbock,  willst  Hasen, 

Auf  offener  Strassen 

Sie  laufen  herbei. 

Sollt  ein  Festtag  etwa  kommen 

A  lie   Fische    gleich    mit   Freuden    ange- 

schwommen! 
Dort  I'duft  schon  Sanct  Peter 
Mit  Netz  und  mit  Koder 
Zum  himmlischen  Weiher  hinein. 
Sanct  Martha  die  Kochen  muss  sein! 

Kein  Musik  ist  ja  nicht  auf  Erden, 

Die  uns'rer  verglichen  kann  werden. 

Elf  lausend  Jungfrauen 

Zu  tanzen  sich  trauen! 

Sanct  Ursula  selbst  dazu  lacht— 

Cacilia  mit  ihren  Verwandten 

Sind  treffliche  Hofmusikanten! 

Die  englischen  Stimmen 

Ermuntern  die  Sinnen, 

Das  alles  fur  Freuden  erwacht. 


So  delightful  are  the  joys  of  Heaven, 

We  have  no  need  of  earthly  ones. 

No  worldly  turmoil 

Is  heard  in  Heaven! 

There  all  live  in  sweetest  peace. 

We  live  an  angel's  life, 
But  we  are  merry  too, 
Dancing  and  leaping 
Skipping  and  singing. 

Saint  Peter  in  Heaven  looks  on! 
John  gives  up  his  little  lamb, 
Which  goes  to  the  butcher  Herod! 
We  lead  an  innocent, 
Innocent  and  patient  creature  — 
A  dear  little  lamb  to  its  death! 

St.  Luke  slaughters  the  oxen 
Without  a  moment's  thought  or  care. 
Wine  in  the  cellar  of  Heaven  costs  not 

a  penny. 
The  angels  are  baking  bread. 

Sweet  herbs  of  every  kind 

Are  growing  in  Heaven's  garden, 

Asparagus,    green    peas;     whatever    we 

wish, 
Platters  heaped  high  and  ready! 

Good    apples,    good    pears,    and    good 

grapes, 
The  gardeners  offer  them  all. 
Do  you  prefer  roebuck  or  rabbit? 
They  are  running  in  the  streets. 

Should  a  fast  day  come  along, 
Every  kind  of  fish  swims  gayly  by! 
And  there  goes  St.  Peter  with  nets 

bait 
Running  to  the  heavenly  pond. 
St.  Martha  shall  be  our  cook. 


and 


No  music  on  earth 

with  ours; 
Eleven    thousand    maidens 

dancing, 
Even  St.  Ursula  is  smiling. 
Cecilia  and  all  her  kind 
Are  excellent  court  musicians; 
The  angels'  sweet  voices 
Brighten  our  spirits, 
And  joy  awakens  in  all. 
[copyrighted] 


is   to  be  compared 
are    busily 


NANCY  CARR  was  born  in  Springfield,  Ohio,  and  there  had  her 
first  musical  training  under  her  mother  and  later  Theodore  Harrison. 
Living  near  Chicago,  she  attended  the  American  Conservatory  of 
Music  there.  She  made  her  first  extensive  recital  tour  in  the  season 
1953-54  and  has  likewise  sung  with  principal  orchestras  (notably  with 
the  Chicago  Orchestra  in  Mahler's  Second  and  Fourth  Symphonies, 
under  the  direction  of  Bruno  Walter). 

[32] 


RCA    VICTOR    RECORDS 

BOSTON  SYMPHONY  ORCHESTRA 


Recorded  under  the  leadership  of  CHARLES  MUNCH 
Beethoven  Overtures  Leonore  Nos.  1,  2,  3 ;  "Fidelio" ;  "Coriolan" 
Symphonies  Nos.  5,  6,  7 
Violin  Concerto  (Heifetz) 
Berlioz  "Fantastic     Symphony" ;     Overture     to     "Beatrice    and     Benedick" ; 
"Romeo  and  Juliet"  (complete)  ;  "Summer  Nights"  (De  Los  Angeles); 
"The  Damnation  of  Faust"  (complete) 
Brahms  Piano  Concerto  No.  2  (Rubinstein) 

Symphonies  Nos.  2,  4 ;  "Tragic  Overture" 
Bruch  Violin  Concerto  No.  1  (Menuhin) 
Chausson  "Poeme"  for  Violin  and  Orchestra  (Oistbakh) 
Chopin  Piano  Concerto  No.  2  (Brailowsky) 
Debussy  "The  Martyrdom  of  St.  Sebastian" ;  "Prelude  to  the  Afternoon  of  a 

Faun";  "The  Blessed  Damozel"  (De  Los  Angeles) 
Handel  "Water  Music"  Suite  (arr.  Harty) 
Haydn  Symphony  No.  104 
Honegger  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  5 
halo  Overture  to  "Le  Roi  d'Ys" 
Menotti  Violin  Concerto  (Spivakovsky) 
Mozart  Overture  to  "The  Marriage  of  Figaro" 
Ravel  "Daphnis  and  Chloe"  (complete)  ;  "Pavane" 

Newly  Recorded :  "Bolero"  ;  "La  Valse"  ;  "Rapsodie  Espagnole" 
Roussel  "Bacchus  and  Ariane,"  Suite  No.  2 
Saint-Saens  "Introduction  and  Rondo  Capriccioso"  (Oistbakh) 
Overture  to  "La  Princesse  Jaune" 
Piano  Concerto  No.  4  (Brailowsky) 
Schubert  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  8  ("Unfinished"  Symphony) 
Schumann  Overture  to  "Genoveva"        Symphony  No.  1 
Strauss  "Don  Quixote"  (Soloist,  Piatigobsky) 

Tchaikovsky  Violin  Concerto   (Milstein)  ;  "Francesca  da  Rimini";  "Romeo 
and  Juliet" ;  Symphony  No.  4 

Among  the  recordings  under  the  leadership  of  SERGE  KOUSSEVITZKY 


Bach  Brandenburg  Concertos  Nos.  1,  6 ; 
Suites  Nos.  1,  4 

Beethoven  Symphonies  Nos.  3,  5,  9 

Berlioz  "Harold  in  Italy"  (Pbimeose) 

Brahms  Symphony  No.  3 ;  Violin  Con- 
certo (Heifetz) 

Copland  "A  Lincoln  Portrait" ;  "Appala- 
chian Spring" ;  "El  Salon  Mexico" 

Hanson  Symphony  No.  3 

Harris  Symphony  No.  3 

Haydn  Symphonies  Nos.  92,  "Oxford"; 
94,  "Surprise" 

Khatchaturian  Piano  Concerto  (Kapell) 

Mendelssohn  Symphony  No.  4,  "Italian" 


Mozart  "Eine  kleine  Nachtmusik" ;  Sere- 
nade No.  10,  for  Woodwinds;  Sym- 
phonies Nos.  36,  "Linz"  ;  39 

Prokofieff  "Classical"  Symphony;  "Lt. 
Kije"  Suite  ;  "Romeo  and  Juliet,"  Suite 
No.  2;  Symphony  No.  5;  Violin  Con- 
certo No.  2  (Heifetz) 

Rachmaninoff  "Isle  of  the  Dead" 

Ravel  "Bolero" ;  "Ma  Mere  L'Oye"  Suite 

Schubert  Symphony  in  B  Minor,  "Un- 
finished" 

Sibelius  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  5 

Strauss,  R.  "Don  Juan" 

Tchaikovsky  Serenade  in  C ;  Symphonies 
Nos.  4,  5 

Wagner  Siegfried  Idyll 


Recorded  under  the  leadership  of  PIERRE  MONTEUX 

Debussy  "La  Mer" ;  "Nocturnes"  Tchaikovsky   Symphony   No.  6,   "Pathe- 

Liszt  "Les  Preludes"  tique" 
Mozart  Piano  Concertos  Nos.  12,  18  (Lili 

Kraus)  Deliles  Ballets  "Sylvia,"  "Coppelia"  by 

Scriabin  "The  Poem  of  Ecstasy"  Members    of    the    Boston    Symphony 

Stravinsky  "Le  Sacre  du  Prin  temps"  Orchestra 

Recorded  under  the  leadership  of  Leonard  Bernstein 
Stravinsky  "L'Histoire  du  Soldat" ;  Octet  for  Wind  Instruments 


The  above  recordings  are  available  on  Long  Play  (33%  r.p.m.)  and  (in  some  cases) 
45  r.p.m. 


THE  BALDWIN  PIANO  COMPANY 
CINCINNATI,  OHIO 


jhftmm 


BALDWIN     GRAND     PIANOS       •       ACROSONIC     SPINET     AND     CONSOLE     PIANOS 
HAMILTON  STUDIO  PIANOS  •  BALDWIN  AND  ORGA-SONIC  ELECTRONIC  ORGANS 


BOSTON 

SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 


FOUNDED  IN  1881  BY 
HENRY  LEE  HIGGINSON 


SEVENTY-SIXTH   SEASON 
*956-*957 

Carnegie  Hall,  New  York 


TANGLEWOOD     1957 

The 
Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 


The  Berkshire  Festival 

Twentieth  Season 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Conductor 


The  Berkshire  Music  Center 

Fifteenth  Season 
CHARLES  MUNCH,    Director 


To  receive  further  announcements,  write  to 
Festival  Office,  Symphony  Hall,  Boston 


Carnegie  Hall,  New  York 
Seventy-First  Season  in  New  York 


SEVENTY-SIXTH  SEASON,   1956-1957 

Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 
Richard  Burgin,  Associate  Conductor 


Concert  Bulletin  of  the 

Fourth  Concerts 

WEDNESDAY  EVENING,  February  6,  at  8:45 

SATURDAY  AFTERNOON,  February   9,  at  2:30 

with  historical  and  descriptive  notes  by 

John  N.  Burk 

The  TRUSTEES  of  the 

BOSTON  SYMPHONY  ORCHESTRA,  Inc. 

Henry  B.  Cabot  .         President 

Jacob  J.  Kaplan  .         Vice-President 

Richard  C.  Paine  .         Treasurer 

Talcott  M.  Banks,  Jr.  E.  Morton  Jennings,  Jr. 

Theodore  P.  Ferris  Michael  T.  Kelleher 

Alvan  T.  Fuller  Palfrey  Perkins 

Francis  W.  Hatch  Charles  H.  Stockton 

Harold  D.  Hodgkinson  Edward  A.  Taft 

C.  D.  Jackson  Raymond  S.  Wilkins 

Oliver  Wolcott 

TRUSTEES  EMERITUS 
Philip  R.  Allen  M.  A.  De Wolfe  Howe 

N.  Penrose  Hallo  well  Lewis  Perry 

Thomas  D.  Perry,  Jr.,  Manager 
G.  W.  Rector  ^  Assistant  J.  J.  Brosnahan,  Assistant  Treasurer 

N.  S.  Shirk        )  Managers         Rosario  Mazzeo,  Personnel  Manager 

[1] 


Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

(Seventy-sixth  Season,  1956-1957) 
CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 

RICHARD    BURGIN,   Associate    Conductor 


Violins 
Richard  Burgin 
Concert-master 

Alfred  Krips 

George   Zazofsky 
Rolland  Tapley 

Norbert  Lauga 
Vladimir  Resnikoff 
Harry  Dickson 
Gottfried  Wilfinger 
Einar   Hansen 
Joseph  Leibovici 
Emil  Kornsand 
Roger  Shermont 

Minot  Beale 
Herman  Silberman 
Stanley  Benson 
Leo    Panasevich 
Sheldon  Rotenberg 
Fredy  Ostrovsky 

Clarence  Knudson 
Pierre  Mayer 

Manuel  Zung 
Samuel  Diamond 

Victor  Manusevitch 
James   Nagy 

Melvin  Bryant 
Lloyd  Stonestreet 
Saverio  Messina 
William  Waterhouse 
William   Marshall 
Leonard  Moss 
Jesse  Ceci 
Noah  Bielski 

Alfred  Schneider 
Joseph  Silverstein 

Basses 

Georges  Moleux 
Gaston  Dufresne 

Irving  Frankel 
Henry  Freeman 
Henry  Portnoi 
Henri  Girard 
John  Barwicki 


PERSONNEL 

Violas 
Joseph  de  Pasquale 
Jean   Cauhape 

Eugen  Lehner 
Albert  Bernard 

George  Humphrey 
Jerome  Lipson 
Robert  Karol 
Reuben  Green 

Bernard   Kadinoff 
Vincent  Mauricci 

John  Fiasca 
Earl  Hedberg 

Violoncellos 
Samuel  Mayes 
Alfred  Zighera 

Jacobus   Langendoen 
Mischa  Nieland 

Karl  Zeise 
Josef  Zimbler 

Bernard  Parronchi 
Martin  Hoherman 

Louis   Berger 
Richard   Kapuscinski 

Robert  Ripley 

Flutes 
Doriot  Anthony  Dwyer 
James  Pappoutsakis 
Phillip  Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George  Madsen 

Oboes 
Ralph  Gomberg 
Jean   Devergie 
John   Holmes 

English  Horn 
Louis  Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino  Cioffi 
Manuel  Valerio 
Pasquale  Cardillo 

E\)   Clarinet 

Bass  Clarinet 
Rosario  Mazzeo 


Bassoons 
Sherman  Walt 
Ernst  Panenka 
Theodore  Brewster 

Contra-Bassoon 
Richard  Plaster 

Horns 

James  Stagliano 
Charles  Yancich 

Harry  Shapiro 
Harold  Meek 
Paul  Keaney 
Osbourne  McConathy 

Trumpets 

Roger  Voisin 
Marcel  Lafosse 
Armando  Ghitalla 
Gerard  Goguen 

Trombones 

William  Gibson 
William  Moyer 
Kauko  Kahila 
Josef  Orosz 

Tuba 
K.  Vinal  Smith 

Harps 
Bernard  Zighera 
Olivia  Luetcke 

Timpani 

Everett  Firth 
Harold  Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles  Smith 
Harold  Thompson 
Arthur  Press 

Piano 
Bernard  Zighera 

Library 
Victor  Alpert 


[*] 


SEVENTY-SIXTH  SEASON  •   NINETEEN  HUNDRED  FIFTY-SIX  AND  FIFTY-SEVEN 


Seventy-First  Season  in  New  York 


Fourth  Evening  Concert 


WEDNESDAY,  February  6 


Program 


Smit Symphony  No.  1  in  E-flat 

I.     Adagio;  Allegro  moderato 
II.     Andante  sostenuto 

III.  Allegretto  scherzando 

IV.  Allegro  vivace 

(First  Performance  in  New  York) 

Prokofieff Piano  Concerto  No.  2,  in  G  minor,  Op.  16 

I.     Andantino;  Allegretto;  Andantino 
II.     Scherzo:  Vivace 

III.  Intermezzo:  Allegro  moderato 

IV.  Finale:  Allegro  tempestoso 

INTERMISSION 

Beethoven Symphony  No.  4,  in  B-flat  major,  Op.  60 

I.     Adagio;  Allegro  vivace 
II.    Adagio 

III.  Allegro  vivace 

IV.  Allegro,  ma  non  troppo 


SOLOIST 

NICOLE  HENRIOT 

Miss  Henriot  uses  the  Baldwin  Piano 


Performances  by  this  orchestra  are  broadcast  each  week  on  Monday 
evenings  from  8:05  to  9:00  P.M.  on  the  NBC  Radio  Network. 

Music  of  these  programs  is  available  at  the  Music  Library, 
58th   Street   Branch,    the   New  York   Public   Library. 

BALDWIN  PIANO  RCA  VICTOR  RECORDS 


[3] 


SYMPHONY  NO.   1,  IN  E-FLAT 
By  Leo  Smit 

Born  in  Philadelphia,  January  12,  1921 


Leo  Smit  tells  us  that  the  first  idea  for  a  symphony  came  to  him  in  Rome  in 
1951  and  that  he  completed  the  score  in  New  York  City  in  the  summer  of  1955. 

The  Symphony  was  commissioned  by  the  Koussevitzky  Music  Foundation  for 
the  occasion  of  the  thirtieth  anniversary  of  the  League  of  Composers.  It  is  dedi- 
cated to  the  memory  of  Serge  and  Natalie  Koussevitzky. 

The  following  orchestra  is  required:  2  flutes,  2  oboes,  2  clarinets,  2  bassoons, 
4  horns,  2  trumpets,  2  trombones,  timpani,  and  strings. 

'TpHE  following  brief  analysis  of  his  Symphony  has  been  provided 

-■-  by  the  composer: 

"The  first  movement  begins  with  a  slow  introduction  which  contains 
much  of  the  material  developed  in  the  main  section.  The  second 
movement  consists  of  a  long  theme,  three  variations  and  a  short  coda. 
The  form  of  the  third  movement  brings  in  the  main  section  of  the 
scherzo  three  times  and  the  trio  once  [the  traditional  procedure  with- 
out repetition  of  the  trio].  It  ends  with  a  tiny  coda  of  two  measures. 
The  finale  is  in  sonata  form." 

Leo  Smit  won  a  scholarship  at  the  age  of  nine  for  the  Curtis 
Institute  of  Music,  where  he  studied  piano  with  Mme.  Isabelle 
Vengerova.  He  studied  composition  with  Nicolas  Nabokov.  In  1950 
he  won  a  Fulbright  Scholarship  and  a  Guggenheim  Fellowship  and 
spent  two  years  at  the  American  Academy  in  Rome  where,  among 
other  things,  he  composed  his  Overture,  The  Parcae. 

On  October  31,  1952,  Mr.  Smit  made  his  appearance  as  soloist 
with  this  Orchestra  in  the  Piano  Concerto  of  Alexei  Haieff,  which 
then  had  its  first  concert  performance.  Mr.  Smit  was  later  given  the 
Horblit  Award.  This  Concerto  was  performed  by  Mr.  Smit  in  Paris 
in  the  summer  of  1953  under  the  direction  of  Charles  Munch,  and  at 
the  subsequent  festival  in  Venice.  Mr.  Smit's  Overture  The  Parcae 
had  its  first  performance  October  16,  1953,  at  these  concerts,  when  the 
composer  also  appeared  as  soloist  in  Aaron  Copland's  Piano  Concerto. 

[copyrighted] 


Q& 


[4] 


PIANO  CONCERTO  NO.  2,  in  G  minor,  Op.  16 

By  Serge   Prokofieff 

Born  in  Sontsovka,  Russia,  April  23,  1891;  died  near  Moscow,  March  4,  1953 


Composed  in  1912-1913,  ProkofiefPs  Second  Concerto  was  first  performed  August 
23>  1913>  at  Pavlovsk  (near  St.  Petersburg),  Aslanov  conducting,  the  composer 
playing  the  solo  part.  The  score,  according  to  Philip  Hale,  was  lost  "when  his 
apartment  was  confiscated  [requisitioned?]  by  the  decree  of  the  Soviet  Government. 
Sketches  of  the  piano  part  were  saved.  They  were  taken  away  by  the  composer's 
mother  in  1921."  It  was  from  these  sketches  that  the  composer  rewrote  the  Concerto 
at  Etal  in  Bavaria  in  1923.  The  revised  version  was  performed  in  Paris,  May  8, 
1923,  Koussevitzky  conducting.  Prokofieff  was  the  soloist  and  performed  it  for  the 
first  time  in  the  United  States  with  this  conductor  at  concerts  of  the  Boston  Sym- 
phony Orchestra  in  Boston,  January  31,  February  1,  1930.  There  was  a  performance 
at  a  Berkshire  Festival  concert,  August  5,  1951,  when  Eleazar  de  Carvalho  was  the 
conductor  and  Jorge  Bolet  the  soloist. 

TN  1913,  Serge  Prokofieff,  still  a  student  at  the  St.  Petersburg  Con- 
-*■  servatory,  caused  considerable  commotion  in  musical  circles  by 
performing  his  Second  Concerto  at  Pavlovsk.  His  First  Concerto  heard 
the  year  before  had  warned  conservative  listeners  to  expect  from  the 
brilliant  young  pianist  (there  was  no  denying  his  ability  as  a  per- 
former) an  unbridled  onslaught  upon  traditional  harmony.  The 
Second  Concerto  sounded  even  bolder  than  the  First.  The  critics  of 
St.  Petersburg  must  have  considered  the  composer  as  newsworthy,  if 
only  from  the  point  of  view  of  scandal,  for  they  seemed  to  have  been 
present  in  Pavlovsk  in  force.  Almost  unanimously  they  attacked  him. 
"The  debut  of  this  cubist  and  futurist,"  said  the  reviewer  in  the 
Petersburgskaya  Gazeta,  "has  aroused  universal  interest.  Already  in 
the  train  to  Pavlovsk  one  heard  on  all  sides  'Prokofieff,  Prokofieff, 
Prokofieff.'  A  new  piano  star!  On  the  platform  appears  a  lad  with  the 
face  of  a  student  from  the  Peterschule  [a  fashionable  school].  He 
takes  his  seat  at  the  piano  and  appears  to  be  either  dusting  off  the 
keys,  or  trying  out  notes  with  a  sharp,  dry  touch.  The  audience  does 
not  know  what  to  make  of  it.  Some  indignant  murmurs  are  audible. 
One  couple  gets  up  and  runs  toward  the  exit.  'Such  music  is  enough 
to  drive  you  crazy!'  is  the  general  comment.  The  hall  empties.  The 
young  artist  ends  his  concerto  with  a  relentlessly  discordant  combina- 
tion of  brasses.  The  audience  is  scandalized.  The  majority  hisses. 
With  a  mocking  bow  Prokofieff  resumes  his  seat  and  plays  an  encore. 
The  audience  flees,  with  exclamations  of:  'To  the  devil  with  all  this 
futurist  music!  We  came  here  for  enjoyment.  The  cats  on  our  roof 
make  better  music  than  this!'  "  Other  Petersburg  critics  spoke  of  "a 
babble  of  insane  sounds,"  a  "musical  mess."  A  lone  voice  was  that  of 
V.  G.  Karatygin  who  reported  "The  fact  that  the  public  hissed  means 
nothing.  Ten  years  from  now  it  will  atone  for  last  night's  catcalls  by 
unanimous  applause  for  this  new  composer."* 

*  These  reviews  are  quoted  by  Israel  V.  Nestyev,  Serge  Prokofieff,  His  Musical  Life. 

[5] 


Unless  the  revision  of  1923  is  radically  different  from  the  original 
version,  which  is  unlikely,  it  is  hard  to  recognize  the  Concerto  in  the 
epithets  which  were  hurled  at  it  by  the  early  critics.  The  "babel  of 
insane  sounds"  is  in  reality  a  clear,  lightly  scored  and  delicately 
wrought  piece,  mostly  in  elementary  common  time,  with  an  elementary 
bass  and  a  lyric  piano  part,  varied  by  pianistic  embellishment.  What 
apparently  disturbed  its  hidebound  hearers  were  the  then  unaccus- 
tomed melodic  skips  and  occasional  untraditional  harmonies,  the  very 
characteristics  which  were  later  found  fresh,  piquant,  and  often  entirely 
charming,  the  exclusive  outcome  of  this  composer's  special  fantasy  in 
lyricism.  The  Concerto  begins  quietly  and  elegantly,  the  solo  part 
lightly,  but  colorfully  supported.  Here,  and  throughout,  the  pianist's 
aim  must  be  the  utmost  crispness  and  delicacy  of  touch.  There  is  a 
middle  section  with  a  melody  which  could  have  been  written  by  none 
other  than  the  destined  composer  of  the  March  from  The  Love  for 
Three  Oranges.  A  part  for  the  soloist  unaccompanied  is  not  a  cadenza 
but  a  continuation  of  the  development.  This  leads  to  a  climax  by  the 
full  orchestra  and  a  pianissimo  close  by  the  pianist,  as  if  to  assure  us 
that  this  is  after  all  no  concerto  in  the  grand  style. 

The  Scherzo  is  a  swift  moto  perpetuo  for  the  soloist,  in  breathless 
and  unbroken  sixteenths  by  the  two  hands  in  octave  unison. 

The  Intermezzo  opens  on  a  theme  with  a  flavor  of  the  Scythian 
demons  or  the  Suggestions  diaboliques.  A  repeated  bass  theme  with 
varying  embellishment  of  delicate  piano  figures  approximates  a 
passacaglia. 

The  Finale  at  last  injects  into  the  Concerto  a  more  traditional 
bravura.  The  pianist  has  still  the  commanding  part,  a  dramatic 
"cadenza"  carrying  on  the  development,  as  in  the  first  movement, 
and  building  to  a  now  expectedly  brilliant  close. 


The  young  man  was  impossible  to  ignore.  The  several  piano  pieces 
he  had  written  were  violently  challenging;  the  First  Concerto  had  been 
labelled  by  one  critic  as  "football  music"  presumably  on  account  of 
the  way  the  harmony  was  kicked  around.  When  Prokofieff  brought 
forth  his  Scythian  Suite  (1916)  with  its  piquant  barbarism  and  Sept, 
Us  sont  sept  (1917)  which  was  even  more  primitive,  Prokofieff  began 
to  be  called  an  t{  enfant  terrible/'  as  if  he  either  enjoyed  shocking  staid 
people  or  used  violence  for  the  purpose  of  attracting  attention  to 
himself.  He  became  a  topic  and  was  compared  to  the  cubists,  although 
he  had  no  very  special  interest  in  that  school  of  painting.  These  were 
the  critics  who  tended  to  lump  into  one  category  all  new  ways  which 
they  could  not  comprehend.    Any  resemblance  between  Prokofieff's 

[6] 


I  THE  ViRTUOSO  OBCHESTRA  i  '"V"-""  |«*j 


Bono*  Sjlpfcmy  Oub.jH».  XWn  MmiA 


[i        "—  1 

*LONG    PLAY     $3.98     45    EP     $3.98 


^^Sp^l 


'ICNAlkOVSKY 
SYMPHONY  NO.  4 


♦  three   LOWG   PLAY  RECORDS   $11.98 


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CHARLES  MUNCH 
BOSTON  SYMPHONY 
ORCHESTRA 


*LONO  PLAY   $3.98     45  EP'S  $2.98  EA.  *LONGPLAY       $3.98 


munch  in  person 

on  rca  Victor  records 


To  Charles  Munch,  conducting  is  not  a  profession  but  a 
sacred  calling.  And  this  dedication,  combined  with  the 
magnificence  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra,  brings 
you  performances  of  unmatched  power  and  beauty.  You 
feel  and  hear  this  devotion  whether  he  conducts  Ravel, 
Berlioz  or  Beethoven  . . .  whether  the  performance  is  in 
Symphony  Hall  or ...  on  RCA  Victor  Records,  of  course! 


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[7] 


early  music  and  the  work  of  the  cubists  or  futurists  lay  in  an  impulse 
to  break  up  conventional  lines  and  express  himself  boldly  and  vividly. 
The  comparison  was  just  about  as  deceptive  as  the  linking  of  Debussy 
with  the  French  impressionist  poets. 

Prokofieff  then  came  under  the  disapproval  of  such  conservatives 
as  Glazounov,  the  director  of  the  Conservatory  where  he  was  studying. 
When  he  competed  for  the  first  prize,  Glazounov  was  opposed,  and 
was  outvoted.  Prokofieff  won  the  award,  but  as  pianist,  not  as  com- 
poser. Medtner  made  the  unintentionally  revealing  remark:  "If  that 
is  music,  I  am  no  musician."  But  Prokofieff  had  his  champions,  such 
as  the  composer  Miaskovsky,  who  was  his  friend  for  life,  and  Igor 
Glebov  (Boris  Asafyev),  the  critic.  This  outraged  attitude  toward 
Prokofieff  as  a  sort  of  mischievous  imp  of  music,  knocking  over  the 
block  houses  of  tradition  for  the  clatter  they  would  make,  reads 
strangely  in  a  later  day.  It  would  seem  in  the  light  of  his  full-rounded 
development  that  the  youthful  Prokofieff,  an  artist  in  whom  vitality, 
fantasy,  and  skill  were  already  abundant,  was  merely  following  out  his 
own  ideas  to  his  own  ends  —  ventures  always  arresting  towards  ends 
not  always  attained.  When  he  was  mocking  or  sharply  satirical  it  was 
the  music  and  the  subject,  not  the  audience,  which  made  him  so. 
The  matured  composer  remained  bluntly  uncompromising.  That  he 
became  less  experimental  is  in  the  nature  of  growth.  The  independent 
spirit  of  Prokofieff  at  that  time,  to  which  some  so  strenuously  objected 
—  if  they  noticed  him  at  all  —  was  eventually  recognized  as  something 
far  sturdier,  far  deeper,  than  the  irresponsible  obstreperousness  of 
which  he  was  once  accused.  He  would  at  any  time  give  a  bludgeoning 
passage  to  a  full  orchestra  when  he  saw  fit.  While  he  was  always  ready 
to  compose  descriptive  music  for  the  stage  or  film,  he  became  increas- 
ingly symphonic  and  serious  in  his  aims,  particularly  from  the  time 
of  the  Fifth  Symphony. 

[copyrighted] 

NICOLE  HENRIOT 


^VJicole  Henriot  was  born  in  Paris  on  November  23,  1925.  She 
■*■  ^  studied  with  Marguerite  Long  and  entered  the  Paris  Conversatory 
at  the  age  of  twelve,  taking  a  first  prize  in  a  year  and  a  half.  During  the 
war  she  played  with  the  principal  orchestras  of  Paris  and  Belgium.  Her 
New  York  press  bureau  gives  the  information  that  she  was  active  in 
the  French  resistance  together  with  her  two  brothers.  Since  the  war 
she  has  played  in  numerous  European  cities.  She  made  her  American 
debut  January  29,  1948,  then  playing  the  first  of  many  concerts  in  this 
country,  including  several  appearances  with  this  Orchestra. 

[8] 


PROKOFIEFF  IN  AMERICA 


In  the  spring  of  1918,  Prokofieff  took  an  unusual  step  for  a  citizen 
of  Soviet  Russia.  He  obtained  a  passport  from  the  People's  Com- 
missar and  made  his  way  to  the  United  States.  He  was  then  twenty- 
seven,  a  celebrity  of  a  sort  in  Petrograd  and  Moscow,  a  subject  for 
musical  disputation  there,  if  by  no  means  for  general  acceptance.  In 
the  Western  world  he  was  quite  unknown,  as  was  all  current  music  in 
Russia,  excepting  what  Diaghileff  had  brought  to  Paris,  and  this  con- 
sisted principally  of  music  by  a  real  emigre,  Stravinsky,  whom  he  had 
drawn  into  his  orbit,  and  who  would  never  return  to  his  home  land. 
Prokofieff  had  penetrated  to  the  powerful  presence  of  the  impresario, 
and  at  his  order  composed  the  ballet  Ala  and  Lolli,  in  which  Diaghileff 
sought  to  draw  upon  primitive,  barbaric  Russia  as  had  Stravinsky  in 
Le  Sacre  du  Printemps.  Ala  and  Lolli  offered  another  sort  of  bar- 
barism. Diaghileff,  lukewarm,  had  failed  to  produce  it,  and  Prokofieff 
had  made  his  way  back  to  Russia  unheard.  He  had  then  turned  Ala 
and  Lolli  into  an  orchestral  suite,  the  Scythian  Suite,  which  fresh, 
stimulating  and  highly  colorful  venture  into  the  orchestral  field  made 
a  sensation  in  Russia. 

In  1918,  when  Prokofieff  first  entered  America,  he  was  as  complete 
a  stranger  to  us  as  we  were  unknown  to  him.  His  own  country,  since 
the  October  Revolution,  had  been  quite  shut  off  from  the  rest  of  the 
world.  His  ambition  may  have  been  to  build  a  new  fame  in  unknown 
territory.  Nestyev  puts  down  his  motive  as  "the  thirst  for  new  impres- 
sions, the  desire  to  breathe  the  fresh,  invigorating  air  of  seas  and 
oceans,  a  persistent  and  confident  striving  for  world  renown." 

He  made  his  way  laboriously  across  Siberia,  where  he  was  delayed 
by  military  skirmishes,  to  Japan  where  he  lingered  for  two  months, 
and  thence  to  San  Francisco  and  New  York.  Having  left  Russia  in  May, 
he  arrived  in  September.  He  carried  with  him,  according  to  Nestyev, 
"the  scores  of  the  Scythian  Suite,  the  First  Piano  Concerto,  the  Classical 
Symphony,  and  several  piano  pieces";  also  sketches  for  an  opera  on 
Gozzi's  The  Love  for  Three  Oranges.    He  must  have  felt  fortified  in 


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[9] 


his  quest  by  the  comforting  awareness  of  his  first-rate  ability  as  a 
pianist. 

In  Manhattan,  "penniless  and  friendless,"  he  may  well  have  been 
appalled  at  the  problem  of  winning  attention.  He  managed  to  give 
a  piano  recital  on  November  20,  1918,  and  on  December  10  Modeste 
Altschuler  with  his  Russian  Symphony  Orchestra  asked  the  composer 
to  play  in  his  First  Concerto,  and  introduced  the  Classical  Symphony. 
Both  occasions  brought  from  the  critics  remarks  typical  of  that  epoch, 
when  music  was  so  tied  up  with  extraneous  circumstances  connected 
with  its  title  or  its  composer,  that  the  musical  point  was  quite  missed. 
"Russian  chaos  in  music,"  "Godless  Russia,"  "Bolshevism  in  art," 
"a  carnival  of  cacophony,"  were  remarks  waggishly  showered  upon  the 
strange  visitor,  as  if  the  adventurous  spirit  of  this  artist  exclusively 
absorbed  in  his  art  had  been  prompted  by  a  political  ideology.  James 
Huneker,  who  was  sometimes  more  absorbed  in  turning  a  clever  phrase 
than  in  lending  a  conscientious  ear,  called  him  a  "Cossack  Chopin,"  a 
"musical  agitator." 

These  phrases  did  not  ring  out  as  the  clash  of  weapons  in  a  lusty 
battle  over  the  rights  and  wrongs  of  new  music,  nor  provoke  sharp 
retorts,  as  had  been  the  case  in  Petrograd  and  would  be  the  case  in 
Paris.  It  must  be  admitted  that  public  opinion  in  this  country  had 
not  yet  reached  the  point  of  militant  factions  over  such  problems. 

Prokofieff  received  better  attention  in  Chicago,  probably  because 
the  Scythian  Suite,  which  achieved  a  performance  under  Frederick 
Stock,  is  a  work  too  arresting  to  dismiss  offhand.  Nevertheless,  the 
critics  fell  into  the  same  hazy  state  of  misapplication.  The  Scythian 
Suite  was  "Bolshevist";  "The  red  flag  of  anarchy  waved  tempestuously 
yesterday  over  Orchestra  Hall."  Prokofieff  was  a  curious  exotic  to  be 
glanced  at  with  a  smile  and  quickly  forgotten.  He  gave  a  few  piano 
recitals,  but  they  were  little  noticed.  The  Chicago  Opera  Company 
became  interested  in  his  opera  project  The  Love  for  Three  Oranges, 
but  the  opera  was  not  to  achieve  a  production  until  1921.  Prokofieff 
departed,  discouraged  and  unnoticed,  for  Europe.  He  returned  in 
1920  and  made  a  recital  tour  of  California  without  causing  any  partic- 
ular stir  in  that  state.  A  third  visit,  in  1921,  brought  performances  of 
The  Love  for  Three  Oranges  and  the  new  Third  Piano  Concerto  in 
Chicago;  but  the  Opera,  which  was  produced  under  the  insistence  of 
Mary  Garden,  and  was  carried  to  New  York,  was  not  well  received 
there.  One  wonders  whether  Prokofieff  showed  his  Classical  Symphony 
to  any  conductors  besides  Altschuler.  This,  or  his  vocal  suite,  The 
Ugly  Duckling,  a  precursor  of  Peter  and  the  Wolf,  might  well  have 
wooed  audiences  to  a  due  acclamation  and  awakened  critics  to  a  reali- 
zation that  he  was  something  else  than  a  "wild  Bolshevik." 

[10] 


He  dwelt  in  Western  Europe  until  1932,  and,  thanks  to  the  ballets 
Chout,  Le  Pas  d'acier,  and  L'Enfant  prodigue,  produced  by  Diaghileff, 
the  first  four  symphonies,  the  opera  The  Gambler,  the  choral  Sept, 
ils  sont  sept,  five  piano  sonatas,  and  several  small  works,  his  considera- 
ble stature  was  more  fully  recognized.  Meanwhile,  Serge  Koussevitzky 
had  been  his  consistent  champion.  He  had  been  among  the  first  to 
introduce  his  music  in  Russia,  and  likewise  became  his  publisher.  He 
had  brought  out  each  of  his  orchestral  works  in  Paris,  as  they  appeared. 
It  was  in  his  third  program  in  Boston  that  Koussevitzky  began  to  make 
known  to  us  the  music  of  Prokofieff  with  the  Scythian  Suite.  He  con- 
tinued to  conduct  ProkofiefFs  works  throughout  his  Boston  career, 
repeating  the  best  of  them,  and  carrying  them  to  other  cities.  The 
last  country  to  become  aware  of  Prokofieff  thus  became  second  to  none 
in  admiration  of  his  importance  and  the  enjoyment  of  his  music. 

This  Orchestra  soon  became  and  continued  to  be  the  principal  one 
to  introduce  the  music  of  Prokofieff  in  this  part  of  the  world.  Sixty- 
one  performances  of  twenty-two  different  works  are  listed  in  the 
programs  through  the  years.  Of  these  the  following  had  their  first 
performance  in  the  United  States:  the  two  Violin  Concertos;  suite 
from  The  Love  for  Three  Oranges;  suite  from  Le  pas  d'acier;  the 
Second  and  Fifth  Piano  Concertos;  the  Fourth  and  Fifth  Symphonies; 
suite  from  The  Gambler;  suite  from  Lieutenant  Kije;  the  second  suite 
from  Romeo  and  Juliet;  Peter  and  the  Wolf;  the  'Cello  Concerto. 
Most  of  these  works  were  likewise  introduced  in  New  York  City  by 
Serge  Koussevitzky. 

J.  N.  B. 


Q^j 


EDNA  NITKIN,  M.Mus. 

PIANIST 

ACCOMPANIST        TEACHER 

Studio:   500  Boylston  St.,  Copley  Sq. 

Boston  KE  6-4062 


[»] 


SYMPHONY  IN  B-FLAT  MAJOR  NO.  4,  Op.  60 

By  Ludwig  van  Beethoven 

Born  at  Bonn,  December  16  (?) ,  1770;  died  at  Vienna,  March  26,  1827 


This  symphony  was  completed  in  1806  and  dedicated  to  the  Count  Franz  von 
Oppersdorf.  The  first  performance  was  in  March,  1801,  at  the  house  of  Prince 
Lobkowitz  in  Vienna.  It  is  scored  for  flute,  2  oboes,  2  clarinets,  2  bassoons,  2 
horns,  2  trumpets,  timpani  and  strings. 

The  long  opening  Adagio  has  none  of  the  broad  chords  or  flourishes 
of  the  classical  introduction;  it  is  no  meandering  fantasia  but  a 
reverie,  precisely  conceived,  musing  upon  its  own  placid  theme  in  a 
sombre  minor  which  is  soon  to  be  banished.  Incisive  staccato  chords 
establish  at  once  the  brightness  of  B-flat  major  and  the  beat  of  the 
allegro  vivace.  The  subject  matter  of  this  movement  is  as  abundant  as 
that  of  the  first  movement  of  the  Eroica,  the  exposition  extending 
through  154  bars,  unfolding  one  new  thought  after  another  in  simple 
and  inevitable  continuity.  The  main  theme,  with  its  staccato  notes,  is 
taken  up  by  the  whole  orchestra  and  then  given  humorously  (and 
differently)  to  the  bassoon  over  whispered  trills  from  the  violins.  It 
generates  excitement  in  the  violins  and  breaks  with  energic  syncopated 
chords  which  bring  in  the  dominant  key,  and  from  the  flute  the 
graceful  and  lilting  second  subject,  which  suggests  a  crescendo  in 
short  chords  and  a  new  theme  in  canonic  dialogue  between  the  clarinet 
and  bassoon.  Another  syncopated  subject  ends  the  section.  The  de- 
velopment plays  lightly  with  fragments  of  the  principal  theme,  and 
the  little  rhythmic  figure  which  introduced  it.  The  theme  is  combined 
with  the  second  theme  proper.  There  is  a  full  recapitulation,  more 
brilliantly  written. 

The  Adagio  is  built  upon  a  theme  first  heard  from  the  strings  and 
then  from  the  full  choirs  in  a  soft  cantabile.  The  accompanying 
rhythmic  figure  pervades  the  movement  with  its  delicate  accentua- 
tion, appearing  by  turn  in  each  part  of  the  orchestra,  now  and  then 
in  all  parts  at  once,  and  at  the  last  quite  alone  in  the  timpani.  This 
instrument,  used  only  for  reinforcing  up  to  this  point,  takes  on  a 
special  coloring.  The  movement  continues  its  even,  dreaming  course 
with  not  a  moment  of  full  sonority.  It  sings  constantly  in  every  part. 
Even  the  ornamental  passages  of  traditional  slow  movement  develop- 
ment are  no  longer  decoration,  but  dainty  melodic  tracery.  No  other 
slow  movement  of  Beethoven  is  just  like  this  one.  What  Wagner  wrote 
of  Beethoven  in  general  can  be  applied  to  this  Adagio  in  a  special  sense: 
"The  power  of  the  musician  cannot  be  grasped  otherwise  than  through 
the  idea  of  magic.  Assuredly  while  listening  we  fall  into  an  enchanted 
state.  In  all  parts  and  details  which  to  sober  senses  are  like  a  complex 

[1*] 


of  technical  means  cunningly  contrived  to  fulfill  a  form,  we  now  per- 
ceive a  ghostlike  animation  ...  a  pulsation  of  undulating  joy,  lam- 
entation and  ecstasy,  all  of  which  seem  to  spring  from  the  depths  of 
our  own  nature.  .  .  .  Every  technical  detail  ...  is  raised  to  the  highest 
significance  of  spontaneous  effusion."  There  is  no  accessory  here,  no 
framing  of  a  melody;  every  part  in  the  accompaniment,  each  rhythmi- 
cal note,  indeed  each  rest,  everything  becomes  melody. 

The  third  movement  is  characterized  by  alternate  phrases  between 
wood  winds  and  strings.  The  Trio,  which  in  interest  dominates  the 
Scherzo  section,  makes  a  second  return  before  the  close,  the  first 
symphonic  instance  of  what  was  to  be  a  favorite  device.  The  finale, 
which  is  marked  allegro  ma  non  troppo,  takes  an  easily  fluent  pace, 
as  is  fitting  in  a  symphony  not  pointed  by  high  brilliance.  Its  de- 
lightful twists  and  turns  have  an  adroitness  setting  a  new  precedent  in 
final  movements. 

It  has  been  noted  that  in  all  of  his  even-numbered  symphonies, 
Beethoven  was  content  to  seek  softer  beauties,  reserving  his  de- 
fiances, his  true  depths  of  passion  for  the  alternate  ones.  There  may 
well  have  been  something  in  his  nature  which  required  this  alterna- 
tion, a  trait  perhaps  also  accountable  for  the  thematic  alternation  of 
virility  and  gentleness,  of  the  "masculine"  and  the  "feminine"  in  his 
scores  of  this  period.  For  the  years  1804-1806  were  the  years  of  the 
colossus  first  finding  his  full  symphonic  strength,  and  glorying  in  it, 
and  at  the  same  time  the  years  of  the  romantic  lover,  capable  of  being 
entirely  subdued  and  subjugated  by  feminine  charm.  They  were  the 
years  which  produced  the  "Eroica"  and  C  minor  symphonies,  and 
the  "Appassionato,"  Sonata  on  the  one  hand;  on  the  other,  the  Fourth 
Symphony  and  the  Fourth  Piano  Concerto,  not  to  mention  Fidelio 
and  the  three  Razumowsky  Quartets.  It  may  have  been  some  inner  law 
of  artistic  equilibrium  which  induced  Beethoven,  after  drafting  two 
movements  for  his  C  minor  Symphony  in  1805,  to  set  them  aside, 
and  devote  himself,  in  1806,  to  the  gentler  contours  of  the  Sym- 
phony in  B-flat,  which,  completed  in  that  year,  thus  became  the 
fourth  in  number. 

Robert  Schumann  compared  this  Symphony  to  a  "Greek  maiden 
between  two  Norse  giants."  The  Fourth,  overshadowed  by  the  more 
imposing  stature  of  the  "Eroica"  and  the  Fifth,  has  not  lacked 
champions.  "The  character  of  this  score,"  wrote  Berlioz,  "is  gen- 
erally lively,  nimble,  joyous,  or  of  a  heavenly  sweetness."  Thayer, 
who  bestowed  his  adjectives  guardedly,  singled  out  the  "placid  and 
serene  Fourth  Symphony  —  the  most  perfect  in  form  of  them  all";  and 
Sir  George  Grove,  a  more  demonstrative  enthusiast,  found  in  it  some- 
thing "extraordinarily  entrainant  —  a  more  consistent  and  attractive 

[if] 


whole  cannot  be.  .  .  .  The  movements  fit  in  their  places  like  the  limbs 
and  features  of  a  lovely  statue;  and,  full  of  fire  and  invention  as  they 
are,  all  is  subordinated  to  conciseness,  grace,  and  beauty." 

The  composer  has  left  to  posterity  little  of  the  evidence  usually 
found  in  his  sketchbooks  of  the  time  and  course  of  composition.  He 
has  simply  (but  incontrovertibly)  fixed  the  year,  inscribing  at  the  top 
of  his  manuscript  score:  "Sinfonia  ^ta  1806  —  L.  v.  Bthvn."  This  date 
has  been  enough  to  enkindle  the  imagination  of  more  than  one  writer. 

It  was  probably  early  in  May  of  1801  that  Beethoven  took  a  post 
chaise  from  Vienna  to  visit  his  friends  the  Brunswicks  at  their  an- 
cestral estate  in  Martonvasar,  Hungary.  There  he  found  Count  Franz 
von  Brunswick,  and  the  Count's  sisters  Therese  and  Josephine  (then 
a  widow  of  twenty-six),  and  the  younger  Karoline.  Therese  and 
Josephine  ("Tesi"  and  "Pepi")  seem  to  have  had  the  composer's  more 
interested  attention.  Therese,  who  always  held  his  warm  regard, 
was  once  championed  as  the  "immortal  beloved,"  and  it  was  even  sup- 
posed that  she  and  Beethoven  became  engaged  in  this  summer  and 
that  the  Adagio  of  the  Fourth  Symphony  was  his  musical  declaration. 
Unfortunately  for  the  romancers,  the  book  by  Mariam  Tenger*  upon 
which  they  had  reached  their  conclusions,  has  been  quite  discredited. 


"Beethoven's   Unsterbliche   Qeliebte,"   1890. 


•  THE   BOSTON   SYMPHONY   CONCERT   BULLETIN 

•  THE   BERKSHIRE   FESTIVAL   PROGRAM 

•  THE   BOSTON   POPS   PROGRAM 


if  J  V// 

The  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

PUBLICATIONS 

offer  to  advertisers  wide  coverage  of  a  special  group 

of  discriminating  people.  For  both  merchandising  and 

institutional  advertising  they  have  proved  over  many 
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For  Information  and  Rates  Call     ::    Mrs.  Dana  Somes,  Advertising  Manager 
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[Ml 


The  diaries  of  Therese,  since  examined,  clearly  show  that  she  held 
Beethoven  in  high  and  friendly  esteem  —  nothing  more.  Pepi,  on  the 
other  hand,  is  mentioned  by  Therese  as  being  interested  in  Beethoven 
to  the  danger  point,  and  has  recently  been  put  forward  as  the 
mysterious  beloved.  This  summer  infatuation  may  have  had  a  single 
lasting  effect  —  the  agreeable  one  of  stimulating  music.  Romain  Rol- 
land,  who  made  more  of  the  affair  with  Therese  von  Brunswick  than 
these  subsequent  discoveries  justify,  yet  came  to  the  still  plausible 
conclusion  that  the  Fourth  Symphony  was  the  direct  outcome  of  Bee- 
thoven's stay  at  Martonvasar,  "a  pure,  fragrant  flower  which  treasures 
up  the  perfume  of  these  days,  the  calmest  in  all  his  life." 

The  felicity  of  Martonvasar  seems  to  have  found  its  reflection  in 
the  Symphony.  The  gusty  lover  was  in  abeyance  for  the  time  being. 
Beethoven  dominated  the  affections  of  all,  but  not  in  a  way  to  ruffle  the 
blessed  succession  of  summer  days  and  nights  in  the  Hungarian  manor, 
secluded  in  its  immense  acres  where  a  row  of  lindens  was  singled  out 
and  one  chosen  as  sacred  to  each  of  the  little  circle,  Beethoven  in- 
cluded. 

[copyrighted] 


Friends  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra — 
travel  with  yonr  Orchestra  in  Europe! 


A  special  meeting  of  the  Friends  will  take  place  on  Thurs- 
day afternoon,  February  14,  at  4  o'clock,  Symphony  Hall, 
Boston.  It  will  be  open  to  Friends  only.  Mr.  J.  Edward 
Fitzgerald  of  United  Press  News  Pictures,  who  travelled 
with  the  Orchestra  last  summer,  will  show  colored  slides  of 
the  European  tour. 

Each  Friend  enrolled  by  February  7,  will  receive  by  mail 

a  card  of  admission. 

Palfrey  Perkins 
Chairman 


[-5] 


asked  the  brahmin  of  the  brewer. . . 


"Pray  tell,  good  fellow,  why  not  a  beverage 
Brewed  in  a  fashion  a  bit  above  the  average? 
A  light-hearted  ale,  dry  refreshing  beer 
Worthy  of  a  connoisseur,  worthy  of  a  Peer?" 


"Matey,  you're  in  luck",  said  the  Brewer  to  the  Brahmin, 
"You  and  the  missus  and  the  Beacon  Hill  barman, 
For  Carling's  now  in  Natick,  brewing  ale  and  beer 
Worthy  of  a  connoisseur,  worthy  of  a  Peer." 


CARLING    BREWING    CO. 


[16] 


SEVENTY-SIXTH  SEASON  •   NINETEEN  HUNDRED  FIFTY-SIX  AND  FIFTY-SEVEN 

Seventy-First  Season  in  New  York 

Fourth  Afternoon  Concert 

SATURDAY,  February  9 


Program 


Britten Variations  for  String  Orchestra,  on  a  Theme  by 

Frank  Bridge,  Op.  10 
Introduction  and  Theme 

Variations:     Adagio  —  March  —  Aria     Italiana  —  Bourree     classique  —  Moto 
perpetuo  —  Marcia  funebre  —  Fugue  and  Finale. 

Prokofieff Piano  Concerto  No.  2,  in  G  minor,  Op.  16 

I.  Andantino;  Allegretto;  Andantino 

II.  Scherzo:  Vivace 

III.  Intermezzo:  Allegro  moderato 

IV.  Finale:  Allegro  tempestoso 


INTERMISSION 


Brahms Symphony  No.  1,  in  C  minor,  Op.  68 

I.  Un  poco  sostenuto;  Allegro 

II.  Andante  sostenuto 

III.  Un  poco  allegretto  e  grazioso 

IV.  Adagio;  Allegro  non  troppo,  ma  con  brio 


SOLOIST 

NICOLE  HENRIOT 

Miss  Henriot  uses  the  Baldwin  Piano 


Performances  by  this  orchestra  are  broadcast  each  week  on  Monday 
evenings  from  8:05  to  9:00  P.M.  on  the  NBC  Radio  Network. 

Music  of  these  programs  is  available  at  the  Music  Library, 
58th   Street   Branch,   the  New  York   Public   Library. 

BALDWIN  PIANO  RCA  VICTOR  RECORDS 


[17] 


VARIATIONS  FOR  STRING  ORCHESTRA  ON  A  THEME  OF 

FRANK  BRIDGE,  Op.  10 
By  Benjamin  Britten 

Born  at  Lowestoft,  England,  November  22,  1913 


These  Variations  were  composed  in  1937  and  in  that  year  had  their  first  perform- 
ance, at  the  Salzburg  Festival.  They  were  performed  at  the  Boston  Symphony  Con- 
certs April  25-26,  1941,  and  February  3-4,  1950. 

npHE  brief  introduction  to  the  Variations  consists  of  broad  chords 
-■■  and  displayful  runs  and  trills.  The  theme  is  given  out  by  the  first 
violins  allegro  poco  lento.  It  is  to  be  varied  with  such  freedom  as  often 
to  be  scarcely  recognizable.   The  descending  interval  of  a  fifth  which 
begins  it  becomes  a  sort  of  earmark.  An  "Adagio"  follows,  consisting  of 
soft  chords  for  lower  strings  and  ornamental  passages  for  the  violins. 
There  is  a  lively  "March,"  light  and  staccato,  presto  alia  marcia.   An 
"Aria  Italiana"  follows,  allegro  brillante.   The  first  violins  with  orna- 
mental trills  suggest  the  operatic,  coloratura  style.  The  next  movement 
is  a  "Bourree  Classique,"  a  simple  but  strongly  rhythmed  movement 
with  a  pianissimo  middle  section.   A  Moto  Perpetuo  progresses  upon 
rapid  and  unremitting  sixteenth  notes  to  a  fortissimo  climax.  A  Marcia 
Funebre  follows.  The  final  Fugue  is  in  a  lively  12-8  rhythm,  sometimes 
suggestive,  as  it  gathers  impetus,  of  the  tarantella.  The  orchestra,  much 
divided,  attains  a  considerable  complexity  and  sets  forth  the  usual 
devices  of  augmentation  and  inversion.   At  last,  lento  e  solenne,  the 
violins  revert  to  a  full-length  statement  of  the  theme.   The  orchestra 
ultimately  spreads  into  diaphanous  arpeggios,  punctuated  in  the  last 
measure  by  a  strong  chord.  A  "Wiener  Walz"  and  "Chant"  are  omitted 
in  this  performance. 

Benjamin  Britten  was  only  twelve  years  old  when  he  began  to  study 
with  Frank  Bridge,  his  fellow  English  composer,  who  remained  his 
life-long  friend.*  Mr.  Britten  attended  the  Royal  College  of  Music  of 
London,  where  John  Ireland  became  his  teacher  in  composition,  Arthur 
Benjamin  his  teacher  in  piano. 

It  was  in  1934,  when  the  composer  was  barely  of  age,  that  his  music, 
which  he  produced  with  considerable  regularity,  began  to  be  played. 
His  published  works  include  a  Sinfonietta  for  chamber  orchestra, 
1932;  Phantasy  for  oboe  and  strings,  1932;  Choral  Variations  A  Boy 
Was  Born,  1933;  Simple  Symphony  for  string  orchestra,  1934;  Holiday 
Tales  for  piano,  1934;   Te  Deum  for  chorus  and  organ,   1934;  Suite 


*  Frank  Bridge  conducted  his  own  orchestral  suite  "The  Sea"  at  the  concerts  of  the  Boston 
Symphony  Orchestra,  October  26,  1923.    He  died  in  1941. 

[18] 


for  Violin  and  Piano,  1935;  Friday  Afternoon,  School  Songs,  1935; 
Our  Hunting  Fathers,  symphonic  cycle  for  soprano  and  orchestra,  1936; 
Soirees  Musicales,  Suite  for  orchestra,  1936;  On  This  Island,  songs  by 
W.  H.  Au den,  1937;  Mont  Juic,  Catalan  Dance  Suite,  1937;  Piano 
Concerto,  1938;  Ballad  of  Heroes,  for  tenor,  chorus  and  orchestra, 
1939;  Violin  Concerto;  Les  Illuminations,  for  voice  and  string  orches- 
tra; Kermesse  Canadienne,  for  orchestra;  Sinfonia  da  Requiem  (in 
1940).  In  1940  also  he  composed  his  opera  Paul  Bunyan,  and  it  has 
been  in  the  following  years  that  he  has  established  himself  in  the  world 
of  opera.  Peter  Grimes  (introduced  to  this  country  by  the  Berkshire 
Music  Center  at  Tanglewood  in  1946)  has  been  followed  by  Albert 
Herring  (introduced  to  this  country  by  the  Berkshire  Music  Center  at 
Tanglewood,  1949),  The  Rape  of  Lucretia,  Billy  Budd,  The  Turn  of 
the  Screw,  Gloriana  (on  the  subject  of  his  Queen,  on  her  coronation). 
He  has  revised  The  Beggar's  Opera  and  recently  composed  a  children's 
opera  Let's  Make  an  Opera  in  which  the  audience  participates.  He  has 
written  a  cantata,  St.  Nicholas,  and  a  Spring  Symphony  with  chorus 
which  had  its  first  American  performance  at  the  Berkshire  Festival  in 
1949.  Mr.  Britten,  who  has  visited  this  country  several  times,  made  a 
tour  with  the  tenor  Peter  Pears,  accompanying  the  singer  and  conduct- 
ing his  own  music. 

[copyrighted] 


PIANO  CONCERTO  NO.  2,  in  G  minor,  Op.  16 

By  Serge  Sergeivitch  Prokofieff 

(For  Notes  See  page  5) 

PROKOFIEFF  AS  A  RUSSIAN  ARTIST 


/^vf  the  two  principal  composers  who  have  come  from  Russia  in 

^-^  this  century,  one  became  a  cosmopolitan  artist  and  never  returned 
to  the  land  of  his  origin.    The  other  tried  his  fortunes  in  both  East 

and  West,  returned  and  sought  to  re-establish  his  Russian  roots.    Is 

ProkofiefFs  music  basically  Russian?   We  know  that  he  learned  from 

Russian  masters,  and  that  he  has  felt  a  blood  kinship  with  his  people. 

We  also  know  from  his  music,  first  to  last,  that  he  early  developed  a 

very  definite,  personal  style,  independent  of  any  country  or  influence, 

and   that  his  style,   throughout   the  years,   has   never  changed.    He 

matured  orchestrally  in  his  last  three  symphonies,  but  never  lost  his 

lively  and  engaging  fantasy  for  depiction  in  ballet,  opera  or  film.   He 

[19] 


became  and  remained  the  principal  composer  of  Soviet  Russia.  Nicolas 
Nabokov  also  finds  his  music  truly  Russian:  "There  exists  a  powerful 
interrelation,"  he  writes,  "between  Prokofieff  as  an  artist,  as  a  human 
being,  and  the  Russia  of  today  [1951].  In  particular  his  art  has  served 
as  a  leaden  among  the  younger  generation  of  Soviet  composers.  In 
fact,  few  pages  of  the  early  works  of  Shostakovitch,  of  Khatchaturian, 
and  of  many  others,  are  free  from  a  specific  relation  to  either 
Prokofieff 's  methods  or  his  technique.  In  -the  Soviet  constellation 
Prokofieff  has  occupied  for  a  long  time  the  position  of  an  older 
master  (a  position  shared  with  Miaskovsky).  Hence  his  works  have 
been  regarded  as  examples  of  artistic  perfection,  as  objects  worthy  of 
imitation,  and  also  as  'signposts'  of  the  progress  of  Soviet  musical 
culture." 

In  view  of  the  obvious  authority  and  importance  of  Prokofieff  in 
his  country  at  this  time,  the  effrontery  of  the  politically  inspired 
directive  of  1948  which  instructed  him  how  to  compose  and  how  not 
to  compose  would  be  negligible,  if  it  were  not  also  ominous,  a  threat 
to  the  composer  of  obliteration  by  nonperformance  and  nonsupport. 
The  resolution  of  the  Central  Committee  of  the  Communist  Party 
which  condemned  him  for  having  fallen  into  the  error  of  "formalist" 
tendencies  and  Western  "bourgeois"  influences  must  have  been  either 
moved  by  envy  of  his  foremost  position  among  composers  in  Russia, 
or  simply  by  ignorance  of  the  real  nature  of  his  music.  He  has  never 
been  "formalistic"  in  the  sense  of  adopting  a  constructive  formula 
such  as  twelve-tonalism  or  elaborate  counterpoint,  obscure  to  the 
general  listener.  Nor  has  he  reflected  the  ways  of  Western  composers 
as  has,  for  example,  Shostakovitch.  On  the  contrary,  his  scores  have 
always  been  transparent  in  texture,  thanks  to  his  craft  and  his  dislike 
of  contrapuntal  involvement.  His  rhythms  have  always  been  simplicity 
itself,  his  melodies  appealing  though  not  conventional. 

Since  he  was  denounced  on  just  these  points,  the  denunciation  in 
Pravda  on  February  10,  1948,  becomes  meaningless  to  anyone  who  really 
knows  his  music.  Every  accusation  was  contrary  to  fact.  He  had 
established  himself  permanently  in  Russia  since  1939  (after  which 
time  he  was  given  no  passport);  with  an  evident  sympathy  for  his  own 
people  he  had  composed  the  ballets  on  Russian  subjects  —  Le  pas  d'acier 
and  Sur  le  Borysthene,  patriotic  cantatas  for  the  Twentieth  Anniver- 
sary of  the  October  Revolution,  and  on  the  historical  Alexander 
Nevsky,  the  Operas  Semyon  Kotko  and  War  and  Peace,  together  of 
course  with  music  not  directly  connected  with  Russian  subjects.  When 
the  blow  fell  he  was  seriously  ill,  having  just  suffered  his  third  heart 
attack.  He  was  evidently  obliged  to  write  an  open  retraction  and 
confess  to  each  of  the  sins  he  had  not  committed.   His  letter  to  Khren- 


nikov  in  which  he  confesses  the  error  of  his  ways  and  promises  to  do 
better  is  a  tragic  spectacle  of  the  humiliation  of  the  composer  whom 
his  Western  friends  had  long  known  as  proud  to  the  point  of  arrogance, 
intractable,  ruthlessly  frank  about  music,   and  particularly  his  own. 
These  are  the  outstanding  facts  about  Prokofieff  in  the  description  of 
him  by  Nicolas  Nabokov  in  Old  Friends  and  New  Music,   the  best 
word  picture  of  him  in  the  English  language.   It  is  distressing  to  read 
admissions   by   this    usually  fearless   and   defiant   artist   that   he   has 
"caught  the  infection"   (of  formalism)  "apparently  from  contact  with 
a  number  of  Western  trends";  that  he  has  accepted  the  "prerequisites" 
they  have  laid  down  for  "the  return  to  health  of  the  entire  organism 
of  Soviet  music."    Looking  closer  we  find  qualifying  clauses   which 
seem  to  restore  the  old  Prokofieff.    He  writes  before  the  passage  last 
quoted:  "No  matter  how  painful  for  a  number  of  composers,  myself 
included,   it  may  be,   I   welcome   the   Resolution  — ."    In   the   other 
quotation   we   seize    upon    the   word    "apparently."     Told    to    write 
assimilable  melody,  he  endorses  the  idea.    "One  must  possess  special 
vigilance  to  keep  a  melody  simple  without  transforming  it  into  some- 
thing cheap,  saccharine,  or  imitative,"  which  of  course  had  been  a 
vigilance  triumphantly  possessed  by  Prokofieff  all  along.   Told  to  put 
more  arias  and  less  recitative  into  his  operas,  probably  in  reference 
to  War  and  Peace,  which  is  based  largely  on  a  narrative  text  and  is 
actually  handled  with  a  fresh  mastery  of  lyrical  recitative,  he  answers 
tartly  that  arias  freeze  the  visual  action.   "I  like  the  stage  as  such,  and 
I  believe  that  a  person  who  goes  to  the  opera  has  a  right  to  expect  not 
only  aural  but  visual  impressions  —  or  else  he  would  not  go  to  the 
opera,  but  to  a  concert."    Prokofieff's  letter,  needless  to  say,  did  not 
meet  with  official  favor. 

There  is  evidence  of  his  unrepentance  a  year  later.    The  following 
incident  was  reported  by  Lieutenant-General  Walter   Bedell  Smith 
("My  Three  Years  in  Moscow,"  N.  Y.  Times,  November  25,  1949): 

"At  the  session  where  the  matter  was  discussed,  Prokofieff,  I  was 
told,  kept  his  back  turned  while  Shvernik  and  Zhdanov  talked,  and 
when  reprimanded  for  his  inattention,  said  bitterly,  'Oh,  I  know  it 
all  already,'  adding  in  a  loud  aside  to  Shostakovitch:  'What  do 
ministers  know  of  music?   That  is  the  business  of  composers.' ' 

Perhaps  it  was  with  the  purpose  of  punishing  him  further  that  an 
official  dictum  condemned  his  sincerely  intended  patriotic  opera,  The 
Life  of  a  Real  Person  as  "an  unpardonable  distortion  of  Soviet 
Reality,"  a  "base  mixture  of  formalistic  habits." 

When  a  proper  time  had  elapsed,  namely  three  years,  he  was  rein- 
stated by  the  award  of  the  Stalin  Prize  for  the  Oratorio  On  Guard 
of  Peace  and  the  Symphonic  Suite  Winter  Bonfire.    If  these  honored 


masterpieces  are  not  already  forgotten,  let  us  predict  that  the  Sixth 
Symphony  of  1947,  plainly  music  from  the  composer's  heart  and  quite 
unprompted  by  any  "directive,"  a  work  which  was  frowned  upon, 
will  outlast  them. 

Nabokov  tells  us  that  Prokofieff  was  never  particularly  interested 
in  politics  and  never  espoused  communism  as  politically  desirable. 
"Prokofieff  accepted  the  Russian  Revolution  in  its  'totality'  and  saw 
in  the  new  Russia  the  logical  consequence  of  the  old  one,  the  result 
of  a  century-long  process  of  emancipation.  He  was,  and  surely  still  is, 
a  sincere  and  instinctive  Russian  patriot,  who  gives  little  thought  to 
the  question  of  justice  or  injustice  of  the  Soviet  government  and 
regards  its  acts  as  the  result  of  a  kind  of  inexplicable  historical  neces- 
sity. In  other  words,  he  is  a  person  whose  political  thinking  never 
developed  and  who,  not  unlike  many  American  artists,  believed  that 
his  main  job  was  to  do  his  own  work  and  leave  political  matters  and 
entanglements  to  others.  At  the  same  time  he  felt  very  strongly  his 
profound  association,  or  rather  his  organic  tie,  with  Russia,  with  the 
Russian  people  and  Russian  culture.  Despite  his  long  years  abroad 
and  his  position  as  a  famous  composer  in  the  Western  world,  he 

remained  essentially  Russian,  in  his  habits,  his  behavior  and  his  art." 

j.   N.   B. 


ENTR'ACTE 

MUSIC  OF  YESTERDAY  AND  TODAY 
By  Pablo  Casals 


'  *  Conversations  with  Casals"  by  Dr.  J.  Ma.  Corredor,  translated  by  Andre 
Mangeot,  has  just  been  published  in  England  by  Hutchinson  &  Co.,  Ltd.  It  is  a 
virtual  autobiography  in  the  form  of  a  series  of  interviews  in  which  the  writer  offers 
questions  or  provocative  quotations  (here  italicized).  Pau  Casals,  answering,  is  thus 
drawn  to  relate  both  his  life  experiences  and  his  opinions.  A  few  excerpts  from  the 
chapter  with  the  above  title  are  here  quoted. 

Curiously  enough,  Furtwangler  says  about  the  finale  of  the  Ninth 
Symphony:  "This  theme  —  a  theme  par  excellence,  a  theme  of  the 
highest  type,  the  discovery  of  a  great  musician  if  ever  there  was  one, 
this  theme  could  not  be  in  any  way  conceived  in  order  to  comment  or 
expound  one  particular  text.  Just  the  opposite:  it  looks  as  if  it  were 
the  poem  which  expounds  the  theme." 

This  theme  becomes  the  musical  climax  (exclusively  musical)  of  this 
symphony,  but  I  cannot  agree  with  anyone  who  says  that  it  was  not 
inspired  by  the  Ode  to  Joy.  When  I  hear  it,  I  get  an  impression  which 
is  almost  religious,  a  sort  of  feeling  of  fraternity,  and  it  penetrates  me 
like  a  glorious  musical  rendering  of  the  poetical  humanitarianism  of 

Schiller. 

•      • 


Is  Schubert  a  symphonist?    The  Unfinished  very  often  played  —  the 
C  Major  Symphony,  not  so  often.    The  others  .  .  .? 

We  are  beginning  to  understand  the  other  symphonies.  There  was 
a  time  when  people  talked  about  the  lengthiness  of  Schubert's  works. 
It  doesn't  exist!  One  day  in  Vienna,  at  the  house  of  Karl  Wittenstein, 
I  saw  the  old  manuscript  of  Schubert's  Second  Trio  for  piano,  viola 
and  violoncello.  On  it  I  saw  annotations  and  a  cut  made  by  Joachim  — 
it  just  shows  you  how  wrong  great  men  can  be!  No  cuts  are  required 
in  Schubert.  Joachim  made  the  same  mistake  as  Schumann,  Gounod, 
Grieg  and  so  many  others  in  regard  to  some  of  Bach's  works. 

As  for  the  string  quintet  with  two  violoncelli  you  have  played  .  .  . 

So  many  times  and  always  with  the  greatest  admiration  and  the 
deepest  emotion! 

In  Schubert  do  you  feel  that  indefinable  nostalgia  of  which  he  is 
supposed  to  have  the  secret? 

If  one  has  to  enumerate  all  the  things  one  can  find  in  his  music! 


Many  biographers  content  themselves  merely  with  noting  the  exist- 
ence of  Schumann's  Cello  Concerto. 

It  must  be  because  they  fail  to  see  the  interest  and  the  value  of  this 
work.  It  is  one  of  the  finest  works  one  can  hear  —  from  beginning  to 
end  the  music  is  sublime. 

"Schumann's  themes  are  generally  brief,  rarely  more  than  four  bars, 
very  often  written  in  an  ascending  line  which  gives  to  the  melody  an 
interrogative  character,  very  typical  of  Schumann's  restlessness." 

That  is  true! 

Talking  of  Schumann,  Furtwangler  says  "His  flights  faltered  pre- 
maturely." Many  have  spoken  of  his  difficulty,  even  the  impossibility 
for  him  in  developing  his  themes.  "The  conciseness  of  his  themes," 
says  Cceuroy,  "has  brought  about  the  criticism  of  'short  inspiration.' " 

There  is  no  question  of  "brief  inspiration"  with  Schumann.  I  find 
that  in  any  of  his  compositions  the  inspiration  never  weakens  from 
beginning  to  end.  Schumann  is  preeminently  a  person  who  acts  under 
the  influence  of  some  mystical  inspiration,  what  the  French  call  an 
inspire,  and  I  mean  it  in  its  highest  sense.  The  structural  elements  of 
his  works  are  those  best  fitted  to  his  needs  of  expression,  and  it  would 
be  out  of  place  to  speak  of  any  incapacity  for  development.  If  his 
themes  are  short  it  must  be  simply  because  this  conciseness  suited  his 
inspiration  and  not  because  Schumann  could  not  or  did  not  know  how 
to  develop  them. 


[*3] 


There  were  some  musicians  and  music-lovers  at  that  time  who  said 
that  Wagner  "killed"  melody  and  also  that  he  gave  the  wind  instru- 
ments an  importance  out  of  all  proportion. 

Right  from  the  beginning  I  thought  that  Wagner's  music  was  great 
and  that  he  used  very  natural  means  of  expression  which  were  easy  to 
understand. 

Were  you  impressed  by  all  his  symbolism,  his  philosophy,  and  other 
considerations  that  were  outside  the  realm  of  music? 

No.  I  was  not  interested  in  those:  it  was  the  music  which  impressed 
me  straight  away. 

Your  friend,  Ysaye,  having  heard  Tristan  for  the  first  time,  speaks 
of  an  "annihilation  in  rapture."  When  he  got  home,  having  taken  his 
shoes  off  he  threw  them  on  the  fire,  at  the  thought  that  in  his  life  one 
had  to  give  up  ecstasy  in  order  to  attend  to  things  as  dull  as  unlacing 
one's  shoes. 

I  did  not  throw  my  shoes  in  the  fire  after  I  heard  Tristan,  but  I 
remember  how  deeply  moved  I  was,  I  am  sure  quite  as  much  as  my 
dear  friend  Ysaye.  There  must  have  been  very  few  musicians  of  my 
generation  who  did  not  fall  under  the  spell  of  Tristan. 


About  Brahms'  music,  Darius  Milhaud  said,  not  very   long  ago, 

"Bogus  greatness,  long  drawn  out." 

No,  Milhaud  is  wrong.  Brahms  is  a  great  composer  amongst  the  great 
ones. 

"Whoever  likes  or  dislikes  Brahms  cannot  avoid  his  great  personality, 
which  is  precisely  the  reason  why  he  is  accepted  or  rejected;  his  music 
calls  at  once  for  adherence  or  refusal.  There  is  no  middle  way."  (Rene 
Dumesnil.) 

If  one  is  sensitive  and  not  perverse,  one  can  only  reject  what  is  bad, 
ugly  or  stupid.  Are  there  any  trustworthy  or  truthful  people  who  could 
apply  these  adjectives  to  Brahms'  music?  Therefore,  those  people  Mr. 
Dumesnil  has  in  mind  in  his  article  have  not  got  the  right  to  intervene 
in  the  cause  of  the  composer.  Brahms'  position  in  France  should  be 
made  clear  once  and  for  all.  Mr.  Dumesnil  could  do  that  very  well. 
He  knows  that  the  French  public  would  like  to  hear  Brahms,  but  that 
a  number  of  musicians  and  critics  always  run  him  down  and  try  to  stop 
further  performances  out  of  pure  prejudice.  The  proof  of  this  prejudice 
of  the  critics  and  composers  towards  Brahms'  music  is  contained  in  the 
false  accusation  that  this  music  is  too  Germanic.  (The  same  might 
apply  to  Mahler,  Bruckner,  Reger,  etc.)  Pierre  Lalo,  the  celebrated 
critic,  is  largely  responsible  for  this  state  of  affairs,  which  spread  from 
France  to  countries  like  Belgium,  Switzerland  (the  Romande  part), 
Italy  and  Spain.  It  may  be  due  to  incomprehension  on  his  part,  but  I 
should  say  it  is  mostly  dictated  by  bad  faith,  which  is  sad  to  relate.  I 
have  known  a  time,  in  Paris,  when  it  was  impossible  to  speak  of  Brahms 
to  Debussy  or  Ravel,  and  even  to  Faure.  It  hurts  me  to  think  of  it. 
I  can  remember  an  article  in  Figaro  signed  by  Alfred  Bruneau  after  a 

[24] 


performance  of  the  Brahms  Violin  Concerto  at  a  concert  of  the  Colonne 
Orchestra.  He  only  wrote:  "Mr.  Carl  Flesch  played  the  long  and  heavy 
concerto  of  Brahms." 

Did  Faure  also  dislike  Brahms? 

Faure  always  asked  me  to  sit  on  the  jury  for  the  yearly  cello  competi- 
tion when  I  was  in  Paris.  One  year  the  candidates  had  to  play  a  Brahms 
piece,  and  I  have  not  forgotten  the  remarks  Faure  made  to  me  on  the 
music! 

Some  people  have  said  that  the  misunderstanding  of  Brahms'  music 
in  France  could  be  compared  to  the  same  misunderstanding  of  Faure 's 
music  in  Germany.  Did  you  play  Faure  in  Germany  during  your  tours 
in  that  country? 

Yes,  I  have  played  Faure  in  Germany,  Austria  and  in  the  German 
part  of  Switzerland. 

And  how  did  the  public  take  it? 

Always  very  favourably,  although  I  must  own  that  Faure  is  almost 
unknown  and  little  played  in  Germany. 

Numerous  musicians  think  Richard  Strauss  is  the  greatest  composer 
of  the  XXth  century. 

That  is  possible.  In  any  case  I  admire  him  enormously.  In  all  his 
work  you  find  such  clarity  and  precision;  his  way  of  treating  and 
bringing  out  instrumental  colour  is  positively  extraordinary  and  I 
doubt  anyone  having  surpassed  him  in  that  direction. 

What  do  you  think  of  impressionism? 

To  my  mind  musical  impressionism,  of  which  Debussy  and  Ravel  are 
undoubtedly  the  leaders,  is  a  decadent  deviation  from  the  stream  of 
great  music.  Not  that  I  deny  the  value  of  what  these  two  composers 
have  created:  their  new  artistic  formula  is  of  great  interest  and  denotes 
an  exquisite  poetical  charm  and  is  very  suggestive.  If  one  wanted  to 
put  a  label  on  impressionism  (if  labels  could  prove  anything)  one 
could  write  on  it  "decorative  music".  Debussy's  melodic  line  is  far 
from  being  remarkable:  it  is  through  his  harmonic  invention  that  he 
has  given  to  his  works  the  interest  and  charm  of  which  I  was  speaking. 

You  knew  Ravel  when  he  was  very  young? 

Yes,  it  was  at  the  time  when  we  all  visited  Mrs.  Ram.  In  those  days 
Ravel  was  still  a  student  attending  Faure's  composition  classes  at  the 
Conservatoire.  He  asked  me  one  day  to  listen  to  one  of  his  latest  com- 
positions. It  was  the  Pavane  pour  une  Infante  Defunte.  I  told  him 
that  (as  I  thought)  it  was  a  masterly  little  work.  He  was  surprised,  as 
I  remember  it,  and,  of  course,  as  I  told  you,  he  was  still  a  student. 

Enesco  used  to  ask:  "Who  is  not  touched  by  the  charm  of  Ravel  or 

Debussy?  But,  besides  this  charm,  I  should  like  some  broader  and 
more  spacious  music"  (I  cannot  vouch  that  these  are  his  actual  words, 
but  it  was  what  he  meant). 

I  quite  agree  with  Enesco. 

And  what  about  Faure? 

[25] 


Faure  may  have  contributed  to  the  impressionist  school  of  music 
with  his  great  delicacy  and  his  capacity  for  harmonic  invention,  but 
he  derives  from  the  central  growth  of  art.  To  use  a  simile,  we  could 
think  of  Faure  as  coming  from  the  trunk  of  great  music,  while  Debussy 
and  Ravel  are  only  offshoots  of  a  branch. 

/  have  heard  it  said  that  Faure  had  the  rare  privilege  of  being  "the 
man  of  his  work". 

Yes,  both  as  a  man  and  as  a  composer  we  find  in  him  a  deep  and 
exquisite  nature. 

•  •  • 

Did  you  know  Schonberg  well? 

Yes,  I  was  in  touch  with  him,  I  followed  his  evolution  and,  through 
conversations  I  had  with  him,  I  know  what  his  anxieties  and  aspira- 
tions were.  I  know  where  he  stands,  and  when  I  hear  that  he  and  some 
modern  composers  are  put  together  in  the  same  category  I  say:  No, 
there  is  a  mistake.  In  Schonberg  we  have  a  man  who  deliberately  chose 
the  path  of  research  with  complete  sincerity  towards  himself.  Some 
people  thought  that,  because  he  was  successful,  he  allowed  himself  to 
write  insignificant  works  in  the  belief  that  they  would  naturally  be 
applauded  by  people  who  were  unable  to  understand  his  compositions, 
but  wanted  to  look  as  if  they  did. 

Schonberg  was  not  like  that:  he  had  musical  genius  and  he  revered 
all  composers  who  deserved  it.  (What  would  some  of  the  iconoclasts 
of  our  time  say  if  they  had  heard  him  say,  as  I  have,  how  well  he  under- 
stood and  admired  even  a  composer  like  Donizetti?) 

With  the  prophetic  instinct  of  his  race  and  his  profound  devotion  to 
music  he  wished  to  explore  unknown  spheres,  like  atonality,  with  the 
object  of  finding  out  what  could  be  done  with  it.  His  attitude  was  one 
of  self-sacrifice  —  it  consisted  of  putting  on  one  side  the  "known" 
methods  (in  which  he  excelled)  in  order  to  penetrate  into  the  "un- 
known". His  goal  was  not  to  break  with  the  past,  but  to  increase  the 
treasures  of  music  with  the  new  possibilities  produced  by  his  researches. 

What  was  he  like  as  a  person? 

Oh,  delightful!  Very  simple,  full  of  charm  and  possessing  a  brilliant 
intelligence. 

•  •         • 

What  do  you  think  of  the  result  of  Schonberg's  innovations? 

By  and' large  I  think  that  some  of  his  ideas  will  help  in  the  normal 
(but  not  purely  cerebral)  development  of  music.  But,  on  the  other 
hand,  I  think  that  some  of  his  innovations  will  prove  fruitless.  I 
remember  one  day  in  Vienna  when  Schonberg  talked  to  me  of  his 
plans.  In  spite  of  all  his  enthusiasm,  I  could  not  escape  the  vision  of 
the  abyss  which  was  opening  beneath  his  feet! 

•     •     • 

What  impression  did  Alban  Berg's  "Wozzeck"  make  on  you? 

That  of  a  master  who  moves  in  a  world  that  is  not  mine. 

Do  you  think  of  atonality  as  fundamentally  wrong? 

Not  wrong  in  principle.  I  have  used  it  myself  to  describe  some  kind 

[26] 


of  musical  vision,  especially  in  my  Sardana  for  'celli.  But  before  and 
after  these  descriptive  passages,  I  have  written  some  real  music.  (Vin- 
cent d'Indy  wrote  to  me  about  my  Sardana  for  'celli  congratulating  me 
and  explaining  that  he  agreed  with  my  way  of  using  atonality.  At  the 
end  of  his  letter  he  quoted  a  bit  of  the  Sardana  that  he  specially  liked.) 
A  composer  has  a  right  to  use  any  means,  even  atonality,  at  a  given 
time.  We  find  Bach,  Chopin  and  Wagner  using  it  as  a  means  to  create 
an  impression.  But  can  music  be  reduced  to  a  series  of  impressions  as 
our  modern  composers  try  to  do?  It  has  no  sense.  It  is  absurd  to  turn 
atonality  into  a  system. 

•         •         • 

You  told  me  once  that  one  could  establish  a  parallel  between  Picasso 
and  Stravinsky. 

Yes. 

Picasso  has  said:  "All  my  pictures  are  only  experiments." 

For  centuries  the  masters  of  music  have  kept  their  experiments  to 
themselves  and  thought  that  they  should  only  give  to  listeners  the 
works  which  they  had  felt,  thought  over  and  allowed  to  mature. 

One  cannot  stop  evolution  in  the  Arts. 

We  should  not  confuse  natural  evolution  with  a  complete  rupture 
with  the  past.  A  musician  can  get  rid  of  restraints  and  find  his  own 
way  without  breaking,  in  a  fit  of  temper,  with  all  the  ties  which  connect 
him  with  the  experiments  of  his  predecessors.  Evolution  following  a 
normal  course  has  always  existed,  and  always  will  exist. 

"We  used  to  think  that  when  an  artist  had  originality  it  was  revealed 
without  effort  on  his  part.  We  found  that  the  pleasure  of  the  unex- 
pected was  born  of  those  occasions  when  we  were  denied  the  pleasure 
of  the  expected.  The  variety,  the  very  modifications  a  musician 
brought  to  the  construction  and  the  language  used,  were  worked  out 
within  the  accepted  framework.  But,  in  most  present-day  compositions, 
since  the  listener  is  unable  to  anticipate  anything  while  the  music  is 
going  on,  the  sensation  of  the  unexpected  has  disappeared."  (Max 
d'Ollone.) 

It  is  true.  The  exaggerated  desire  for  originality  leads  to  worse 
aberrations.  Each  one  of  us  possesses  as  much  originality  as  the  most 
modest  creation  of  nature.  How  many  leaves  are  on  this  tree  in  the 
garden,  and  yet  there  are  not  two  alike!  If  you  see  a  friend  coming  in 
the  distance  you  will  know  him  by  his  gait;  there  is  no  need  for  him 
to  gesticulate  in  any  fancy  way  in  order  that  you  may  know  who  it  is. 
Why?  Just  because  he  has  his  own  characteristics,  his  originality  in 
fact.  In  music  it  is  easy  to  gesticulate  and  talk  nonsense,  in  order  to 
appear  original;  the  difficulty  is  to  put  one's  own  mark  on  a  composi- 
tion while  using  the  accepted  language  which  is  comprehensible  to  all. 

•     •     • 

Prokofieff  said:  "I  have  been  trying  to  find  a  melodious  and  clear 
language  without  renouncing  the  harmonic  and  melodic  shapes  uni- 
versally acknowledged.  And  this  is  where  the  difficulty  comes  in:  to 
write  music  with  a  new  clarity." 

The  great  masters  have  used  the  recognised  harmonic  system,  but 

[*7] 


they  have  done  it  with  such  art  and  individual  genius  that  their  works 
always  seem  new.  In  Bach  and  Mozart  I  can  easily  perceive  a  "new 
clarity".  I  think  that  Prokofieff  and  Bartok  are  both  extraordinarily 
gifted  musicians.  Some  of  their  compositions  will  certainly  survive 
triumphantly  the  test  of  time.  The  rest  of  their  work  I  am  not  so  sure 
about. 

And  Hindemithf 

I  have  not  seen  Hindemith  since  1932,  when  I  played  with  him, 
Schnabel  and  Huberman  in  Vienna  at  some  chamber  music  concerts  I 
shall  never  forget.  Never  mind  what  his  theories  were;  he  has  left 
unmistakable  proofs  of  his  remarkable  talent  as  a  composer. 

A  critic  wrote  about  one  of  his  last  works,  "Nobilissima  Visione," 
that  Hindemith  has  used  again  "a  language  which  speaks  to  the  heart". 

All  to  the  good. 

What  of  Milhaud? 

Milhaud  has  a  great  gift  for  composition  and  has  given  us  some  mag- 
nificent works.  It  is  a  pity  that  he  also  thought  he  had  to  be  "modern" 
at  all  costs.  I  have  a  most  touching  letter  from  Milhaud  in  which  he 
tells  me  of  the  impression  I  made  on  him  the  first  time  he  heard  me, 
when  he  was  very  young. 

Honegger? 

It  seems  to  me  that  he  is  one  of  the  contemporary  composers  of 
greatest  musical  value.  (I  think  that  the  best  composer  of  our  time  is 
Ernest  Bloch.)  In  spite  of  his  "modernism"  Honegger  refrained  from 
going  beyond  certain  limits.  He  has  been  influenced  by  modern  ten- 
dencies but  has  known  how  to  choose  some  innovations  and  reject 
others,  while  remaining  faithful  to  what  we  may  define  as  a  musical 
idea,  the  thing  that  so  many  contemporary  musicians  have  just 
abolished. 

Musicians  as  modern  as  Honegger  and  Hindemith  have  said  about 
dodecaphonism:  "This  serial  system  prides  itself  on  having  very  strict 
rules.  These  people  look  to  me  like  convicts,  who  having  shaken  off 
their  chains,  voluntarily  tie  up  their  feet  with  weights  in  order  to  run 
quicker!  .  .  ."  (Honegger.)  "One  can  invent  as  many  arbitrary  rules  of 
this  kind  as  one  chooses.  But  if  one  chooses  to  use  them  to  produce  a 
new  style  of  musical  composition,  I  think  one  could  find  other  rules 
less  narrow  and  more  interesting.  The  idea  of  dodecaphonism  seems  to 
me  moret  theoretic  than  all  the  pedantries  of  the  professors  of  tradi- 
tional harmony."   (Hindemith.) 

I  am  delighted  to  hear  that  Honegger  and  Hindemith  say  those 
things.  What  is  necessary  is  that  composers  understand  the  art  of 
expressing  oneself  musically.  Those  who  have  nothing  to  say  should 
do  something  else.  And  those  who  truly  feel  a  deep  necessity  to  com- 
pose should  do  so  in  ways  which  may  be  new  but  which  must  in  any 
case  be  simple  and  comprehensible.  I  insist:  It  is  not  the  procedure 
that  matters,  but  the  result.  In  the  long  run,  time  will  choose,  and 
give  to  everyone  the  place  he  deserves. 

Simplicity  in  forms  of  expression  has  never  been  prejudicial  to  a 
sincere  creator,  for  he  always  knows  that  originality  is  above  all  a  gift. 
I  have  heard  a  lot  of  music  in  the  course  of  my  long  career,  but  every 

[28] 


time  I  hear  Haydn  I  have  the  impression  that  I  hear  some  newly  dis- 
covered thing.  Great  music,  if  well  performed,  is  sufficiently  rich  to 
keep  intact  the  sense  of  novelty  and  to  increase  the  desire  to  hear  it 
again. 

Honegger  is  very  pessimistic  on  the  future  of  music:  "At  present, 
what  plays  the  most  important  part  in  compositions  is  the  use  of 
rhythmical  shock  in  contrast  to  voluptuous  melody.  At  the  present  rate 
we  shall  have  by  the  end  of  this  century  an  elementary,  barbarous 
music  which  will  combine  elemental  melody  with  brutally  scanned 
rhythm.  This  will  admirably  suit  the  deformed  ear  of  the  music-lover 
of  the  year  2000V 

I  do  not  share  these  pessimistic  views.  Aesthetically,  the  receptive 
faculties  do  not  disappear  any  more  than  the  discriminative  moral 
faculties.  There  are  periods  of  crisis  and  straying,  but  man  finds  again 
the  notion  of  things  that  are  beautiful  and  pure. 

Furtwangler  says:  "Technical  questions  like  tonality  and  atonality, 
historical  considerations,  are  all  secondary  in  relation  to  this  other 
question:  in  which  proportion  does  the  music  of  today  represent  ade- 
quately what  we  are?  How  much  of  ourselves  do  we  find  in  this  music? 
This  question  is  positively  a  question  of  conscience:  it  would  deter- 
mine the  truth  of  our  musical  expression  and  the  authenticity  of  our 
existence  as  musicians/' 

These  words  seem  to  hit  the  nail  on  the  head.  The  criterion  of  con- 
science is  what  will  prevail  in  the  end,  because  the  great  things  of 
humanity  will  never  change  and  what  we  shall  always  find  in  artistic 
creation  is  the  man,  the  man  in  flesh  and  blood  and  not  an  abstract 
thousands  of  years  old,  like  Chinese  and  Indian  poetry.  They  have  the 
same  reason  for  existing  as  our  true  music  has.  Their  life  is  the  same 
today  as  in  all  eternity. 


Carnegie  Hall,  New  York 


Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 


Fifth  Pair  of  Concerts 
Wednesday  Evening,  March  20 
Saturday  Afternoon,  March  23 


[29] 


SYMPHONY  IN  C  MINOR,  NO.  1,  Op.  68 
By  Johannes  Brahms 

Born  in  Hamburg,  May  7,  1833;  died  in  Vienna,  April  3,  1897 


The  First  Symphony  of  Brahms  had  its  initial  performance  November  4,  1876, 
at  Carlsruhe,  Otto  Dessoff  conducting. 

The  symphony  is  scored  for  2  flutes,  2  oboes,  2  clarinets,  2  bassoons,  contra- 
bassoon,  4  horns,  2  trumpets,  3  trombones,  timpani  and  strings  The  trombones 
are  used  only  in  the  finale. 

Not  until  he  was  forty-three,  did  Brahms  present  his  First  Sym- 
phony to  the  world.  His  friends  had  long  looked  to  him  ex- 
pectantly to  carry  on  this  particular  glorious  German  tradition.  As 
early  as  1854  Schumann,  who  had  staked  his  strongest  prophecies  on 
Brahms'  future,  wrote  to  Joachim:  "But  where  is  Johannes?  Is  he  flying 
high,  or  only  under  the  flowers?  Is  he  not  yet  ready  to  let  drums  and 
trumpets  sound?  He  should  always  keep  in  mind  the  beginning  of  the 
Beethoven  symphonies:  he  should  try  to  make  something  like  them. 
The  beginning  is  the  main  thing;  if  only  one  makes  a  beginning,  then 
the  end  comes  of  itself."  Schumann,  that  shrewd  observer,  knew  that 
the  brief  beginnings  of  Brahms  were  apt  to  germinate,  to  expand,  to 
lead  him  to  great  ends.  Also,  that  Beethoven,  symphonically  speaking, 
would  be  his  point  of  departure. 

To  write  a  symphony  after  Beethoven  was  "no  laughing  matter," 
Brahms  once  wrote,  and  after  sketching  a  first  movement  he  admitted 
to  Hermann  Levi  —  "I  shall  never  compose  a  symphony!  You  have  no 
conception  of  how  the  likes  of  us  feel  when  we  hear  the  tramp  of  a 
giant  like  him  behind  us." 

To  study  Brahms  is  to  know  that  this  hesitancy  was  not  prompted 
by  any  craven  fear  of  the  hostile  pens  which  were  surely  lying  in  wait 
for  such  an  event  as  a  symphony  from  the  newly  vaunted  apostle  of 
classicism.  Brahms  approached  the  symphony  (and  the  concerto  too) 
slowly  and  soberly;  no  composer  was  ever  more  scrupulous  in  the  com- 
mitment of  his  musical  thoughts  to  paper.  He  proceeded  with  elaborate 
examination  of  his  technical  equipment  —  with  spiritual  self-question- 
ing —  and  with  unbounded  ambition.  The  result  —  a  period  of  fourteen 
years  between  the  first  sketch  and  the  completed  manuscript;  and  a 
score  which,  in  proud  and  imposing  independence,  in  advance  upon  all 
precedent  —  has  absolutely  no  rival  among  the  first-born  symphonies, 
before  or  since. 

His  first  attempt  at  a  symphony,  made  at  the  age  of  twenty,  was 
diverted  in  its  aim,  the  first  two  movements  eventually  becoming  the 
basis  of  his  piano  concerto  No.  1,  in  D  minor.  He  sketched  another 

[30] 


first  movement  at  about  the  same  time  (1854),  but  it  lay  in  his  desk  for 
years  before  he  felt  ready  to  take  the  momentous  plunge.  "For  about 
fourteen  years  before  the  work  appeared,"  writes  D.  Millar  Craig,* 
"it  was  an  open  secret  among  Brahms'  best  friends  that  his  first  sym- 
phony was  practically  complete.  Professor  Lipsius  of  Leipzig  Univer- 
sity, who  knew  Brahms  well  and  had  often  entertained  him,  told  me 
that  from  1862  onwards,  Brahms  almost  literally  carried  the  manu- 
script score  about  with  him  in  his  pocket,  hesitating  to  have  it  made 
public.  Joachim  and  Frau  Schumann,  among  others,  knew  that  the 
symphony  was  finished,  or  at  all  events  practically  finished,  and  urged 
Brahms  over  and  over  again  to  let  it  be  heard.  But  not  until  1876  could 
his  diffidence  about  it  be  overcome." 

It  would  be  interesting  to  follow  the  progress  of  the  sketches.  We 
know  from  Madame  Schumann  that  she  found  the  opening,  as  origi- 
nally submitted  to  her,  a  little  bold  and  harsh,  and  that  Brahms  ac- 
cordingly put  in  some  softening  touches.  "It  was  at  Miinster  am  Stein," 
(1862)  says  Albert  Dietrich,  "that  Brahms  showed  me  the  first  move- 
ment of  his  symphony  in  C  minor,  which,  however,  only  appeared 
much  later,  and  with  considerable  alterations." 

At  length  (November  4,  1876),  Brahms  yielded  his  manuscript  to 
Otto  Dessoff  for  performance  at  Carlsruhe.  He  himself  conducted  it  at 
Mannheim,  a  few  days  later,  and  shortly  afterward  at  Vienna,  Leipzig, 
and  Breslau.  Brahms  may  have  chosen  Carlsruhe  in  order  that  so  cru- 
cial an  event  as  the  first  performance  of  his  first  symphony  might  have 
the  favorable  setting  of  a  small  community,  well  sprinkled  with  friends, 
and  long  nurtured  in  the  Brahms  cause.  "A  little  town,"  he  called  it, 
"that  holds  a  good  friend,  a  good  conductor,  and  a  good  orchestra." 
Brahms'  private  opinion  of  Dessoff,  as  we  now  know,  was  none  too  high. 
But  Dessoff  was  valuable  as  a  propagandist.  He  had  sworn  allegiance 
to  the  Brahms  colors  by  resigning  from  his  post  as  conductor  of  the 
Vienna  Philharmonic  because  Brahms'  Serenade  in  A  major  was  re- 
fused. A  few  years  before  Dessoff  at  Carlsruhe,  there  had  been  Hermann 
Levi,  who  had  dutifully  implanted  Brahms  in  the  public  consciousness. 

Carlsruhe  very  likely  felt  honored  by  the  distinction  conferred  upon 
them  —  and  in  equal  degree  puzzled  by  the  symphony  itself.  There  was 
no  abundance  of  enthusiasm  at  these  early  performances,  although 
Carlsruhe,  Mannheim  and  Breslau  were  markedly  friendly.  The  sym- 
phony seemed  formidable  at  the  first  hearing,  and  incomprehensible 
—  even  to  those  favored  friends  who  had  been  allowed  an  advance  ac- 
quaintance with  the  manuscript  score,  or  a  private  reading  as  piano 
duet,  such  as  Brahms  and  Ignatz  Briill  gave  at  the  home  of  Friedrich 
Ehrbar  in  Vienna.  Even  Florence  May  wrote  of  the  "clashing  disso- 
nances  of  the  first  introduction."  Respect  and  admiration  the  symphony 

*  British  Broadcasting;  Corporation  Orchestra  program  notes. 

[31] 


won  everywhere.  It  was  apprehended  in  advance  that  when  the  com- 
poser of  the  Deutsches  Requiem  at  last  fulfilled  the  prophecies  of  Schu- 
mann and  gave  forth  a  symphony,  it  would  be  a  score  to  be  reckoned 
with.  No  doubt  the  true  grandeur  Of  the  music,  now  so  patent  to  every- 
one as  by  no  means  formidable,  would  have  been  generally  grasped  far 
sooner,  had  not  the  Brahmsians  and  the  neo-Germans  immediately 
raised  a  cloud  of  dust  and  kept  their  futile  controversy  raging  for  years. 

The  First  Symphony  soon  made  the  rounds  of  Germany,  enjoying 
a  particular  success  in  Berlin,  under  Joachim  (November  11,  1877).  In 
March  of  the  succeeding  year  it  was  also  heard  in  Switzerland  and  Hol- 
land. The  manuscript  was  carried  to  England  by  Joachim  for  a  per- 
formance in  Cambridge,  and  another  in  London  in  April,  each  much 
applauded.  The  first  performance  in  Boston  took  place  January  3, 
1878,  under  Carl  Zerrahn  and  the  Harvard  Musical  Association.  When 
the  critics  called  it  "morbid,"  "strained,"  "unnatural,"  "coldly  elabo- 
rated," "depressing  and  unedifying,"  Zerrahn,  who  like  others  of  his 
time  knew  the  spirit  of  battle,  at  once  announced  a  second  perform- 
ance for  January  31.  Sir  George  Henschel,  an  intrepid  friend  of 
Brahms,  performed  the  C  minor  Symphony,  with  other  works  of  the 
composer,  in  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra's  first  year. 

Still  more  ink  has  been  expended  on  a  similarity  admitted  even  by 
Florence  May  between  the  expansive  and  joyous  C  major  melody  sung 
by  the  strings  in  the  Finale,  and  the  theme  of  the  Hymn  to  Joy  in 
Beethoven's  Ninth.  The  enemy  of  course  raised  the  cry  of  "plagiarism." 
But  a  close  comparison  of  the  two  themes  shows  them  quite  different 
in  contour.  Each  has  a  diatonic,  Volkslied  character,  and  each  is  in- 
troduced with  a  sudden  radiant  emergence.  The  true  resemblance 
between  the  two  composers  might  rather  lie  in  this,  that  here,  as  pat- 
ently as  anywhere,  Brahms  has  caught  Beethoven's  faculty  of  soaring 
to  great  heights  upon  a  theme  so  naively  simple  that,  shorn  of  its 
associations,  it  would  be  about  as  significant  as  a  subject  for  a  musical 
primer.  Beethoven  often,  and  Brahms  at  his  occasional  best,  could  lift 
such  a  theme,  by  some  strange  power  which  entirely  eludes  analysis, 
to  a  degree  of  nobility  and  melodic  beauty  which  gives  it  the  unmis- 
takable aspect  of  immortality. 

[copyrighted] 


^n 


[32] 


RCA    VICTOR    RECORDS 

BOSTON  SYMPHONY  ORCHESTRA 


Recorded  under  the  leadership  of  CHARLES  MUNCH 
Beethoven  Overtures  Leonore  Nos.  1,  2,  3 ;  "Fidelio"  ;  "Coriolan" 
Symphonies  Nos.  5,  6,  7 
Violin  Concerto  (Heifetz) 
Berlioz  "Fantastic    Symphony" ;     Overture    to    "Beatrice    and    Benedick" ; 
"Romeo  and  Juliet"  (complete)  ;  "Summer  Nights"  (De  Los  Angeles)  ; 
"The  Damnation  of  Faust"  (complete) 
Brahms  Piano  Concerto  No.  2  (Rubinstein) 

Symphonies  Nos.  2,  4 ;  "Tragic  Overture" 
Bruch  Violin  Concerto  No.  1  (Menuhin) 
Chausson  "Poeme"  for  Violin  and  Orchestra  (Oistbakh) 
Chopin  Piano  Concerto  No.  2  (Brailowsky) 
Debussy  "The  Martyrdom  of  St.  Sebastian" ;  "Prelude  to  the  Afternoon  of  a 

Faun";  "The  Blessed  Damozel"  (De  Los  Angeles) 
Handel  "Water  Music"  Suite  (arr.  Harty) 
Haydn  Symphony  No.  104 
Honegger  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  5 
Lalo  Overture  to  "Le  Roi  d'Ys" 
Menotti  Violin  Concerto  (  Spivakovsky  ) 
Mozart  Overture  to  "The  Marriage  of  Figaro" 
Ravel  "Daphnis  and  Chloe"  (complete)  ;  "Pavane" 

Newly  Recorded :  "Bolero"  ;  "La  Valse"  ;  "Rapsodie  Espagnole" 
Roussel  "Bacchus  and  Ariane,"  Suite  No.  2 
Saint-Saens  "Introduction  and  Rondo  Capriccioso"   (Oistrakh) 
Overture  to  "La  Princesse  Jaune" 
Piano  Concerto  No.  4  (Brailowsky) 
Schubert  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  8  ( "Unfinished"  Symphony ) 
Schumann  Overture  to  "Genoveva"        Symphony  No.  1 
Strauss  "Don  Quixote"  (Soloist,  Piatigorsky) 

Tchaikovsky  Violin  Concerto   (Milstf.in);  "Francesoa  da   Rimini" ;  "Romeo 
and  Juliet" ;  Symphony  No.  4 

Among  the  recordings  under  the  leadership  of  SERGE  KOUSSEVITZKY 


Bach  Brandenburg  Concertos  Nos.  1,  6; 

Suites  Nos.  1,  4 
Beethoven  Symphonies  Nos.  3,  5,  9 
Berlioz  "Harold  in  Italy"  (Primrose) 
Brahms  Symphony  No.  3 ;   Violin   Con- 
certo (Heifetz) 

Copland  "A  Lincoln  Portrait" ;  "Appala- 
chian Spring" ;  "El  Salon  Mexico" 

Hanson  Symphony  No.  3 

Harris  Symphony  No.  3 

Haydn  Symphonies  Nos.  92,  "Oxford"; 

94,  "Surprise" 
Khatchaturian  Piano  Concerto  (Kapell) 
Mendelssohn  Symphony  No.  4,  "Italian" 


Mozart  "Eine  kleine  Nachtmusik"  ;  Sere- 
nade No.  10,  for  Woodwinds;  Sym- 
phonies Nos.  36,  "Linz"  ;  39 

Prokofleff  "Classical"  Symphony;  "Lt. 
Kije"  Suite ;  "Romeo  and  Juliet,"  Suite 
No.  2 ;  Symphony  No.  5 ;  Violin  Con- 
certo No.  2  (Heifetz) 

Rachmaninoff  "Isle  of  the  Dead" 

Ravel  "Bolero" ;  "Ma  Mere  L'Oye"  Suite 

Schubert  Symphony  in  B  Minor,  "Un- 
finished" 

Sibelius  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  5 

Strauss,  R.  "Don  Juan" 

Tchaikovsky  Serenade  in  O ;  Symphonies 
Nos.  4,  5 

Wagner  Siegfried  Tdyll 


Recorded  under  the  leadership  of  PIERRE  MONTEUX 

Debussy  "La  Mer" ;  "Nocturnes"  Tchaikovsky   Symphony  No.  6,   "Pathe- 

Liszt  "Les  Preludes"  tique" 
Mozart  Piano  Concertos  Nos.  12, 18  (  Lili 

Kraus)  Delibes  Ballets  "Sylvia,"  "Coppelia"  by 

Scriabin  "The  Poem  of  Ecstasy"  Members    of    the    Boston    Symphony 

Stravinsky  "Le  Sacre  du  Printemps"  Orchestra 

Recorded  under  the  leadership  of  Leonard  Bernstein 
Stravinsky  "L'Histoire  du  Soldat" ;  Octet  for  Wind  Instruments 

The  above  recordings  are  available  on  Long  Play  (33%  r.p.m.)  and  (in  some  cases) 
45  r.p.m. 


"I  find  in  the  Baldwin  superior 
qualities.  ...  It  gives  me  great 
joy  and  inspiration  to  play  the 
Baldwin." 

NICOLE  HENRIOT 


BALDWIN    GRAND    PIANOS 
HAMILTON    STUDIO    PIANOS 


THE  BALDWIN  PIANO  COMPANY 

26  EAST  54th  STREET 

NEW  YORK  CITY 


ACROSONIC    SPINET    AND    CONSOLE    PIANOS 
BALDWIN    AND    ORGA-SONIC    ELECTRONIC    ORGANS 


>) 


BOSTON 

SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 


FOUNDED  IN  1881  BY 
HENRY  LEE  HIGGINSON 


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SEVENTY-SIXTH   SEASON 
1956-1957 

Carnegie  Hall,  New  York 


TANGLEWOOD     1957 

The 

Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 


The  Berkshire  Festival 

Twentieth  Season 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Conductor 


The   Berkshire  Music  Center 

Fifteenth  Season 
CHARLES  MUNCH,    Director 


To  receive  further  announcements,  write  to 
Festival  Office,  Symphony  Hall,  Boston 


Carnegie  Hall,   New  York 
Seventy-First  Season  in  New  York 


SEVENTY-SIXTH  SEASON,  1956-1957 

Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 
Richard  Burgin,  Associate  Conductor 


Concert  Bulletin  of  the 

Fifth  Concerts 

WEDNESDAY  EVENING,  March  20,  at  8:45 

SATURDAY  AFTERNOON,  March  23,  at  2:30 

with  historical  and  descriptive  notes  by 

John  N.  Burk 

The  TRUSTEES  of  the 
BOSTON  SYMPHONY  ORCHESTRA,  Inc. 

Henry  B.  Cabot  .         President 

Jacob  J.  Kaplan  .         Vice-President 

Richard  C.  Paine  .         Treasurer 

Talcott  M.  Banks,  Jr.  E.  Morton  Jennings,  Jr. 

Theodore  P.  Ferris  Michael  T.  Kelleher 

Alvan  T.  Fuller  Palfrey  Perkins 

Francis  W.  Hatch  Charles  H.  Stockton 

Harold  D.  Hodgkinson  Edward  A.  Taft 

C.  D.  Jackson  Raymond  S.  Wilkins 

Oliver  Wolcott 

TRUSTEES  EMERITUS 
Philip  R.  Allen  M.  A.  DeWolfe  Howe 

N.  Penrose  Hallo  well  Lewis  Perry 

Thomas  D.  Perry,  Jr.,  Manager 
G.  W.  Rector  |  Assistant  J.  J.  Brosnahan,  Assistant  Treasurer 

N.  S.  Shirk        )  Managers  Rosario  Mazzeo,  Personnel  Manager 


hi 


Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

(Seventy-sixth  Season,  1956-1957) 
CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 

RICHARD   BURGIN,  Associate   Conductor 


Violins 
Richard  Burgin 
Concert-master 

Alfred  Krips 

George   Zazofsky 
Rolland  Tapley 
Norbert  Lauga 
Vladimir  Resnikoff 
Harry  Dickson 
Gottfried  Wilfinger 
Einar   Hansen 
Joseph  Leibovici 
Emil  Kornsand 
Roger  Shermont 

Minot  Beale 
Herman  Silberman 
Stanley  Benson 
Leo    Panasevich 

Sheldon  Rotenberg 
Fredy  Ostrovsky 

Clarence  Knudson 
Pierre  Mayer 

Manuel  Zung 
Samuel  Diamond 

Victor  Manusevitch 
James   Nagy 

Melvin  Bryant 
Lloyd  Stonestreet 
Saverio  Messina 
William  Waterhouse 
William  Marshall 
Leonard  Moss 

Jesse  Ced 
Noah  Bielski 
Alfred  Schneider 
Joseph  Silverstein 

Basses 

Georges  Moleux 
Gaston  Dufresne 

Irving  Frankel 
Henry  Freeman 
Henry  Portnoi 
Henri  Girard 
John  Barwicki 


PERSONNEL 

Violas 
Joseph  de  Pasquale 
Jean  Cauhape 

Eugen  Lehner 
Albert  Bernard 
George  Humphrey 
Jerome  Lipson 
Robert  Karol 
Reuben  Green 
Bernard   Kadinoff 
Vincent  Mauricci 

John  Fiasca 
Earl  Hedberg 

Violoncellos 
Samuel  Mayes 
Alfred  Zighera 

Jacobus   Langendoen 
Mischa  Nieland 
Karl  Zeise 
Josef  Zimbler 

Bernard  Parronchi 
Martin  Hoherman 

Louis   Berger 
Richard   Kapuscinski 
Robert  Ripley 

Flutes 
Doriot  Anthony  Dwyer 
James  Pappoutsakis 
Phillip  Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George  Madsen 

Oboes 
Ralph  Gomberg 
Jean   Devergie 
John  Holmes 

English  Horn 
Louis  Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino  Cioffi 
Manuel  Valerio 
Pasquale  Cardillo 

E\)   Clarinet 

Bass  Clarinet 
Rosario  Mazzeo 


Bassoons 
Sherman  Walt 
Ernst  Panenka 
Theodore  Brewster 

Contra-Bassoon 
Richard  Plaster 

Horns 

James  Stagliano 
Charles  Yancich 

Harry  Shapiro 
Harold  Meek 
Paul  Keaney 
Osbourne  McConaih> 

Trumpets 

Roger  Voisin 
Marcel  Lafosse 
Armando  Ghitalla 
Gerard  Goguen 

Trombones 

William  Gibson 
William  Mover 
Kauko  Kahila 
Josef  Orosz 

Tuba 
K.  Vinal  Smith 

Harps 
Bernard  Zighera 
Olivia  Luetcke 

Timpani 

Everett  Firth 
Harold  Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles  Smith 
Harold  Thompson 
Arthur  Press 

Piano 
Bernard  Zighera 

Library 
Victor  Alpert 


[*] 


SEVENTY-SIXTH  SEASON  •   NINETEEN  HUNDRED  FIFTY-SIX  AND  FIFTY-SEVEN 


Seventy-First  Season  in  New  York 


Fifth  Evening  Concert 


WEDNESDAY,  March  20 


Program 


Diamond Symphony  No.  6 

I.     Introduzione  (Adagio  interrotto);  Allegro,  fortemente  mosso 
II.    Adagio  interrotto 
III.     Deciso:  Poco  allegro  —  Fuga 

(First  performance  in  New  York) 

Mozart Concerto  for  Clarinet,  in  A  major,  K.  622 

I.     Allegro 
II.    Adagio 
III.     Rondo:  Allegro 

INTERMISSION 

Franck Symphony  in  D  minor 

I.     Lento;  Allegro  non  troppo 
II.    Allegretto 
III.     Allegro  non  troppo 

SOLOIST 

GINO  CIOFFI 


Performances  by  this  orchestra  are  broadcast  each  week  on  Monday 
evenings  from  8:05  to  9:00  P.M.  on  the  NBC  Radio  Network. 

Music  of  these  programs  is  available  at  the  Music  Library, 
58th   Street   Branch,    the  New  York   Public   Library. 

BALDWIN  PIANO  RCA  VICTOR  RECORDS 


[3] 


SIXTH  SYMPHONY 
By  David  Diamond 

Born  in  Rochester,  N.  Y.,  July  9,  1915 


David  Diamond  composed  his  Sixth  Symphony  between  the  years  1951  and  1954. 
He  completed  it  on  March  9  of  the  latter  year  in  Florence,  Italy. 

The  score  is  inscribed:  "For  Charles  Munch  and  the  Boston  Symphony."  It 
calls  for  the  following  orchestra:  2  flutes  and  piccolo,  2  oboes  and  English  horn, 

2  clarinets,  E-flat  clarinet  and  bass  clarinet,  2  bassoons  and  contra-bassoon,  4  horns, 

3  trumpets,  3  trombones  and  tuba,  chromatic  timpani,  bass  drum,  snare  drum, 
tenor  drum,  gavel,  tubular  bells,  xylophone,  glockenspiel,  piano,  cymbals,  suspended 
cymbal,  large  gong,  and  strings. 

CC^pHis  Symphony  differs  from  my  other  symphonies,"  writes  the 
A  composer,  "in  that  it  is  perhaps  the  most  dramatic  of  the  sym- 
phonies and  is  related  stylistically  and  dynamically  to  my  Psalm  for 
orchestra  (1936). 

"The  Symphony  is  a  true  cyclic  symphony  —  all  thematic  materials 
in  all  three  movements  are  related  to  the  following  two  themes  of  the 
first  movement  (the  first  theme  opens  the  Symphony,  played  by  the 
oboe  and  English  horn): 

Aaagio 


"The  fugue  subject  of  the  last  movement  is  based  on  the  first  move- 
ment's opening  oboe  theme,  as  is  the  counter-subject,  a  procedure  which 
is  usually  frowned  upon  by  academic  counterpoint  authorities,  but 
which  works  unusually  well  for  my  purposes  and  kind  of  voice-leading. 
The  third  movement  may  really  be  considered  as  an  introduction, 
passacaglia  and  fugue.  The  second  movement  is  the  most  unusual  of 
the  three  movements  for  its  alternating  slow  and  fast  sections  related 
to  the  introduction  of  the  first  movement." 


David  Diamond  studied  with  Andre*  de  Riboupierre  at  the  Cleveland 
Institute  of  Music  (1928-1929),  with  Bernard  Rogers  at  the  Eastman 
School  of  Music  (1930-1934),  at  the  New  Music  School  of  New  York 
for  the  two  years  following,  and  later  with  Roger  Sessions  and  with 
Paul  Boepple  in  New  York,  and  with  Nadia  Boulanger  at  Fon- 
tainebleau  and  Paris.  He  has  had  two  Guggenheim  fellowships  and 
other  awards. 

[4] 


Peggy  Glanville-Hicks  has  thus  characterized  David  Diamond  in 
Grove's  Dictionary: 

"Diamond's  music  has  a  notable  emotional  impetus,  and  such 
dissonance  as  there  is  in  his  style  is  almost  continually  present  in  his 
monochrome  harmonic  colour  scheme:  it  is  seldom  used  as  a  dynamic 
contrast.  Structurally  and  stylistically  Diamond's  works  are  all  very 
similar,  from  the  earlier  to  the  later  pieces.  His  expression  is  per- 
sonal, lyric-romantic  and  intense,  and  has  not  changed  much,  or  passed 
through  very  divergent  working  methods,  in  spite  of  his  many  and 
varied  teachers.  His  expressive  equilibrium  appears  to  be  set  and  his 
technical  command  fully  accomplished." 

Mr.  Diamond's  six  symphonies  date  from  1940  to  1954  (the  Fifth 
is  not  yet  completed).  He  has  written  orchestral  works  of  lesser  propor- 
tions, choral  works  (mostly  a  cappelld),  ballets,  music  in  chamber 
combinations.  Recent  works  are  a  Sinfonia  Concertante  and  Ahavah 
for  narrator  and  orchestra.  He  has  written  incidental  music  for 
Shakespeare's  Romeo  and  Juliet  and  The  Tempest,  Tennessee  Wil- 
liams' The  Rose  Tattoo,  and  music  for  documentary  films. 

The  following  works  by  David  Diamond  have  been  performed  by 
the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra: 

1944    (Oct.     13)     Symphony  No.  2      (First  performance) 

1946    (April    5)     Rounds  for  String  Orchestra 

1948    (Jan.     23)     Symphony    No.    4     (First    performance;    conducted    by    Leonard 

Bernstein) 
J95°    (July    3°)     "Timon  of  Athens,"  A  Symphonic  Portrait    (after  Shakespeare) 

(Berkshire  Festival  Concert;  conducted  by  Leonard  Bernstein) 
195°   (Nov.    30)     Symphony  No.  3      (First  performance) 

[copyrighted] 


KNEISEL  HALL,  BLUE  HILL,  MAINE 

Summer  School 
July  8th  to  September  1st,  1957 

INTENSIVE  ENSEMBLE  and  INDIVIDUAL  TRAINING 

Distinguished  Faculty  includes: 

ARTUR  BALSAM 
JOSEPH  FUCHS  -  LOUIS  PERSINGER 
CARL  STERN  -  EDOUARD  DETHIER 


MARIANNE  KNEISEL,  Director 
190  RIVERSIDE  DRIVE,  NEW  YORK  24,  N.  Y. 


[5] 


CONCERTO  FOR  CLARINET,  in  A  major,  K.  622 

By  Wolfgang  Amadeus  Mozart 
Born  in  Salzburg,  January  27,  1756;  died  in  Vienna,  December  5,  1791 


Mozart  completed  his  Concerto  for  Clarinet  in  Vienna  in  September,  1791.  The 
composer  indicated  in  his  own  catalogue  of  his  works  that  it  was  "fiir  Hrn.  Stadler 
den  Altern."  The  original  manuscript  is  lost;  the  score  has  survived  as  a  copy  once 
in  the  possession  of  Aloys  Fuchs.  The  accompanying  orchestra  consists  of  2  flutes, 
2  bassoons,  2  horns,  and  strings. 

The  Concerto  has  been  performed  at  the  Friday  and  Saturday  concerts  of  the 
Boston  Symphony  Orchestra  March  29-30,  1918,  when  Albert  Sand  was  the  soloist, 
and  November  14-15,  1930,  when  Victor  Polatschek  was  the  soloist. 

TV  /Tozart  was  much  taken  with  the  possibilities  of  the  clarinet  during 
•*■*■*■  his  last  years,  in  Vienna,  as  the  music  he  wrote  for  it  eloquently 
attests.  He  had  become  well  acquainted  with  the  instrument  in  Mann- 
heim, Paris,  and  Munich,  and  used  clarinets  in  Idomeneo  in  the  latter 
city  (1781).  Salzburg  possessed  no  clarinet  players.  But  in  Vienna 
the  situation  was  different.  There  were  two  Stadler  brothers  in  the 
Emperor's  "Harmonie"  of  eight  wind  players,  both  of  them  accounted 
excellent  clarinetists.  Anton,  the  elder,  was  working  upon  the  instru- 
ment, deepening  its  range.  Mozart  was  ready  to  oblige  him  as  a  fellow 
Mason  and  a  close  friend.  He  must  also  have  admired  Anton's  artistry, 
for  the  music  he  provided  was  delicately  colorful,  and  not  obviously 
displayful.  This  music  included  the  Clarinet  Quintet  of  1789  (K.  581), 
the  obbligato  parts  in  La  Clemenza  di  Tito  (1791),  and  the  Clarinet 
Concerto  of  the  same  year. 

This  Concerto  was  Mozart's  last  for  any  instrument  —  he  completed 
it  on  September  28,  about  two  months  before  his  death.  The  auto- 
graph scores  of  both  the  Concerto  and  the  Quintet  have  disappeared, 
a  circumstance  which  does  not  speak  well  for  Stadler's  proper  regard 
for  them.  A  few  pages  in  sketch  have  survived  (through  Andre)  of  a 
Concerto  for  the  basset  horn  which  are  almost  identical  with  the  first 
movement  of  the  Clarinet  Concerto,  except  that  it  is  in  the  key  of  G, 
and  meets  the  lower  range  of  that  instrument.  This  was  probably 
written  in  1789  for  Anton  Stadler,  and  has  the  Koechel  numbering 
584b. 

There  is  evidence  that  the  Clarinet  Concerto  in  A,  as  it  has  survived 
in  publication,  has  been  altered  to  accommodate  the  normal  instru- 
ment in  A.  It  is  believed  that  Mozart  may  have  written  the  Concerto 
with  an  extended  lower  range  for  Stadler's  instrument  at  the  time,  and 
that  certain  passages  were  subsequently  raised  an  octave  for  practical 
uses  when  the  Concerto  was  published  in  1801.* 

*  Boris  Goldovsky,  in  a  recent  Lowell  Institute  lecture,  has  demonstrated  this  by  having  a 
Dasset  horn  reproduce  the  low  notes  of  the  presumably  original  score. 

[6] 


ftHE  VIRTUOSO  ORCHESTRA  ?  «'V"™  \*V 

:  Mow.*  Syaaieay  Oiefco<ra...£lMifc»  MaMfc    ,'£t;; 


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To  Charles  Munch,  conducting  is  not  a  profession  hut  a 
sacred  calling.  And  this  dedication,  combined  with  the 
magnificence  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra,  brings 
you  performances  of  unmatched  power  and  beauty.  You 
feel  and  hear  this  devotion  whether  he  conducts  Ravel, 
Berlioz  or  Beethoven  . . .  whether  the  performance  is  in 
Symphony  Hall  or ...  on  RCA  Victor  Records,  of  course! 


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[7] 


The  difficulties  of  the  solo  part  in  the  Clarinet  Concerto  are  not 
vaunted  in  a  way  to  exhibit  virtuosity,  but  lie  in  the  subtleties  of  swift 
running  passages,  the  adroit  play  of  color  set  off  against  the  strings. 
The  Concerto  has  a  marked  similarity  in  treatment  with  the  Quintet, 
the  "Stadler  Quintet,"  as  Mozart  called  it.  In  both  works  an  inde- 
pendently balanced  string  quartet,  no  mere  accompaniment,  is  finely 
matched  with  the  color  of  the  dulcet  partner,  never  taking  a  sub- 
ordinate place.  The  quartet  is  always  delicately  paired  with  the  solo 
instrument.  In  the  Concerto,  the  flutes,  bassoons  and  horns  are  seldom 
used  except  in  the  ritornelli,  the  tutti  passages  thus  making  a  delightful 
alternation  with  the  delicate  "quintet." 

Anton  Stadler  has  been  given  uncomplimentary  adjectives  by  most 
of  Mozart's  biographers,  from  the  evidence  of  the  earliest  ones,  Nissen 
and  Jahn,  that  he  was  an  unscrupulous  borrower,  profiting  by  his 
friend's  amiable  generosity.  Sophie  Haibl  (Mozart's  sister-in-law)  is 
quoted  by  Nissen  as  referring  to  Mozart's  false  friends,  secret  blood- 
suckers and  worthless  people  who  served  only  to  amuse  him  at  the 
table  and  intercourse  with  whom  injured  his  reputation."  Jahn  names 
the  elder  Stadler  as  the  "the  worst  of  this  set,"  who  often  borrowed 
from  him.  At  one  time,  when  Mozart  was  without  cash,  he  took  two 
valuable  repeater  watches,  pawned  them,  and  kept  the  tickets.  Philip 
Hale  wrote  in  his  notes  on  the  Clarinet  Concerto:  "After  Mozart's 
death,  Stadler's  debt  of  500  florins  'without  bond'  was  recorded  in  the 
scanty  list  of  Mozart's  possessions.  More  than  once  Stadler  took 
advantage  of  Mozart's  good  nature  and  weakness.  When  he  would 
give  a  concert  in  Prague,  Mozart  not  only  provided  him  with  this 
Concerto,  but  with  money  for  the  journey  and  letters  of  recommenda- 
tion. Stadler  was  one  of  Schikaneder's  riotous  company  when  Mozart 
was  composing  The  Magic  Flute;  a  toss-pot,  a  reckless  liver,  as  well  as 
a  sponge  in  money  matters." 

Stadler  was  thus  indebted  to  his  friend  and  fellow  Mason  for  ready 
money  as  well  as  for  some  immortal  music  and  the  opportunity  to  play 
it  to  his  own  advantage.  On  the  other  hand,  Stadler  improved  the 
possibilities  for  subtlety  in  the  instrument  then  coming  into  vogue  and 
must  be  admitted  to  have  inspired  music  to  the  exceeding  advantage 
of  posterity.  It  should  be  borne  in  mind  that  Mozart  was  a  free 
borrower  as  well  as  a  free  lender;  other  of  his  brother  Masons,  such 
as  Michael  Puchburg,  supplied  him  frequently  with  funds  without 
any  confident  expectation  of  repayment.  Mozart  loved  the  good  things 
of  life  —  parties,  dancing,  wine,  billiards,  but  above  all  fine  clothes. 
This  last  extravagance  particularly  seems  to  have  kept  a  hole  in  his 
pocket. 

Albert  Einstein  has  written   about   the   Clarinet   Concerto:    "The 

[8] 


greatness  and  the  transcendent  beauty  of  this  work  are  such  as  its 
high  Kochel  number  would  lead  us  to  expect.  One  almost  has  the 
impression  that  Mozart  felt  impelled  to  express  again,  in  greater  and 
dramatically  animated  form,  what  he  had  already  expressed  in  more 
lyric  form  in  the  domain  of  chamber  music,  in  the  Stadler  Quintet. 
The  first  movement  is  from  beginning  to  end  in  Mozart's  last  style, 
informed  throughout  by  the  closest  relation  between  the  soloist  and 
the  orchestra,  and  by  the  utmost  possible  vitality  in  the  orchestral 
portion  itself,  as  may  be  observed  by  following  simply  the  play  of  the 
two  violins  in  dialogue.  Significantly,  in  this  work  the  basses  are 
sometimes  separated  from  the  'cellos;  in  the  Adagio,  a  counterpart  to 
the  Larghetto  of  the  Quintet,  there  are  passages  of  transparent  sonority 
in  which  the  contrabass  is  silent.  And  how  all  the  registers  of  the  solo 
instrument  are  exploited,  yet  without  any  exhibition  of  virtuosity! 
There  is  no  opportunity  for  free  cadenzas.  One  need  only  compare 
this  work  with  similar  compositions  by  another  great  lover  of  the 
clarinet  and  master  in  writing  for  it,  Carl  Maria  von  Weber,  such  as 
his  'great  Quintet,'  Op.  34,  or  his  'great  Concertos,'  Op.  73  and  Op.  74, 
to  see  the  difference  between  the  supreme  effectiveness  of  simplicity 
and  more  virtuoso  exhibition." 

[COPYRIGHTED] 


GINO  CIOFFI 

Gino  Cioffi,  born  in  Naples,  studied  in  the  Conservatory  there 
and  at  the  age  of  seventeen  began  his  career  as  clarinetist,  playing  in 
the  opera  and  symphony  orchestras  of  Italy.  In  the  United  States  he 
has  been  first  clarinet  in  the  orchestras  of  Cleveland,  Pittsburgh,  and 
New  York  (Philharmonic  and  NBC  Orchestras  and  the  Metropolitan 
Opera  Orchestra).  He  joined  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra  as  its 
principal  clarinet  in  1950. 

Mr.  Cioffi  adds  a  cadenza  of  his  own  composition  in  the  slow 
movement  of  Mozart's  Concerto. 


STERLING  TABLE  SILVER. 
TEA  AND  COFFEE  SERVICES. 

featuring  traditional  designs  in  lasting  favor 

Workshop  of  the  Craft  .  „      M 

at  the  Teapot  Sign  Ready   selection   for   gifts   from   wide   range   of   pieces 

79   CHESTNUT   ST.  exhibited,  antique  and  modern,  domestic  and  imported, 

BOSTON   8  silver     and     silver-plate,     and     special     exclusives     by 

Foot  of  Beacon  Hill  GEBELEIN 


LAfayette  3-3871 


[9] 


ENTR'ACTE 

SPECULATIONS  ON  MOZART 
By  George  Bernard  Shaw 

(From  "Shaw  on  Music,"  Doubleday  Anchor  Books) 


A  /Tany  Mozart  worshippers  cannot  bear  to  be  told  that  their  hero 
±V1  was  not  the  founder  of  a  dynasty.  But  in  art  the  highest  success 
is  to  be  the  last  of  your  race,  not  the  first.  Anybody,  almost,  can  make 
a  beginning:  the  difficulty  is  to  make  an  end  —  to  do  what  cannot  be 
bettered. 

For  instance,  if  the  beginner  were  to  be  ranked  above  the  consum- 
mator,  we  should,  in  literary  fiction,  have  to  place  Captain  Mayne 
Reid,  who  certainly  struck  a  new  vein,  above  Dickens,  who  simply 
took  the  novel  as  he  found  it,  and  achieved  the  feat  of  compelling  his 
successor  (whoever  he  may  be)  either  to  create  quite  another  sort  of 
novel,  or  else  to  fall  behind  his  predecessor  as  at  best  a  superfluous 
imitator.  Surely,  if  so  great  a  composer  as  Haydn  could  say,  out  of  his 
greatness  as  a  man,  "I  am  not  the  best  of  my  school,  though  I  was  the 
first,"  Mozart's  worshippers  can  afford  to  acknowledge,  with  equal 
gladness  of  spirit,  that  their  hero  was  not  the  first,  though  he  was  the 
best.  It  is  always  like  that.  Praxiteles,  Raphael  and  Co.  have  great 
men  for  their  pioneers,  and  only  fools  for  their  followers.  .  .  . 

For  my  own  part,  if  I  do  not  care  to  rhapsodize  much  about  Mozart, 
it  is  because  I  am  so  violently  prepossessed  in  his  favor  that  I  am 
capable  of  supplying  any  possible  deficiency  in  his  work  by  my  imagina- 
tion. Gounod  has  devoutly  declared  that  Don  Giovanni  has  been  to 
him  all  his  life  a  revelation  of  perfection,  a  miracle,  a  work  without 
fault.  I  smile  indulgently  at  Gounod,  since  I  cannot  afford  to  give 
myself  away  so  generously  (there  being,  no  doubt,  less  of  me);  but  I 
am  afrajd  my  fundamental  attitude  towards  Mozart  is  the  same  as  his. 
In  my  small-boyhood  I  by  good  luck  had  an  opportunity  of  learning 
the  Don  thoroughly,  and  if  it  were  only  for  the  sense  of  the  value  of 
fine  workmanship  which  I  gained  from  it,  I  should  still  esteem  that 
lesson  the  most  important  part  of  my  education.  Indeed,  it  educated 
me  artistically  in  all  sorts  of  ways,  and  disqualified  me  only  in  one  — 
that  of  criticizing  Mozart  fairly.  Everyone  appears  a  sentimental, 
hysterical  bungler  in  comparison  when  anything  brings  his  finest  work 
vividly  back  to  me.  .  .  . 

The  people  most  to  be  pitied  at  this  moment  [the  1891  centennial] 

[10] 


are  the  unfortunate  singers,  players  and  conductors  who  are  suddenly 
called  upon  to  make  the  public  hear  the  wonders  which  the  newspapers 
are  describing  so  lavishly. 

Nothing  but  the  finest  execution  —  beautiful,  expressive,  and  intelli- 
gent —  will  serve;  and  the  worst  of  it  is  that  the  phrases  are  so  perfectly 
clear  and  straightforward,  that  you  are  found  out  the  moment  you 
swerve  by  a  hair's  breadth  from  perfection,  whilst,  at  the  same  time, 
your  work  is  so  obvious,  that  everyone  thinks  it  must  be  easy,  and  puts 
you  down  remorselessly  as  a  duffer  for  botching  it.  Naturally,  then,  we 
do  not  hear  much  of  Mozart;  and  what  we  do  hear  goes  far  to  destroy 
his  reputation.  .  .  . 

In  the  ardent  regions  where  all  the  rest  are  excited  and  vehement, 
Mozart  alone  is  completely  self-possessed;  where  they  are  clutching  their 
bars  with  a  grip  of  iron  and  forging  them  with  Cyclopean  blows,  his 
gentleness  of  touch  never  deserts  him:  he  is  considerate,  economical, 
practical  under  the  same  pressure  of  inspiration  that  throws  your  Titan 
into  convulsions.  This  is  the  secret  of  his  unpopularity  with  Titan 
fanciers.  .  .  . 

With  Mozart  you  are  safe  from  inebriety.  Hurry,  excitement,  eager- 
ness, loss  of  consideration,  are  to  him  purely  comic  or  vicious  states  of 
mind:  he  gives  us  Monostatos  and  the  Queen  of  Night  on  the  stage, 
but  not  in  his  chamber  music.  Now  it  happens  that  I  have,  deep  in 
my  nature,  which  is  quite  as  deep  as  the  average  rainfall  in  England, 
a  frightful  contempt  for  your  Queens  of  Night  and  Titans  and  their 
like.  The  true  Parnassian  air  acts  on  these  people  like  oxygen  on  a 
mouse;  it  first  excites  them,  and  then  kills  them.  Give  me  the  artist 
who  breathes  it  like  a  native,  and  goes  about  his  work  in  it  as  quietly 
as  a  common  man  goes  about  his  ordinary  business.  Mozart  did  so; 
and  that  is  why  I  like  him.  Even  if  I  did  not,  I  should  pretend  to;  for 
a  taste  for  his  music  is  a  mark  of  caste  among  musicians,  and  should 
be  worn,  like  a  tall  hat,  by  the  amateur  who  wishes  to  pass  for  a  true 
Brahmin. 


&s> 


EDNA  NITKIN,  M.Mus. 

PIANIST 

ACCOMPANIST        TEACHER 

Studio:  500  Boylston  St.,  Copley  Sq. 

Boston  RE  6-4062 


[»] 


SYMPHONY  IN  D  MINOR 
By  Cesar  Franck 

Born  at  Liege,  Belgium,  December  10,  1822;  died  at  Paris,  November  8,  1890 


The  Symphony  by  Cesar  Franck  had  its  first  performance  by  the  Conservatoire 
Orchestra  of  Paris,  February  17,  1889.  The  symphony  reached  Germany  in  1894, 
when  it  was  performed  in  Dresden;  England  in  1896  (a  Lamoureux  concert  in 
Queen's  Hall) .  The  first  performance  by  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra  was  on 
April  15,  1899,  Wilhelm  Gericke,  conductor. 

The  Symphony  is  scored  for  2  flutes,  2  oboes  and  English  horn,  2  clarinets  and 
bass  clarinet,  2  bassoons,  4  horns,  2  trumpets,  2  cornets-a-pistons,  3  trombones  and 
tuba,  timpani,  harp  and  strings. 

It  is  not  hard  to  sympathize  with  the  state  of  mind  of  Franck's 
devoted  circle,  who  beheld  so  clearly  the  flame  of  his  genius,  while 
the  world  ignored  and  passed  it  by.  They  were  naturally  incensed 
by  the  inexplicable  hostility  of  some  of  Franck's  fellow  professors  at 
the  Conservatoire,  and  moved  to  winged  words  in  behalf  of  their 
lovable  "maitre,"  who,  absorbed  and  serene  in  his  work,  never  looked 
for  either  performance  or  applause  —  was  naively  delighted  when  those 
blessings  sparingly  descended  upon  him. 

To  probe  back  into  the  circumstances  which  surrounded  the  compo- 
sition of  Franck's  Symphony  and  its  performance  in  the  musical  Paris 
of  1889  is  to  revive  a  controversial  spirit  which  no  longer  exists.  This 
Symphony,  which  is  now  generally  recognized  for  its  worth  in  the 
standard  repertoire,  was  for  years  after  the  death  of  its  composer  a 
subject  for  discussion  and  disagreement.  Th^se  who  lived  and  worked 
with  Franck  found  his  music  expressive  of  the  master  they  loved  and 
welcomed  it  accordingly.  They  were  indignant  with  those  who  gave 
no  more  than  passing  attention  to  the  obscure  organist  of  the 
Conservatoire.*  These  reluctant  musicians  were  annoyed  that  the 
otherwise  unassertive  teacher  had  the  effrontery  to  compose  music  out 
of  the  expected  pattern.  If  Franck  was  aware  of  this  surrounding 
controversy  he  gave  no  sign  of  being  disturbed  by  it.  It  is  more  than 
probable  that  the  ardent  claims  made  by  his  fellow  members  in  the 
Societe  Nationale  spurred  the  passive  indifference  of  musicians  "out- 
side" into  active  rejection. 

Vincent  d'Indy's  book  on  the  "Maitre"  has  long  been  accepted  as  the 
gospel  of  the  Franck  movement,  but  it  cannot  stand  eternally  as  a 
clear  and  just  account.  His  description,  for  example,  of  the  first 
performance  of  the  Symphony  at  the  Conservatoire  leans  rather 
heavily  on  the  official  resistance  within  the  institution  and  the  spiteful 

*  D'Indy  pours  just  derision  upon   the  ministry  who,   as  late  as  August,   1885,  awarded  the 
ribbon  of  Chevalier  of  the  Legion  of  Honor  to  "Franck  (Cesar  Auguste),  professor  of  organ." 

[»] 


remarks  by  various  musicians  with  which  it  was  greeted.  It  is  true  that 
Jules  Garcin,  the  conductor  at  the  Conservatoire,  brought  the  Sym- 
phony to  performance  by  his  "benevolent  obstinacy,"  as  d'Indy  has 
called  it,  against  a  dead  weight  of  reactionary  reluctance;  that  a  con- 
ductor like  Lamoureux,  who  had  come  to  grief  with  Les  tolides, 
fought  shy  of  the  Symphony  when  approached  in  its  behalf.  D'Indy's 
anecdote  that  "a  professor  at  the  Conservatoire,"  whom  he  did  not 
name,  dismissed  the  Symphony  for  using  such  an  unsymphonic  instru- 
ment as  an  English  horn,  has  been  perhaps  over-quoted,  since  it  was 
nothing  more  than  somebody's  conversational  remark.  His  attack  on 
Gounod  is  more  serious,  for  the  man  is  named,  while  the  remark, 
printed  in  italics,  was  also  conversational.  D'Indy  quotes  Gounod  as 
calling  the  Symphony,  before  a  "cortege  of  male  and  female  adorers," 
the  "affirmation  of  incompetence,  pushed  to  dogmatic  lengths."! 
Since  d'Indy  was  not  one  of  the  "adulateurs,"  he  may  have  picked  it 
up  at  second  hand.  Leon  Vallas  takes  d'Indy  to  task  on  this.  "Both  the 
opinion  and  the  meaningless  jargon  in  which  it  is  couched  seem 
improbable  in  the  last  degree.  According  to  another  anecdote,  told  by 
Georges  Rodenbach  in  Figaro  on  December  24,  1896,  Gounod  is 
reported  as  saying  'It  is  the  negation  of  music'  That  remark  too 
seems  hardly  credible.  Whatever  differences  in  outlook  and  taste 
separated  the  two  old  friends,  Gounod  always  recognized  the  mastery 
of  his  fellow-musician.  If  at  times  he  criticized  certain  of  Franck's 
tendencies  —  his  excessive  refinement  and  his  lack  of  simplicity  —  he 
never  ceased  to  acclaim  him  as  a  great  artist.  One  need  attach  no 
importance  to  certain  solemn  pontifical  utterances  of  the  composer  of 
Faust,  bandied  about,  distorted,  and  twisted  out  of  recognition  by  the 
malignancy  of  the  public." 

Franck's  Symphony  was  inevitably  compared  with  the  Symphony 
by  Saint-Saens  in  C  minor,  which  had  been  introduced  on  January  9, 
1887.  D'Indy  has  claimed  that  Franck  could  not  have  known  the 
Symphony  at  the  time,  but  Vallas  retorts  with  the  statement  that 
"Sketches  for  Franck's  Symphony  were  jotted  down  during  two 
months  of  the  summer  of  1887  —  that  is,  six  months  and  more  after 
the  publication  and  performance  of  the  Saint-Saens."  That  both 
symphonies  lean  to  the  color  of  the  organ  and  that  both  have  a  cyclic 
recurrence  need  only  mean  that  both  were  composed  at  a  time  when 
such  traits  were  likely.  The  opinion  of  Bellaigue  that  "One  is  night, 
the  other  day;  in  the  Saint-Saens  one  breathes  freely;  in  the  Franck 
one  is  stifled  and  dies"  may  be  contrasted  with  the  opinion  of  d'Indy 
that  "the  final  impression  of  doubt  and  sadness"  felt  in  the  Symphony 
of  Saint-Saens  has  its  exact  opposite  in  Franck's  Symphony,  which 
is   "a  continual  ascent  towards  pure  gladness  and  life-giving  light 

"L' affirmation  de  I'impuissance  pouss^e  justfau  dogme." 

[*5j 


because  the  workmanship  is  solid  and  its  themes  are  manifestations 
of  ideal  beauty."  It  would  hardly  occur  to  a  listener  today  to  compare 
two  symphonies  which  are  as  different  as  were  their  two  composers. 

The  impatience  of  the  Franck  disciples  extended,  less  reasonably, 
to  the  public  which  allowed  him  to  die  before  awaking  to  the  urgent 
beauty  of  his  art.  Ropartz,  for  instance,  tried  to  console  himself  with 
the  philosophical  reflection:  "All  true  creators  must  be  in  advance 
of  their  time  and  must  of  necessity  be  misunderstood  by  their  con- 
temporaries: Cesar  Franck  was  no  more  of  an  exception  to  this  rule 
than  other  great  musicians  have  been;  like  them,  he  was  misunder- 
stood." A  study  of  the  dates  and  performances,  which  d'Indy  himself 
has  listed,  tends  to  exonerate  the  much  berated  general  public, 
which  has  been  known  to  respond  to  new  music  with  tolerable 
promptness  when  they  are  permitted  to  hear  it  even  adequately 
presented.  The  performances  of  Franck's  music  while  the  composer 
lived  were  patchy  and  far  between. 

Through  almost  all  of  his  life,  Paris  was  not  even  aware  of  Franck. 
Those  who  knew  him  casually  or  by  sight  must  have  looked  upon  him 
simply  as  a  mild  little  organist    and  teacher  at  the  Conservatoire,  who 
wrote  unperformed  oratorios  and  operas  in  his  spare  time.  And  such 
indeed  he  was.  It  must  be  admitted  that  Franck  gave  the  world  little 
opportunity  for  more  than  posthumous  recognition  —  and  not  so  much 
because  this  most  self-effacing  of  composers  never  pushed  his  cause, 
as  because  his  genius  ripened  so  late.  When  he  had  reached  fifty-seven 
there  was  nothing  in  his  considerable  output  (with  the  possible  excep- 
tion of  La  Redemption  or  Les  Eolides)  which  time  has  proved  to  be 
of  any  great  importance.  Les  Beatitudes,  which  he  completed  in  that 
year   (1879)  had  neither  a  full  nor  a  clear  performance  until  three 
years  after  his  death,  when,  according  to  d'Indy,  "the  effect  was  over- 
whelming, and  henceforth  the  name  of  Franck  was  surrounded  by 
a  halo  of  glory,  destined  to  grow  brighter  as  time  went  on."  The 
masterpieces  —  Psyche,  the  Symphony,  the  String  Quartet,  the  Violin 
Sonata,  the  Three  Organ  Chorales,  all  came  within  the  last  four  years 
of  his  life*,  and  the  Symphony  —  that  most  enduring  monument  of 
Franck's  genius  —  was  first  performed  some  twenty  months  before  his 
death.  In  the  last  year  of  his  life,  musicians  rallied  to  the  masterly  new 
scores  as  soon  as  they  appeared,  and  lost  no  time  in  spreading  the 
gospel  of  Franck  —  a  gospel  which  was  readily  apprehended.  Ysaye 
played  the  Violin  Sonata  (dedicated  to  him)  in  town  after  town;  the 
Quartet  was  performed  at  the  Salle  Pleyel  by  the  Societe  Nationale  de 
Musi  que   (April  19,  1890) ,  and  the  whole  audience,  so  we  are  told, 
rose  to  applaud  the  composer.  And  after  Franck's  death,  his  music, 
aided   (or  hindered)   by  the  zealous  pronouncements  of  the  militant 

[*4] 


school  which  had  grown  at  his  feet,  made  its  way  increasingly  to 
popular  favor. 


D'Indy  has  given  posterity  the  vivid  picture,  backed  by  the  familiar 
painting  of  Jeanne  Rongier,  of  the  Maitre  in  his  organ  loft  at  Ste. 
Clotilde  improvising  to  the  amazement  of  all  hearers.  The  improvisa- 
tions may  have  sometimes  reached  celestial  heights,  but  one  must  reflect 
that  they  grew  from  something  far  less  inspired.  The  very  habit  of 
improvisation  must  have  begun  with  the  postludes  familiar  in  all 
churches,  the  convenient  dalliance  with  sustained  chords  and  alternat- 
ing stops  as  the  congregation,  minds  already  on  Sunday  dinner,  make 
their  way  out.  The  fine  organ  at  Ste.  Clotilde  which  was  Franck's  from 
1858  surely  gave  birth  to  some  of  his  finest  thoughts.  Yet  one  suspects 
that  the  really  fine  ones  somehow  got  written  down. 

Few  would  disagree  with  d'Indy's  opinion  that  Franck,  choosing 
subjects  which  contrasted  the  forces  of  good  and  evil,  was  far  more 
convincing  in  the  former.  Satan  in  the  Beatitudes  is  "pompous  and 
theatrical,"  rebellion  and  tyranny  negative  quantities,  musically  speak- 
ing, while  beside  the  choruses  of  the  heavenly  host  in  the  Redemption 
he  finds  even  Perugino's  angels  "somewhat  affected  in  their  attitudes." 
Franck's  music  shows  him  an  unworldly  person,  just  as  Liszt's 
Mephistopheles,  who  is  a  far  more  interesting  musical  figure  than  his 
St.  Elizabeth,  shows  that  composer  a  man  of  the  world.  But  to  carry 
the  identification  further  and  describe  Franck  as  a  Pater  seraphicus  is 
a  line  of  logic  which  might  turn  the  good  Abbe*  into  a  Diabolus. 

A  man's  music  is  in  some  degree  a  reflection  of  his  nature,  but  as  a 
creation  of  his  fantasy  it  is  not  necessarily  autobiographical.  Franck 
was  angelic  in  his  serenity,  his  lack  of  guile  or  rancor,  his  infinite 
patience  before  the  jealous  hostility  of  certain  colleagues  and  the  loud 
protestations  of  his  followers.  His  church  may  have  been  his  sanctuary, 
but  it  was  also  by  force  of  circumstances  his  workshop  and  his  daily 
bread.  D'Indy  was  indignant  with  those  "short-sighted  writers  who 
tried  to  compare  Franck's  ideal  of  Christ  .  .  .  with  that  ambiguous 
philanthropist  whom  Ernest  Renan  has  presented  to  us  under  His 
name."  What  d'Indy  does  not  tell  us  is  that  Franck,  who  was  evidently 
a  free-thinker  and  no  doctrinaire,  was  much  taken  with  the  historical, 
the  human  presentation  of  Jesus  in  the  Vie  de  Jesus  until  his  strict 
Roman  Catholic  pupil  talked  him  out  of  it. 

[copyrighted! 


Q& 


[15] 


The  Friends  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

List  of  Non-Resident  Members  for  Season  1956-1957 

The  Trustees  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra  acknowledge  with  deep 
appreciation  their  gratitude  to  all  who  have  enrolled  as  Friends  of  the 
Orchestra  this  Season  and  desire  at  this  time  to  extend  their  thanks  in  par- 
ticular to  those  members  outside  the  Boston  area  whose  names  appear  on 
the  following  pages: 


Mrs.  H.  L.  Achilles— Connecticut 

Mrs.  William  Ackerman— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Eugene  E.  Adams— New  York 

Miss  Hannah  M.  Adams— New  York 

Mr.  Joseph  Dana  Allen— New  York 

Mrs.  Philip  K.  Allen— Washington,  D.C. 

Mrs.  Robert  J.  Allen— Maryland 

Dr.  Harold  L.  Ailing— New  York 

Mr.  Lloyd  V.  Almirall— New  York 

Mrs.  Robert  R.  Ames— Maine 

Miss  Elizabeth  B.  Andrews— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ernest  Angell— New  York 

Mrs.  E.  B.  Armstrong— New  Hampshire 

Miss  Louise  H.  Armstrong— Maine 

Mr.  Robert  K.  Armstrong— Minnesota 

Dr.  I.  Arons— New  York 

Mr.  George  C.  Arvedson— Michigan 

Mrs.  Arthur  O.  Asher— New  York 

Mr.  Gifford  W.  Asher— Washington 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Randolph  Ashton— Pennsylvania 

Mrs.  Richard  A.  Atkins— New  York 

Mrs.  Grace  D.  Bahr— Illinois 

Mrs.  Edward  L.  Ballard— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Frederick  C.  Balz— New  Jersey 

Miss  Isabella  Fraser  Barnes— New  York 

Miss  Laura  Barney— New  York 

Mr.  Arthur  Baron— Missouri 

Mrs.  Richard  A.  Bartlett— New  Jersey 

Miss  Helen  L.  Bass— New  Jersey 

Mr.  Emil  J.  Baumann— New  York 

Mrs.  G.  C.  Beach— New  York 

Mr.  Gerald  F.  Beal— New  York 

Mrs.  Norwin  S.  Bean— New  Hampshire 

Miss  Mazie  Becker— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Jean  Bedetti— Florida 

Mrs.  Frank  Begrisch— New  York 

Beinecke  Foundation— New  York 

Mrs.  Haughton  Bell— New  York 

Mr.  Elliot  S.  Benedict— New  York 

Mrs.  Edward  Herbert  Bennett,  Jr.— Illinois 

Miss  Georgina  Bennett— New  Jersey 

Mrs.  Samuel  C.  Bennett— Vermont 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Oscar  F.  Berg— New  York 

Mrs.  Henri  L.  Berger— Connecticut 

Mr.  John  H.  Bergmann— New  York 

Miss  Anna  Berley— New  York 

Mr.  Louis  K.  Berman— New  York 

Mr.  Myer  Berman— New  Hampshire 

Mrs.  Edwin  E.  Bernheimer— New  York 

Miss  Mary  Bernstein— New  York 

Dr.  Frank  B.  Berry— Washington,  D.C. 

Miss  Dorothy  L.  Betts— New  York 

[16] 


Mr.  Rene  Bickart— New  York 
Mr.  Georges  Bigar— New  York 
Miss  Gladys  M.  Bigelow— Maine 
Mrs.  A.  W.  Bingham— New  York 
Miss  Mary  Piatt  Birdseye— New  York 
Mrs.  Louis  G.  Bissell— New  York 
Miss  Edith  C.  Black— New  York 
Mrs.  George  Blagden— New  York 
Mrs.  Robert  Woods  Bliss— Washington,  D.C. 
Mr.  Samuel  J.  Bloomingdale— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  E.  Blum— New  York 
Mr.  Edward  C.  Boettcher— Wisconsin 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Benjamin  Bogin— Connecticut* 
Mr.  Herbert  L.  Borgzinner— New  York 
Mr.  Douglass  C.  Boshkoff— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Burnham  Bowden— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  W.  Bowden— New  York 
Mrs.  R.  M.  Bozorth— New  Jersey 
Mrs.  Louis  J.  Brecker— New  York 
Mr.  Thomas  W.  Bresnahan— New  York 
Mr.  E.  T.  Brewster— New  York 
Mrs.  William  H.  Briggs— New  York 
Mrs.  Richard  deW.  Brixey— New  York 
Mrs.  Fred  Brodkey— Nebraska 
Miss  Ethel  M.  Brown— Canada 
Mrs.  Mabel  Wolcott  Brown— Connecticut 
Miss  Mary  Loomis  Brown— New  York 
Miss  Virginia  F.  Browne— Connecticut 
Mrs.  W.  S.  Browne— New  Jersey 
Dr.  Howard  C.  Bruenn— New  York 
Miss  Lucie  M.  Bryant— New  Jersey 
In  memory  of  Mrs.  George  S.  Buck- 
New  Hampshire 
Mrs.  Arthur  M.  Bullowa— New  York 
Mr.  J.  Campbell  Burton— New  York 
Mrs.  Clarence  Buttenwieser— New  York 
Miss  Alice  D.  Butterfield— New  York 

Mrs.  George  A.  Campbell— New  Jersey 

Mrs.  William  H.  Campbell,  Jr.— New  Jersey 

Mrs.  H.  Bissell  Carey— Connecticut 

Mrs.  Otis  Swan  Carroll— New  York 

Mrs.  A.  Hartwell  Carter— Hawaii 

Mr.  Frederic  D.  Carter— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  F.  Caskey— Connecticut 

Mrs.  Charles  A.  Cass— New  York 

Mrs.  W.  R.  Castle— Washington,  D.C. 

Mrs.  B.  Duvall  Chambers— South  Carolina 

Mr.  Jackson  Chambers— New  York 

Miss  Rosepha  P.  Chisholm— New  York 

Miss  Mabel  Choate— New  York 

Mrs.  Henry  Cannon  Clark— New  York 

Miss  Elizabeth  Clever— New  York 


FRIENDS    OF   THE    BOSTON    SYMPHONY    ORCHESTRA     (Continued) 


Mr.  Chalmers  D.  Clifton— New  York 
Mrs.  McGarvey  Cline— Florida 
Mr.  William  A.  Coffin— New  Jersey 
Mrs.  Isadore  M.  Cohen— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Sylvan  Cole— New  York 
Miss  Constance  Coleman— New  York 
Mrs.  Dayton  Colie— New  Jersey 
Mr.  Martin  F.  Comeau— New  York 
Mrs.  Arthur  C.  Comey— Maine 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  James  B.  Conant— Germany 
Mrs.  Rae  H.  Conklin— Illinois 
Miss  Shirley  Conklin— Illinois 
Mrs.  W.  P.  Conklin— Connecticut 
Miss  Lucy  B.  Conner— New  Hampshire 
Miss  Charlotte  D.  Conover— New  Hampshire 
Miss  Luna  B.  Converse— Vermont 
Mrs.  Francis  R.  Cooley— Connecticut 
Mrs.  James  E.  Cooper— Connecticut 
Mrs.  Stanley  M.  Cooper— Connecticut 
Mrs.  Adelaide  T.  Corbett— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  J.  Cox- 
New  Hampshire 
Miss  Margaret  Cranford— Connecticut 
Miss  Constance  Crawford— New  Jersey 
Mr.  Swasey  Crocker— New  York 
Mrs.  F.  S.  Crofts— Connecticut 
Mrs.  Alan  J.  Cummins— New  York 
Mrs.  Edward  L.  Cutter— New  Hampshire 

Mrs.  Charles  Whitney  Dall— New  York 

Miss  Rachell  E.  Daltry— New  York 

Miss  Dorothy  Dalzell— New  Hampshire 

Mrs.  Robert  E.  Darling— Connecticut 

Mrs.  Franck  Darte— Pennsylvania 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ismer  David— New  York 

Mr.  Aaron  W.  Davis— New  York 

Mrs.  J.  V.  Davison— Maine 

Miss  Mildred  L.  B.  deBarritt— New  York 

Mr.  Vincent  Dempsey— Missouri 

Mrs.  Leopold  Demuth— New  York 

Mr.  Clement  S.  Despard,  Jr.— New  York 

Mr.  John  Deveny— California 

Mr.  Harvey  Dickerman— New  York 

Mrs.  William  R.  Dickinson,  Jr.— Illinois 

Miss  Margaret  Dieckerhoff— New  York 

Mrs.  Monroe  L.  Dinell— Connecticut 

Mr.  R.  J.  Dionne— Maine 

Mrs.  Clarence  C.  Dittmer— New  York 

Mrs.  L.  K.  Doelling— New  York 

Mr.  Max  Doft— New  York 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  George  B.  Dorff— New  York 

Miss  Marian  Drury— Connecticut 

Mrs.  A.  H.  Duerschner— New  York 

Miss  Annie  H.  Duncan-New  Hampshire 

Miss  Beatrice  Dunn— New  York 

Mr.  John  K.  Du press— Connecticut 

Mrs.  Jack  Dworin— Pennsylvania 

Mrs.  Henry  C.  Eaton-New  Hampshire 

Miss  Florence  L.  Eccles— Connecticut 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Nathan  D.  Eckstein— New  York 

Miss  Cornelia  Ann  Eddy— Louisiana 

Mr.  Harold  N.  Ehrlich-Michigan 


Mr.  Louis  H.  Ehrlich— New  York 
Mrs.  A.  Benbow  Elliman— New  York 
Mr.  German  H.  H.  Emory— New  York 
Mrs.  A.  W.  Erickson— New  York 
Mrs.  Arthur  O.  Ernst— New  York 
Mrs.  William  A.  Evans,  Jr.— Michigan 

Mrs.  Joseph  Faroll— New  York 
Miss  Jocelyn  Farr— Maine 
Miss  Helen  M.  Farwell— Maine 
Mr.  Peter  W.  Fay— California 
Mrs.  W.  Rodman  Fay— New  York 
Mrs.  S.  L.  Feiber— New  York 
Mrs.  Cornelius  C.  Felton— New  York 
Mr.  Robert  J.  Fenderson— Maine 
Dr.  J.  Lewis  Fenner— New  York 
Mr.  Luis  A.  Ferr6— Puerto  Rico 
Mrs.  Dana  H.  Ferrin— New  York 
Mrs.  Winthrop  B.  Field— Connecticut 
Mr.  Samuel  Fischman— New  York 
Mr.  L.  Antony  Fisher— Pennsylvania 
Miss  Margaret  Fisher— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Edward  P.  Fitch- 
New  Hampshire 
Miss  Mary  R.  Fitzpatrick— New  York 
Mrs.  Howell  Forbes— New  York 
Mr.  Sumner  Ford— New  York 
Miss  Helen  Foster— New  York 
Miss  Edith  M.  Fox— New  Hampshire 
Miss  Flora  Fox— New  York 
Mr.  Irving  Fox— New  York 
Mrs.  Lewis  Francis— New  York 
Miss  Faustina  Freeman— New  Jersey 
Miss  Elizabeth  S.  French— Vermont 
Miss  Helen  C.  French— Vermont 
Mr.  Arthur  L.  Friedman— New  York 
Mrs.  Evelyn  Friedman— New  Jersey 
Mr.  Stanleigh  P.  Friedman— New  York 
Miss  Helen  Frisbie— Connecticut 
Miss  Edna  B.  Fry— New  Jersey 

Mrs.  Charles  T.  Gallagher— New  Hampshire 

Mrs.  B.  Gardner— New  York 

Miss  Marion  A.  Gardner— New  York 

Mrs.  Stanton  Garfield— Washington,  D.C. 

Mr.  Charles  Garside— New  York 

Miss  Regina  A.  Garvey— New  Jersey 

Mrs.  Louis  R.  Geissenhainer— New  Hampshire 

Mrs.  Herman  S.  Gelbin— New  York 

Mr.  Edwin  Gibbs— New  York 

Miss  Helen  L.  Gibson— New  Jersey 

Miss  Irene  M.  Gilbert— New  York 

Miss  Selma  Gilbert— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  M.  Ginsburg— 

New  York 
Mrs.  Bessie  Ginsburgh— New  York 
Mr.  John  J.  Giriunas— Maryland 
Miss  Mary  J.  Glann— New  York 
Miss  Elizabeth  S.  Glenn— Georgia 
Mrs.  Norman  S.  Goetz— New  York 
Mr.  A.  J.  Goldfarb-New  York 
Mr.  Emanuel  Goldman— New  York 
Miss  H.  Goldman— New  Jersey 

[17] 


FRIENDS   OF   THE   BOSTON    SYMPHONY    ORCHESTRA     (Continued) 


Miss  June  L.  Goldthwait— New  York 
Mr.  I.  Edwin  Goldwasser— New  York 
Jacob  &  Libby  Goodman  Foundation,  Inc.— 

New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  D.  Gordan— New  York 
Mrs.  William  S.  Gordon— New  York 
D.  S.  and  R.  H.  Gottesman  Foundation- 
New  York 
Mrs.  Irving  Graef— New  York 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  Roland  I.  Grausman— New  York 
Mr.  Hamilton  Gray— Ohio 
Mrs.  Marion  Thompson  Greene— New  York 
Mr.  William  C.  Greene— New  Hampshire 
Mr.  Henry  Greenfield— New  York 
Mrs.  Isador  Greenwald— New  York 
Mrs.  Harry  A.  Gregg— New  Hampshire 
Dr.  Albert  W.  Grokoest— New  York 
Mr.  Harold  Grossman— New  York 
Mrs.  James  A.  Grover— New  Hampshire 
Mr.  Mortimer  Grunauer— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Luther  Gulick— New  York 
Miss  Bertha  L.  Gunterman— New  York 
Mrs.  DeWitt  Gutman— New  York 
Mrs.  John  T.  Gyger— Maine 


Miss  Elizabeth  M.  Hirt— New  York 

Dr.  John  N.  Hobstetter— New  Jersey 

Mr.  Harold  K.  Hochschild— New  York 

Mrs.  H.  Hoermann— New  Jersey 

Mrs.  Robert  S.  Hoffman— New  Hampshire 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Henry  Hofheimer— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Joseph  Hofheimer— New  York 

Mrs.  Lester  Hofheimer— New  York 

Mrs.  Arthur  J.  Holden— Vermont 

Mrs.  Regina  Holzwasser— New  York 

Mr.  Henry  Homes— New  York 

Mrs.  F.  E.  Hoover— New  York 

Miss  Edna  P.  Hopkins— New  York 

Miss  Myra  H.  Hopson— Connecticut 

Mrs.  Edith  G.  Home— Florida 

Miss  Gertrude  R.  Hoyt— New  York 

Mr.  Whitney  F.  Hoyt— New  York 

Miss  Alice  M.  Hudson— New  Jersey 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  B.  W.  Huebsch— New  York 

Mr.  Frederick  G.  L.  Huetwell— Michigan 

Miss  Carolyn  F.  Hummel— New  York 

Mrs.  Chester  B.  Humphrey— New  Hampshire 

Mrs.  M.  C.  Humstone— Connecticut 

Miss  Libbie  H.  Hyman— New  York 


Mrs.  Harold  H.  Hackett— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Morris  Hadley— New  York 
Mr.  Paul  D.  Haigh— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Howard  P.  Hall— Turkey 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  N.  Penrose  Hallowell— 

New  York 
Dr.  Edmund  H.  Hamann— Connecticut 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  M.  Gordon  Hammer— New  York 
Mr.  Frank  R.  Hancock— New  York 
In  Memory  of  Ilmari  Hannikainen— Maine 
Miss  Ruth  Gillette  Hardy— New  York 
Mrs.  Benjamin  Hartstein— New  York 
Miss  Marjorie  E.  Harvey— Connecticut 
Mrs.  Samuel  C.  Harvey— Connecticut 
Miss  Margaret  M.  Hasson— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Norman  L.  Hatch- 
New  Hampshire 
Miss  Elizabeth  Hatchett— New  York 
Mrs.  Victor  M.  Haughton— New  Hampshire 
Mrs.  Harold  B.  Hayden— New  York 
Professor  and  Mrs.  Albert  I.  Heckbert— 

New  York 
Mrs.  Irving  Heidell— New  York 
Mr.  Gustav  P.  Heller— New  Jersey 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Louis  L.  Hemingway- 
Connecticut 
Miss  Amy  M.  Hemsing— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Donald  A.  Henderson- 
New  York 
Mr.  Robert  Henrickson— New  York 
Miss  Joanna  A.  Henry— Michigan 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ralph  T.  Heymsfeld— New  York 
Mrs.  Percy  V.  Hill— Maine 
Mrs.  Frederick  Whiley  Hilles— Connecticut 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Samuel  M.  Himmelblau— 

Connecticut 
Mr.  Philip  E.  Hinkley— Maine 
Mr.  Eliot  P.  Hirshberg— New  York 

[18] 


Mrs.  F.  N.  Iglehart— Maryland 
Miss  Louise  M.  Iselin— New  York 

Mr.  C.  D.  Jackson— New  York 

Miss  Lilian  Jackson— New  York 

Mrs.  William  K.  Jacobs— New  York 

Mrs.  Marion  H.  Jacobson— Colorado 

Dr.  Moritz  Jagendorf— New  York 

Mr.  Halsted  James— New  York 

Mrs.  Henry  James— New  York 

Mr.  Sidney  Jarcho— New  York 

Miss  Edith  L.  Jarvis— New  York 

Miss  Edith  Jertson— New  York 

Mrs.  Theodore  C.  Jessup— Connecticut 

Mrs.  Kenneth  E.  Jewett— New  Hampshire 

Mr.  Charles  Jockwig— New  York 

Miss  Dorothy  E.  Joline— New  York 

Mrs.  T.  Catesby  Jones— New  York 

Mr.  Wallace  S.  Jones— New  Jersey 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  George  E.  Judd— New  York 

Mr.  Arthur  Judell— New  York 

Mr.  Irving  H.  Jurow— New  Jersey 

Mr.  Leo  B.  Kagan— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  H.  Kaim— New  York 

Mr.  Arthur  Kallman— New  York 

Mrs.  F.  Karelson— New  York 

Mr.  A.  S.  Karol— Pennsylvania 

Mrs.  Alexander  Karp— New  York 

Mrs.  Irving  D.  Karpas— New  York 

Mrs.  Gerald  L.  Kaufman— New  York 

Miss  Irene  J.  Kaufmann— New  York 

Mrs.  Leonard  Kebler— New  York 

Mrs.  George  A.  Keeney— New  York 

Miss  Florence  B.  Kelly— New  York 

Mr.  W.  Houston  Kenyon,  Jr.— New  York 

Mr.  Alfred  K.  Kestenbaum— New  York 


FRIENDS    OF   THE    BOSTON    SYMPHONY    ORCHESTRA     (Continued) 


Mrs.  Frances  Parkinson  Keyes— 

New  Hampshire 
Mrs.  Warner  King— New  York 
Mrs.  Lucian  S.  Kirtland— New  York 
Mr.  Benjamin  R.  Kittredge— New  York 
Miss  Elena  H.  Klasky— New  York 
Dr.  Lester  Klein— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Victor  W.  Knauth— 

Connecticut 
Miss  Edith  Kneeland— New  York 
Mr.  Ferdinand  F.  E.  Kopecky— Tennessee 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Otto  L.  Kramer— New  York 
Miss  Sarah  Kreutzenauer— New  York 
Mr.  R.  H.  Kruse— New  York 

Mr.  Arthur  Landers— New  Hampshire 

Mrs.  Jesse  E.  Langsdorf— New  York 

Mr.  Charles  C.  Lawrence— New  York 

Mrs.  James  F.  Lawrence— New  Jersey 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Jeffrey  L.  Lazarus— Ohio 

Mrs.  Benjamin  Lazrus— New  York 

Mr.  Elliott  H.  Lee— New  York 

Mrs.  Allan  S.  Lehman— New  York 

Mrs.  Arthur  Lehman— New  York 

Mrs.  George  S.  Leiner— New  York 

Mr.  William  Lepson— New  York 

Mrs.  A.  N.  Leventhal— New  York 

Mr.  Harry  Levine— New  York 

Mr.  Milton  J.  Levitt— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Hiram  S.  Lewine— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Richard  Lewinsohn— New  York 

Mr.  Herbert  Greenleaf  Lewis— New  York 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Richard  Lewisohn— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Albert  Lewi tt— New  Hampshire 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Alfred  J.  Liebmann— New  York 

Miss  Helen  B.  Lincoln— New  York 

Mr.  Louis  Li  van  t— New  York 

Mrs.  Frank  L.  Locke— New  Hampshire 

Miss  Edith  M.  Loew— New  York 

Dr.  Marion  C.  Loizeaux— New  York 

Mrs.  Natalie  L.  Longstreth— New  York 

Mr.  Henry  G.  Lord— New  York 

Mr.  Charles  R.  Lounsbury— New  York 

Mrs.  Walter  Lowell— New  York 

Mrs.  Isador  Lubin— New  York 

Mr.  Irving  B.  Lueth— Illinois 

Mrs.  Edward  M.  Mackey— New  Hampshire 

Dr.  Norman  W.  MacLeod— New  York 

Dr.  M.  C.  Mangle— New  York 

Mr.  Otto  Manley— New  York 

Mrs.  John  F.  Manning— Vermont 

Mrs.  William  Ellis  Mansfield— Georgia 

Mrs.  John  Manuel— New  York 

Miss  Ellen  W.  Marciante— New  Jersey 

Marcus  &  Co.— New  York 

Mrs.  Parker  E.  Marean— Maine 

Mr.  M.  N.  Margulies— New  York 

Miss  Augusta  Markowitz— New  York 

Mr.  Everett  Martine— New  York 

Mrs.  Edwin  R.  Masback— New  York 

Miss  Priscilla  Mason— Washington,  D.  C. 

Mrs.  Richard  E.  Mason— New  York 


Miss  Katharine  Matthies— Connecticut 

Mrs.  Harold  A.  Mattice— New  York 

Mrs.  Jeanne  Maurin— New  York 

Mrs.  Charles  H.  May— New  York 

Mrs.  Edgar  Mayer— New  York 

Mrs.  John  C.  Mayer— New  York 

Mrs.  Joseph  L.  B.  Mayer— New  York 

Mrs.  W.  M.  Mayes— California 

Mrs.  John  V.  McAvoy— New  York 

Mr.  John  McChesney— Connecticut 

Mrs.  James  A.  McCutcheon— New  Hampshire 

Mrs.  Robert  McKelvy— New  York 

Miss  Mary  K.  McKnight— Illinois 

Mrs.  John  R.  McLane— New  Hampshire 

Dr.  Christie  E.  McLeod— Connecticut 

Miss  Helen  M.  McWilliams— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  George  Melcher— 

New  Hampshire 
Mrs.  Chase  Mellen— New  York 
Mr.  Mark  C.  Meltzer,  Jr.— New  York 
Mrs.  S.  Peter  Melville— New  Hampshire 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ralph  J.  Mendel— New  York 
Mr.  Walter  Mendelsohn— New  York 
Mr.  Nilo  Menendez— California 
Mrs.  William  R.  Mercer— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  C.  H.  S.  Merrill- 
New  Hampshire 
Mr.  Henry  F.  Merrill— New  Hampshire 
Mrs.  Houghton  P.  Metcalf— Virginia 
Mrs.  K.  G.  Meyer— New  York 
Miss  Mary  Jane  Meyer— New  York 
Mrs.  Lester  C.  Migdal— New  York 
Mr.  Edmund  G.  Miller— New  Hampshire 
Mr.  Gavin  Miller— New  York 
Miss  Grace  E.  Miller— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Louis  Miller— New  Hampshire 
Mrs.  M.  J.  Miller— New  Jersey 
Mrs.  Norman  F.  Milne— New  Hampshire 
Miss  Anna  E.  Mohn— New  York 
Mrs.  G.  Gardner  Monks— Washington,  D.C. 
Mrs.  Charles  E.  Monroe— New  York 
Colonel  John  C.  Moore— Virginia 
Mr.  William  Osgood  Morgan— New  Jersey 
The  Honorable  William  H.  Mortensen— 

Connecticut 
Dr.  Eli  Moschcowitz— New  York 
Mrs.  Roger  G.  Mosscrop— New  Hampshire 
Mr.  Jasper  R.  Moulton— Connecticut 
Mr.  Vernon  Munroe— New  York 
Mrs.  C.  Randolph  Myer— New  Hampshire 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  David  G.  Nathan— Maryland 
Miss  Emily  S.  Nathan— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  George  W.  Naumburg— 

New  York 
Mr.  Walter  W.  Naumburg— New  York 
Miss  M.  Louise  Neill— Connecticut 
Miss  Katharine  B.  Neilson— Connecticut 
Mrs.  Roy  Neuberger— New  York 
Mr.  John  S.  Newberry,  Jr.— Michigan 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Alfred  H.  Newburger— 

New  York 
Mrs.  Laure  Nichols— Washington 
Mr.  John  W.  Nickerson— Connecticut 

[19] 


FRIENDS    OF   THE    BOSTON    SYMPHONY    ORCHESTRA     (Continued) 


Mrs.  William  R.  Nonnenmacher— Connecticut 
Mr.  Gustav  A.  Nyden— New  York 

Mr.  William  J.  Ober— New  York 
Miss  Dorette  W.  Oettinger— New  York 
Mr.  Leslie  P.  Ogden— New  York 
Miss  Emma  Jessie  Ogg— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Wilfred  A.  Openhym— 

New  York 
Miss  Ida  Oppenheimer— New  York 
Mr.  Edwin  M.  Otterbourg— New  York 

Miss  Bertha  Pagenstecher— New  York 

Mrs.  Peter  S.  Paine— New  York 

Miss  Eleanor  Gilbert  Parker— California 

Mr.  Franklin  E.  Parker,  3rd— New  York 

Miss  Hilda  M.  Peck— Connecticut 

Miss  Mary  M.  L.  Peck— Connecticut 

Mrs.  W.  H.  Peckham— New  York 

Mrs.  Everett  S.  Pennell— New  York 

Mrs.  Charles  E.  Perkins— New  York 

Mrs.  Grafton  B.  Perkins— New  Hampshire 

Mrs.  Robert  S.  Perkins— New  Hampshire 

Mrs.  Russell  Perkins— New  York 

Miss  Lillian  Phelps— Texas 

Mrs.  H.  R.  Pierce— Vermont 

Miss  E.  Marion  Pilpel— New  York 

Mrs.  W.  R.  J.  Planten— Vermont 

Miss  Alice  B.  Plumb— New  York 

Miss  Lilly  Popper— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  W.  Potter— New  York 

In  memory  of  Mr.  Charles  E.  Potts— New  York 

Mrs.  George  Eustis  Potts— Florida 

Mrs.  Alvin  L.  Powell— New  Jersey 

Mrs.  Horace  M.  Poynter— New  Hampshire 

Mrs.  H.  Irving  Pratt,  Jr.— New  York 

Miss  Priscilla  Presbrey— New  Jersey 

Mrs.  Joseph  K.  Priest— New  Hampshire 

Dr.  Sara  S.  Prince— New  York 

Mr.  Edwin  Higbee  Pullman— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Hale  Pulsifer— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Thomas  B.  S.  Quarles— 

New  Jersey 
Miss  Marian  Quell— New  York 

Dr.  Hyman  Rachlin— New  York 

Miss  Marion  Ransier— Iowa 

Mrs.  Endicott  Ra'ntoul— New  Hampshire 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Louis  H.  Rappaport— New  York 

Mrs.  Alice  K.  Ratner— California 

Mrs.  H.  Maynard  Rees— New  Hampshire 

Miss  Marie  Reimer— New  York 

Mrs.  Clara  B.  Relyea— New  York 

Miss  Katharine  N.  Rhoades— New  York 

Miss  Rose  Riccobono— New  York 

Mrs.  Benjamin  M.  Rice— New  Hampshire 

Mrs.  Carolyn-Rita  Rice— Maine 

Mrs.  Ralph  Richards— Maryland 

Mrs.  Anna  S.  Richmond— New  York 

Mrs.  Maximilian  Richter— New  York 

[to] 


Mrs.  S.  Herbert  Riesner— New  York 

Mrs.  Oscar  Riess— New  York 

Mrs.  G.  Gates  Ripley— Missouri 

Mrs.  Leonard  J.  Robbins— New  York 

Miss  Mary  H.  Roberts— New  York 

Mr.  Walter  G.  Roberts— Indiana 

Miss  Gertrude  L.  Robinson— Maine 

Mrs.  John  D.  Rockefeller,  Jr.— New  York 

Mr.  Edgar  Roedelheimer— New  York 

Miss  Bertha  F.  Rogers— New  Hampshire 

Miss  Elizabeth  Rogers— New  York 

Mrs.  C.  V.  Romney— New  Jersey 

Miss  Hilda  M.  Rosecrans— New  York 

Miss  Lillian  Rosen— New  York 

Mr.  Leonard  J.  Rosenfeld— New  York 

Mr.  David  Rosengarten— New  York 

Miss  Bertha  Rosenthal— New  York 

Mr.  Laurence  B.  Rossbach— New  York 

Mrs.  Aaron  H.  Rubenfeld— New  York 

Dr.  I.  C.  Rubin-New  York 

Misses  Leonora  B.  and  Charlotte  M.  Rubinow 

—New  Jersey 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  Joseph  E.  Rubinstein- 
New  York 
Mrs.  Ralph  C.  Runyon— New  York 
Mrs.  Percy  P.  Russ— New  Hampshire 
Mrs.  Gerald  S.  Russell— New  York 
Mr.  Thomas  W.  Russell— Connecticut 

Mr.  William  S.  Saevitz— New  York 
St.  Paul's  School— New  Hampshire 
Mrs.  Aaron  B.  Salant— New  York 
Mrs.  Freda  Salomon— New  York 
Mr.  George  Salter— New  York 
Mrs.  Hiram  P.  Salter,  Jr.— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  C.  Saltmarsh— Florida 
Mrs.  Robert  Saltonstall— New  Hampshire 
Mr.  Charles  F.  Samson— New  York 
Mrs.  Morris  Samuel— New  York 
Mrs.  Alvin  T.  Sapinsley— New  York 
Mrs.  Morris  Sayre— New  Jersey 
Mrs.  Otto  E.  Schaefer— New  York 
Miss  Sadie  Scherr— New  York 
Mr.  Henry  G.  Schiff-New  York 
Mrs.  Cyrus  T.  Schirmer— Maine 
Mrs.  Helen  E.  Schradieck— New  Jersey 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Floyd  Schultz— Indiana 
Miss  Edith  Scoville— New  York 
Miss  May  Seeley— New  York 
Mrs.  Carl  Seeman— New  York 
Mrs.  Isaac  W.  Seeman— New  York 
Mr.  Melvin  R.  Seiden— California 
Mrs.  S.  Seidenbond— New  York 
Miss  Dorothy  Sellers— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  I.  Shatzkin— New  York 
Mr.  Abraham  L.  Sherwin— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Lawrence  W.  Shirley- 
New  Hampshire 
Mrs.  Henry  M.  Shreve— New  Hampshire 
Mrs.  Sidney  E.  Shuman— New  York 
Miss  Nancy  K.  Siff— New  York 
Mrs.  Robert  E.  Simon— New  York 
Dr.  Olga  Sitchevska— New  York 


FRIENDS  OF   THE   BOSTON   SYMPHONY    ORCHESTRA     (Continued) 


Mrs.  M.  N.  Slater— New  York 

Miss  A.  Marguerite  Smith— New  York 

Mrs.  Ernest  Walker  Smith— Connecticut 

Miss  Gertrude  Robinson  Smith— New  York 

Mrs.  Helene  Corey  Smith— New  Jersey 

Mrs.  Henry  Oliver  Smith— New  York 

Mrs.  J.  F.  Smith— New  Jersey 

Mrs.  William  Smith— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  Mason  Smith,  Jr.— 

New  York 
Mr.  Samuel  S.  Solender— New  York 
Miss  Marion  E.  Solodar— New  York 
Mrs.  Irwin  L.  Solomon— New  York 
Mr.  Sidney  L.  Solomon— New  York 
Miss  Honora  Spalding— New  York 
In  Memory  of  William  P.  Sparrell— 

North  Carolina 
Mrs.  Ernest  H.  Sparrow— New  York 
Miss  Frieda  S.  Spatz— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Girard  L.  Spencer— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  J.  E.  Sproul— New  Jersey 
Miss  Elsie  M.  A.  Stanley— New  Hampshire 
Mrs.  Philip  B.  Stanley— Connecticut 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Harold  R.  Starkman— New  York 
Mrs.  Ellsworth  M.  Statler— New  York 
Miss  Anna  Stearns— New  Hampshire 
Miss  Elisabeth  Stearns— New  Hampshire 
Miss  Sophie  B.  Steel— New  York 
Mr.  Meyer  Stein— New  Jersey 
Mrs.  Samuel  Stein— New  York 
Mr.  Julius  Steiner— New  York 
Dr.  Karl  Steiner— New  York 
Mrs.  Albert  M.  Steinert— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Arthur  L.  Stern— New  Jersey 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Edgar  B.  Stern— Louisiana 
Miss  Helene  Stern— New  York 
Mr.  Ernest  N.  Stevens— Maine 
Mrs.  Rudy  C.  Stiefel— New  York 
Mr.  Jacob  C.  Stone— New  York 
Miss  Marion  Stott— New  Hampshire 
Miss  Aline  C.  Stratford— New  York 
Mrs.  Herbert  N.  Straus— New  York 
Mrs.  Charles  H.  Street— New  York 
Mrs.  B.  W.  Streifler-New  York 
Miss  Hattie  M.  Strelitz— New  York 
Mrs.  M.  E.  Strieby— New  Jersey 
Dr.  George  T.  Strodl-New  York 
Mrs.  James  R.  Strong— New  Jersey 
Miss  Jeanette  D.  Studley— Connecticut 
Mrs.  Edwin  A.  Stumpp— New  York 
Mrs.  J.  H.  Stutesman— New  Jersey 
Mrs.  Peggy  Sugar— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Alvah  W.  Sulloway— 

Connecticut 
Mrs.  Pauline  S.  Surrey— New  York 
Miss  Mildred  Sussman— New  York 
Mr.  William  R.  Swart— New  Hampshire 

Miss  Elizabeth  D.  Tallman— New  Hampshire 

Miss  Lucy  O.  Teague— New  Jersey 

Mrs.  Charles  H.  Thieriot— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  B.  Thomas— New  York 

Mrs.  R.  C.  Thomson— New  Jersey 


Mrs.  Edward  L.  Thorndike— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  R.  A.  Thorndike— Maine 

Miss  Bessie  H.  Thrall— California 

Mrs.  Charles  F.  Tillinghast— New  Hampshire 

Mr.  S.  H.  Tolles,  Jr.— Connecticut 

Mr.  Stirling  Tomkins— New  York 

Dr.  Anne  Topper— New  York 

Mr.  Benjamin  H.  Trask— New  York 

Mrs.  Arthur  A.  Traum— New  York 

Miss  G.  W.  Treadwell— Maine 

Mr.  Howard  M.  Trueblood  -New  York 

Mrs.  Gregory  Tuchapsky— New  York 

Miss  Alice  Tully— New  York 

Mrs.  Gardner  C.  Turner— New  Hampshire 

Mrs.  Seymour  C.  Ullman— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Byron  E.  Van  Raalte— New  York 

Miss  Anna  Veder— New  York 

Mrs.  Russell  C.  Veit— New  York 

Miss  Maria  B.  Velasquez— New  York 

Mr.  Simon  J.  Vogel— New  York 

Mrs.  Tracy  S.  Voorhees— New  York 

Mr.  Charles  M.  Walton,  Jr.— New  York 

Miss  Anne  S.  Wanag— New  York 

Mr.  Ethelbert  Warfield— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Alexander  Warga— New  York 

Mrs.  W.  Seaver  Warland— Maine 

Mrs.  Milton  J.  Warner— Connecticut 

Mr.  Eugene  Warren— New  York 

Miss  Marian  Way— Vermont 

Miss  Grace  C.  Waymouth— New  Hampshire 

Miss  Mathilde  E.  Weber— New  York 

Miss  Mabel  Foote  Weeks— New  York 

Mrs.  Percy  S.  Weeks— New  York 

Mr.  Leon  J.  Weil— New  York 

Miss  Ruth  E.  Weill— California 

Mr.  Nathan  Weinberg— New  York 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  J.  J.  Weksler— New  York 

Mrs.  Austin  H.  Welch— New  Hampshire 

Mrs.  H.  K.  W.  Welch— Connecticut 

Mrs.  Thomas  B.  Wells— New  York 

Mrs.  Edward  T.  Wendell— New  Hampshire 

Miss  Jeanne  Wertheimer— New  Hampshire 

Mrs.  Lawrence  H.  Wetherell— 

New  Hampshire 
Mr.  Robert  W.  Whipple— Washington,  D.C. 
Mr.  Victor  E.  Whitlock— New  York 
Miss  Edith  A.  Whitney— New  Jersey 
Miss  Ruth  H.  Whitney— New  Jersey 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  T.  Whittaker— 

New  Hampshire 
Mrs.  E.  B.  Whittemore— New  Hampshire 
Miss  Agnes  L.  Wiley— California 
Miss  Viola  B.  Williamson— New  York 
Mrs.  Alfred  Willstatter— New  York 
Mrs.  Willis  K.  Wing— Connecticut 
Dr.  Asher  Winkelstein— New  York 
Miss  Ellen  Winsor— Pennsylvania 
Mrs.  Thomas  Winston— New  York 
Mrs.  Keyes  Winter— New  York 
Miss  Mary  Withington— Connecticut 

[«] 


FRIENDS   OF  THE  BOSTON   SYMPHONY   ORCHESTRA     (Concluded) 

Miss  Anna  J.  Wolff— New  York  Mrs.  John  L.  Young— Maine 

Mrs.  Peter  Woodbury— New  Hampshire 

Miss  Janet  K.  Woolever— Ohio 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Arthur  W.  Wright-New  York  Mrs.  L.  E.  Zacher-Connecticut 

Mr.  Carroll  M.  Wright-New  York  Mrs.  Edmund  Ziman-New  York 

Miss  Mary  E.  Wright— Connecticut 

Mr.  Lucien  Wulsin— Ohio .  

LIST    OF    WORKS 

Performed  in  the  Evening  Series 
DURING  THE  SEASON  1956  -  1957 

Bach "Wedding"  Cantata,  "Weichet  nur,  betrubte  Schatten," 

for  Soprano,  No.  202  II     December  12 

Soloist:  Irmgard  Seefried 

Violin  Solo:  Richard  Burgin  Oboe  Solo:  Ralph  Gomberg 

Harpsichord:  Daniel  Pinkham 

Beethoven Symphony  No.  5,  in  C  minor,  Op.  67 

III     January  9 

Symphony  No.  4,  in  B-flat  major,  Op.  60 

IV    February  6 

Diamond Symphony  No.  6 

(First  performance  in  New  York)  V      March  20 

Franck Symphony  in  D  minor 

V     March  20 

Hindemith  Songs  from  "Das  Marienleben"  for  Soprano  and  Orchestra 

Soloist:  Irmgard  Seefried  II     December  12 

Honegger Symphony  No.  2,  for  String  Orchestra 

II     December  12 

Mozart Symphony  in  D  major,  "Paris,"  K.  297 

I     November  14 

Concerto  for  Clarinet,  in  A  major,  K.  622 
Soloist:  Gino  Cioffi  V     March  20 

Piston Symphony  No.  5 

I     November  14 

Prokofieff Piano  Concerto  No.  2,  in  G  minor,  Op.  16 

Soloist:  Nicole  Henriot  IV    February  6 

Roussel   .  * "Bacchus  et  Ariane,"  Suite  No.  2,  Op.  43 

II     December  12 

Shostakovitch Symphony  No.  5,  Op.  47 

III     January  9 

Smit Symphony  No.  1  in  E-flat 

(First  performance  in  New  York)  IV      February  o 

Tchaikovsky    ...  Symphony  No.  6,  in  B  minor,  "Pathetique,"  Op.  74 

I     November  14 

Vaughan  Williams Fantasia  on  a  Theme  by  Thomas  Tallis, 

for  Double  String  Orchestra  III     January  9 

Richard  Burgin  conducted  the  concert  of  January  9 


SEVENTY-SIXTH  SEASON  •   NINETEEN  HUNDRED  FIFTY-SIX  AND  FIFTY-SEVEN 


Seventy-First  Season  in  New  York 


Fifth  Afternoon  Concert 

SATURDAY,  March  23 


Program 


Walton Johannesburg  Festival  Overture 

(First  performance  in  New  York) 

Walton Concerto  for  Viola  and  Orchestra 

I.     Andante  comodo:  Cantabile  espressivo 
II.     Vivo,  con  molto  preciso 
III.     Allegro  moderato 


INTERMISSION 


Strauss "Ein  Heldenleben,"  Tone  Poem,  Op.  40 


soloist 
JOSEPH  de  PASQUALE 


Performances  by  this  orchestra  are  broadcast  each  week  on  Monday 
evenings  from  8:05  to  9:00  P.M.  on  the  NBC  Radio  Network. 

Music  of  these  programs  is  available  at  the  Music  Library, 
58th   Street   Branch,   the  New  York    Public   Library. 

BALDWIN  PIANO  RCA  VICTOR  RECORDS 


[*S] 


JOHANNESBURG  FESTIVAL  OVERTURE: 
By  William  Walton 

Born  in  Oldham,  Lancashire,  March  29,  1902 


This  Overture,  completed  last  spring,  had  its  first  performance  in  Johannesburg, 
South  Africa,  September  15,  1956,  when  Malcolm  Sargent  conducted  the  Symphony 
Orchestra  of  the  South  African  Broadcasting  Corporation  (SABC). 

The  required  instruments  are  3  flutes,  2  oboes  and  English  horn,  3  clarinets,  3 
bassoons,  4  horns,  3  trumpets,  3  trombones  and  tuba,  timpani,  harp,  percussion, 
and  strings. 

qir  William  Walton  completed  the  score  in  his  villa  on  the  Island 
^  of  Ischia  in  the  Bay  of  Naples,  May  16,  1956.  Its  performance  in 
Johannesburg  was  part  of  a  festival  celebrating  the  70th  anniversary 
of  that  city.  The  prevailing  tempo  is  "presto  capriccioso."  The  con- 
siderable array  of  percussion  instruments  contributes  to  the  appropri- 
ateness of  the  locale.  They  consist  of  maracas,  rumba  sticks,  xylophone, 
glockenspiel,  castanets,  tambourine,  bass  drum,  cymbals,  triangle,  side 
drum,  tenor  drum. 


*  This  Overture  as  well  as  Walton's  Viola  Concerto  are  performed  by  arrangement  with  the 
Oxford  University  Press. 

[copyrighted! 


CONCERTO  FOR  VIOLA  AND  ORCHESTRA 
By  William  Walton 

Born  in  Oldham,  Lancashire,  March  29,  1902 


Composed  in  the  years  1928  and  1929,  this  Concerto  had  its  first  performance  at 
the  Promenade  Concerts  in  London,  under  the  direction  of  Sir  Henry  Wood,  October 
3,  1929,  when  Paul  Hindemith  was  the  soloist.  Lionel  Tertis  played  it  at  Liege  in 
the  following  year  at  the  I.S.C.M.  Festival. 

The  orchestra  consists  of  2  flutes  and  piccolo,  2  oboes  and  English  horn,  2  clarinets 
and  bass  clarinet,  2  bassoons  and  contra-bassoon,  4  horns,  3  trumpets,  3  trombones 
and  tuba,  timpani,  strings.    The  score  bears  the  dedication  "To  Christabel." 

tn  A  plan  which  he  was  later  to  repeat  in  his  Cello  Concerto,  Sir 
A  William  Walton  has  not  chosen  a  slow  movement  for  the  middle 
part  of  his  Viola  Concerto,  but  a  brief  and  sparkling  scherzo  in  that 
position.  The  opening  movement  serves  in  both  cases  for  the  slow 
movement,  while  in  the  Viola  Concerto  there  is  a  contrasting  section 
of  animation  and  vigor  achieved  by  an  elaboration  of  notes  in  shorter 
value  within  the  continuing  broader  scheme.    The   finale  in   both 

[*4] 


concertos  is  the  longest  and  most  developed  movement,  orchestrally 
speaking.  The  Viola  Concerto  is  without  a  cadenza. 

The  soloist  gives  us  at  once  this  principal  subject,  a  cantabile  theme 
which  is  to  recur  at  the  close  of  the  Concerto: 


Donald  Francis  Tovey  in  his  detailed  analysis  of  this  Concerto* 
shows  how  the  accompanying  chords  with  their  C-sharp  against  the 
C  of  the  soloist  are  to  become  a  significant  motto  in  this  movement. 
An  elaborate  solo  passage,  broadening  into  sixths,  introduces  a  second 
theme  which  is  equally  "espressivo": 


vgrf-^F^fr  i  f  c  r  ^j^g^^ 


-p- 


The  second  movement  with  its  syncopated  accents  has  reminded 
Professor  Tovey  of  "ragtime."  Whether  the  composer  was  familiar 
with  this  Americanism,  defunct  when  he  wrote  the  Concerto,  or 
whether  he  consciously  took  a  hint  from  that  phenomenon  of  the  early 
century  would  be  debatable.  The  rhythmic  treatment,  which  is  jaunty 
and  gay  but  varied  and  subtle  of  beat,  is  less  obviously  an  imitation  of 
ragtime  than  the  earlier  essays  of  Debussy  or  Stravinsky.  This  "rondo" 
(it  approximates  the  form  by  the  recurrence  of  the  main  theme)  is 
pointed  and  brilliant  without  undue  weight. 

The  finale  opens  pianissimo  with  a  grotesque  theme  first  heard  from 
the  bassoons  and  soon  taken  up  by  the  soloist: 


« 


£ 


JfclJ-    J^ 


3: 


^ 


J=*Q 


m 


An  element  of  grotesquerie  this  movement  has  throughout,  but  the 
mood  is  not  light.  Tovey  goes  so  far  as  to  say  that  when  this  theme 
"reveals  itself  as  a  purely  majestic  subject  for  a  fugal  stretto  .  .  .  the 
listener  will  soon  become  convinced  that  the  total  import  of  the  work 
is  that  of  high  tragedy."  "High  tragedy"  may  be  a  strong  characteriza- 
tion for  this  Concerto,  but  there  can  be  no  mistaking  the  composer's 
serious  intent  as  he  fulfills  his  fugato  in  the  orchestra  alone.  The 
orchestra  reaches  an  intense  climax,  fortissimo,  dies  away,  and  gives 
the  final  center  of  attention  to  the  soloist  as  he  concludes  the  Concerto 
with  the  theme  which  opened  it.  The  melancholy  voice  inherent  in 
the  instrument  is  delicately  and  colorfully  supported  to  the  last 
cadence. 


*  Essays  in  Musical  Analysis,  Volume  III. 


[25] 


Walton  is  singularly  successful  in  matching  the  special  timbre  of  the 
viola  with  what  is  often  a  considerable  orchestra.  He  does  not  turn 
to  arpeggios  as  Berlioz  did.  In  the  first  and  last  movements  (partic- 
ularly in  the  second  theme  of  the  last)  he  finds  strength  and  beauty 
by  the  use  of  sixths.  "There  are  so  few  concertos  for  viola  that  (even 
if  I  happen  to  know  any  others),"  so  concludes  Professor  Tovey,  "it 
would  be  a  poor  compliment  to  say  this  was  the  finest.  Any  concerto 
for  viola  must  be  a  tour  de  force;  but  this  seems  to  me  to  be  one  of 
the  most  important  modern  concertos  for  any  instrument,  and  I  can 
see  no  limits  to  what  may  be  expected  of  the  tone-poet  who  could 
create  it." 

[copyrighted] 


JOSEPH  de  PASQUALE 

Joseph  de  Pasquale  was  born  in  Philadelphia,  October  14,  1919. 
He  attended  the  Curtis  Institute  of  Music,  studying  viola  with  Louis 
Bailly.  He  has  also  studied  with  Max  Aranoff  and  William  Primrose. 
For  the  duration  of  the  war  he  played  in  the  Marine  Band  of  Washing- 
ton, D.  C,  subsequently  joining  the  viola  section  of  the  American 
Broadcasting  Company  Orchestra  in  New  York.  Mr.  de  Pasquale 
became  first  viola  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra  in  1947.  He  has 
been  soloist  in  performances  of  Berlioz"  Harold  in  Italy,  Strauss'  Don 
Quixote,  Viola  Concerto  in  B  minor  by  Handel  (?). 

In  the  present  performances  he  plays  a  Gasparo  da  Said  instrument. 


'EIN  HELDENLEBEN"    ("A  HERO'S  LIFE")  Tone  Poem,  Op.  40 

By  Richard  Strauss 
Born  in  Munich,  June  1 1,  1864;  died  in  Garmisch,  September  8,  1949 


From  the  beginning  of  August  until  the  end  of  December,  1898,  in  Charlotten- 
burg,  Strauss  began  and  completed  this  Tone  Poem.  The  dedication  was  to  "Willem 
Mengelberg  and  the  Concertgebouw  Orchestra  in  Amsterdam."  The  first  performance 
was  at  Frankfort-on-the-Main,  March  3,  1899,  when  Strauss  conducted  from  the 
manuscript.  The  music  was  published  in  the  same  month. 

The  orchestration  is  lavish:  3  flutes  and  piccolo,  3  or  4  oboes,  and  English  horn, 
clarinet  in  E-flat,  2  clarinets  in  B -flat,  bass  clarinet,  3  bassoons  and  double-bassoon, 
8  horns,  5  trumpets,  3  trombones,  tenor  tuba,  bass  tuba,  kettledrums,  bass  drum, 
snare  drum,  side  drum,  cymbals,  2  harps,  and  strings    (much  divided). 

The  first  performance  in  America  was  by  the  Chicago  Orchestra,  Theodore 
Thomas  conducting,  March  9,  1900.  The  first  performance  by  this  orchestra  was  on 
December  6,  1901. 

[26] 


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CARNEGIE     HALL 


SEASON  OF   1957-1958 
Seventy-second  Season  in  New  York 


Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 


rniflp 


Two  Series  of  Five  Concerts  Each 

Five  Five 

WEDNESDAY  SATURDAY 

Evenings  at  8 :  45  Afternoons  at  2 :  30 

november  13  november  16 

december  11  december  14 

january  15  january  18 

february  12  february  15 

march  19  march  22 

Renewal  cards  are  being  mailed  to  subscribers. 


All  applications  and  communications  should  be  addressed  to  % 

Thomas  D.  Perry,  Jr.,  Manager 
SYMPHONY  HALL,  BOSTON 


[27] 


The  score  divides  into  six  parts: 

The  Hero  —  The  Hero's  Adversaries  —  The  Hero's  Helpmate  —  The  Hero's  Battle- 
field —  The  Hero's  Works  of  Peace  —  The  Hero's  Release  from  the  World,  and  the 
Fulfillment  of  his  Life. 

As  Don  Quixote  is  an  extension  of  the  variation  form,  and  Till 
maintains  the  skeleton  of  a  rondo,  Ein  Heldenleben  has  been  described 
by  analysts  as  a  vast  symphonic  movement.  The  first  two  parts  may 
be  called  the  first  subject  elaborately  laid  out  with  many  subsidiary 
themes:  the  "Hero's  Helpmate"  provides  the  contrasting  second  sub- 
ject; the  "Battlefield"  is  the  working  out  of  these  themes,  culminating 
in  a  sort  of  recapitulation;  the  last  two  sections  are  as  a  coda  of 
extreme  length. 

I.  The  Hero.  —  The  Hero's  principal  theme  is  stated  at  once  by 
the  horns  and  strings  —  broad  and  sweeping  with  wide  skips  —  full  of 
energy  and  assurance.  If  this  particular  Tone  Poem  is  a  character  study 
rather  than  a  narration,  it  cannot  be  expected  that  the  composer  draw 
his  hero  complete  in  the  first  outline.  As  the  complex  of  the  score  is 
built  up  with  numerous  derivative  phrases  and  secondary  themes,  the 
character  gains  appreciably  in  stature  and  dignity  (the  picture  becomes 
still  more  full-rounded  as  the  hero  is  presented  in  relation  to  life, 
ennobled  by  love,  hardened  by  attack,  exalted  by  achievement,  ulti- 
mately mellowed  and  reconciled  to  his  environment  by  the  finer 
qualities  which  his  soul's  growth  has  attained).  The  section  ends  with 
a  thunderous  assertion  of  power,  after  which  the  ensuing  complaints 
of  his  antagonists,  mean  and  carping,  sound  petty  indeed. 

II.  The  Hero's  Adversaries.  —  This  picture  was  drawn  too  sharply 
in  the  judgment  of  the  early  hearers  of  Ein  Heldenleben.  Strauss  went 
so  far  in  depicting  their  whining  stupidities  that  the  composer's 
unshakable  enthusiasts  felt  called  upon  to  draw  a  new  definition  for 
"beauty,"  a  new  boundary  for  permissible  liberties  in  descriptive  sug- 
gestion. The  themes  of  the  hero's  critics  are  awkward  and  sidling;  in 
the  wood  wind  "scharf,"  "spitzig,"  "schnarrend,"  in  the  bass  grubby 
and  sodden.  The  hero's  answering  comment  is  disillusioned,  saddened, 
but  at  last  he  is  goaded  to  an  emphatic  and  strong  retort. 

There  seems  to  be  only  one  other  case  in  history  where  a  composer 
openly  mocks  his  critics  in  his  music  —  the  case  of  Wagner  and  his 
Beckmesser. 

III.  The  Hero's  Helpmate.  —  As  with  his  hero,  Strauss  unfolds 
his  heroine  gradually,  in  the  course  of  his  development.    Her  voice 

(which  is  that  of  the  violin  solo  in  increasingly  ornate  cadenzas)  is  at 
first  capricious  and  wilful  —  refuses  to  blend  and  become  one  with  the 
music  the  orchestra  is  playing.  But  gradually  the  pair  reach  a  har- 
monious understanding.    Their  two  voices  become  one  as  the  score 

[28] 


FRIENDS  OF  THE  BOSTON 
SYMPHONY  ORCHESTRA 
—  ANNUAL  MEETING  — 

The  twenty-third  Annual  Meeting  of  the  Friends 
will  be  held  in  Symphony  Hall  on  Wednesday, 
March  27,  1957,  at  four  o'clock  for  the  transaction 
of  appropriate  business.  Dr.  Munch  and  the 
Orchestra  will  play  a  short  program.  After  the 
music  tea  will  be  served. 

All  Friends  enrolled  by  March  15  are  cordially 
invited  to  attend  this  meeting. 

PALFREY  PERKINS 

Chairman,  Friends  of  the 
Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 


I  wish  to  be  enrolled  as  a  member  of  the 

Friends  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

for  the  1956-57  season  and  contribute  the  sum  of  % 

enclosed  within  or  pledge  the  sum  of  $ payable 

on 

Name   

Address    

Checks  are  payable  to  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra,  Inc. 
Gifts  to  the  Orchestra  are  deductible  under  the  Federal  Income  Tax  laws. 


[29] 


grows  richer  in  texture  and  develops  a  love  song  in  which  the  orchestra 
builds  up  a  lyric  opulence  and  tonal  splendor  such  as  none  but  Strauss 
could  achieve.  At  a  point  where  the  music  rests  upon  a  soft  chord 
long  held,  the  theme  of  the  adversaries  is  heard,  as  if  in  the  distance. 

IV.  The  Hero's  Battlefield.  —  A  trumpet  fanfare  (off  stage  at 
first)  breaks  the  glamorous  spell  with  a  challenge  to  battle,  which 
is  soon  raging  with  every  ounce  of  Strauss's  technique  of  color,  his 
prodigious  contrapuntal  resource  called  into  play.  The  hero  is  assailed 
with  drums  and  brass  in  assembled  array;  but  his  theme  retorts  with 
proud  assurance  of  strength,  further  fortified  in  a  repetition  of  the 
love  music  which  has  gone  before.  Again  the  orchestra  rises  to  a  full 
and  impressive  climax  —  a  song  of  triumph. 

V.  The  Hero's  Works  of  Peace.  —  But  triumph  of  this  sort  is 
without  lasting  satisfaction.  The  music  from  this  point  grows  less 
exultant,  becomes  more  reflective  and  "inward,"  seeking  deeper  cur- 
rents. The  hero's  ''works  of  peace"  are  recalled  in  themes  from  Strauss's 
earlier  works:  phrases  are  heard  from  Don  Juan,  Zarathustra,  Tod 
und  Verkldrung,  Don  Quixote,  Macbeth,  Guntram,  Till  Eulenspiegel, 
and  the  song  Traum  durch  die  Dammerung.  The  beloved  consort  is 
also  remembered.  The  cunning  skill  of  the  composer  in  weaving  a 
string  of  unrelated  subjects  into  a  continuous  and  plausible  musical 
narrative  is  a  passing  Straussian  wonder. 

VI.  The  Hero's  Release  from  the  World,  and  the  Fulfillment 
of  His  Life.  —  There  is  a  final  conflict  with  the  forces  of  hate,  but  this 
time  it  is  soon  resolved.  The  protagonist  has  as  last  found  peace  with 
himself.  There  are  flitting  recollections  of  his  past  life,  but  placid 
resignation  now  possesses  him.  The  music  at  last  sublimates  on  themes 
of  the  hero,  through  which  the  violin  solo  is  intertwined. 

Strauss's  audiences  and  critics  have  too  long  been  bothered  by  the 
evidence  of  the  allusion  listed  above  that  the  composer  was  describing 
himself  all  along,  erecting  in  this  score  a  monument  to  his  own  conceit. 
All  introspective  fiction  is  autobiographical,  and  Strauss  could  not 
have  immersed  himself  so  completely  into  his  epic  without  portraying 
his  own  character.  His  real  offense  was  in  openly  admitting  and  vaunt- 
ing the  fact.  Shocking  audacities  have  a  way  of  losing  their  edge  and 
interest  as  the  next  generation,  and  the  next,  come  along.  All  that  is 
finally  asked  is  the  worth  of  the  music  —  as  music. 

[copyrighted] 


^y 


[30] 


asked  the  brahmin  of  the  brewer. . . 


"Pray  tell,  good  fellow,  why  not  a  beverage 
Brewed  in  a  fashion  a  bit  above  the  average? 
A  light-hearted  ale,  dry  refreshing  beer 
Worthy  of  a  connoisseur,  worthy  of  a  Peer?" 


"Matey,  you're  in  luck",  said  the  Brewer  to  the  Brahmin, 
"You  and  the  missus  and  the  Beacon  Hill  barman, 
For  Carling's  now  in  Natick,  brewing  ale  and  beer 
Worthy  of  a  connoisseur,  worthy  of  a  Peer." 


CARLING    BREWING    CO. 


[SO 


LIST    OF    WORKS 

Performed  in  the  Afternoon  Series 
DURING  THE  SEASON   1956  -  1957 


Barber Medea's  Meditation  and  Dance  of  Vengeance,  Op.  23-A 

II     December  15 

Beethoven Symphony  No.  3  in  E-flat  major,  "Eroica,"  Op.  55 

I  November  17 

Symphony  No.  6,  in  F  major,  "Pastoral,"  Op.  68 

II  December  15 

Brahms Symphony  No.  1,  in  C  minor,  Op.  68 

IV     February  9 

Britten Variations  for  String  Orchestra,  on  a  Theme  by 

Frank  Bridge,  Op.  10  IV     February  9 

Debussy "Iberia"    ("Images"  for  Orchestra,  No.  2) 

I  November  17 

"Rondes  de  printemps"   (Image  No.  3) 

III     January  12 

Honegger "Rugby,  Mouvement  symphonique" 

III     January  12 

Mahler Symphony  No.  4,  in  G  major   (with  Soprano  Voice) 

Soloist:  Nancy  Carr  III     January  12 

Prokofieff Piano  Concerto  No.  2,  in  G  minor,  Op.  16 

Soloist:  Nicole  Henriot  IV     February  9 

Ravel "Pavane  pour  une  Infante  defunte" 

III     January  12 

"Alborada  del  gracioso" 
III     January  12 

Strauss "Ein  Heldenleben,"  Tone  Poem,  Op.  40 

V     March  23 

Stravinsky "Jeu  de  Cartes,"  Ballet  in  Three  Deals 

II  December  15 

Walton Johannesburg  Festival  Overture 

(First  performance  in  New  York)  V      Marcn  23 

Concerto  for  Viola  and  Orchestra 
Soloist:  Joseph  de  Pasquale  V      March  23 

Weber Overture  to  "Euryanthe" 

I     November  17 

Richard  Burgin  conducted  the  concert  of  January  12 
[32] 


RCA   VICTOR   RECORDS 

BOSTON  SYMPHONY  ORCHESTRA 

Recorded  under  the  leadership  of  CHARLES  MUNCH 
Beethoven  Overtures  Leoiiore  Nos.  1,  2,  3 ;  "Fidelio"  ;  "Coriolan" 
Symphonies  Nos.  5,  G,  7 
Violin  Concerto  (Heifetz) 
Berlioz  "Fantastic     Symphony";     Overture    to    ''Beatrice    and    Benedick"; 
"Romeo  and  Juliet"  (complete)  ;  "Summer  Nights"  (De  Los  Angeles)  ; 
"The  Damnation  of  Faust"  (complete) 
Brahms  Piano  Concerto  No.  2  (Rubinstein) 

Symphonies  Nos.  2,  4 ;  "Tragic  Overture" 
Bruch  Violin  Concerto  No.  1  (Menuhin) 
Chausson  "Poeme"  for  Violin  and  Orchestra  (Oistrakh) 
Chopin  Piano  Concerto  No.  2  (Brailowsky) 
Debussy  "The  Martyrdom  of  St.  Sebastian"  ;  "Prelude  to  the  Afternoon  of  a 

Faun"  :  "The  Blessed  Damozel"  (De  Los  Angeles) 
Handel  "Water  Music"  Suite  (arr.  Harty) 
Haydn  Symphony  No.  104 
Honegger  Symphonies  Nos.  2.  5 
Lalo  Overture  to  "Le  Roi  d'Ys" 
Menotti  Violin  Concerto  (Spivakovsky) 
Mozart  Overture  to  "The  Marriage  of  Figaro" 
Ravel  "Daphnis  and  Chloe"   (complete)  ;  "Pa vane" 

Newly  Recorded :   "Bolero"  ;  "La  Valse"  ;  "Rapsodie  Espagnole" 
Roussel  "Bacchus  and  Ariane,"  Suite  No.  2 
Saint-Saens  "Introduction  and  Rondo  Capriccioso"  (Oistrakh) 
Overture  to  "La  Princesse  Jaune" 
Piano  Concerto  No.  4  (Brailowsky) 
Schubert  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  8  ("Unfinished"  Symphony) 
Schumann  Overture  to  "Genoveva"       Symphony  No.  4 
Strauss  "Don  Quixote"  (Soloist,  Piatigorsky) 

Tchaikovsky  Violin  Concerto    (Milstein)  ;  "Francesca  da  Rimini";  "Romeo 
and  .Juliet";  Symphony  No.  4 

Among  the  recordings  under  the  leadership  of  SERGE  KOUSSEVITZKY 


Baeh  Brandenburg  Concertos  Nos.  1,  6 ; 

Suites  Nos.  1,  4 
Beethoven  Symphonies  Nos.  3,  5,  9 
Berlioz  "Harold  in  Italy"  (Primrose) 

Brahms   Symphony  No.  3;   Violin  Con- 
certo (Heifetz) 

Copland  "A  Lincoln  Portrait"  ;  "Appala- 
chian Spring"  ;  "El  Salon  Mexico" 

Hanson  Symphony  No.  3 

Harris  Symphony  No.  3 

Haydn  Symphonies  Nos.  92,   "Oxford" ; 

94,  "Surprise" 
Ehatchaturian  Piano  Concerto  (Kapell) 
Mendelssohn  Symphony  No.  4,  "Italian" 


Mozart  "Eine  kleine  Nachtmusik"  ;  Sere- 
nade No.  10,  for  Woodwinds ;  Sym- 
phonies Nos.  36,  "Linz"  ;  39 

Prokofleff  "Classical"  Symphony;  "Lt. 
Kije"  Suite ;  "Romeo  and  Juliet,"  Suite 
No.  2 ;  Symphony  No.  5 ;  Violin  Con- 
certo No.  2  (Heifetz) 

Rachmaninoff  "Isle  of  the  Dead" 

Ravel  "Bolero" ;  "Ma  Mere  L'Oye"  Suite 

Schubert  Symphony  in  B  Minor,  "Un- 
finished" 

Sibelius  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  5 

Strauss,  R.  "Don  Juan" 

Tchaikovsky  Serenade  in  C ;  Symphonies 
Nos.  4,  5 

Wagner  Siegfried  Idyll 


Recorded  under  the  leadership  of  PIERRE  MONTEUX 
Debussy  "La  Mer"  ;  "Nocturnes"  Tchaikovsky   Symphony  No.   6,   "Pa the 

Liszt  "Les  Preludes"  tique" 

Mozart  Piano  Concertos  Nos.  12, 18  (  Lili 

Kratjs  ) 
Scriabin  "The  Poem  of  Ecstasy" 
Stravinsky  "Le  Sacre  du  Printemps" 


Delibes  Ballets  "Sylvia,"  "Coppelia"  by 
Members  of  the  Boston  Symphony 
Orchestra 


Recorded  under  the  leadership  of  Leonard  Bernstein 
Stravinsky  "L'Histoire  du  Soldat" ;  Octet  for  Wind  Instruments 

The  above  recordings  are  available  on  Long  Play  (33%  r.p.m.)  and  (in  some  cases) 
45  r.p.m. 


Your  family  deserves  the  Acrosonic 


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of  your  children,  the  keys  of  your 
Acrosonic  will  unlock,  for  a  lifetime, 
the  marvelous  world  of  musical 
enjoyment. 

.  .  .  and  only  in  the  Acrosonic  by 
Baldwin,  will  you  find  . . .  full  tone — 


immediate  response — perfect  touch 
.  .  .  exclusive  quality  characteristics 
of  all  world-famous  Baldwin-built 
pianos. 

Remember,  you  buy  so  much  .  .  . 
when  you  buy  .  .  .  the  Acrosonic 
by  Baldwin. 


THE  BALDWIN  PIANO  COMPANY 

20  EAST  54th  STREET 

NEW  YORK  CITY 


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Brooklyn  Programmes 


BOSTON 

SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 


FOUNDED  IN  1881  BY 
HENRY  LEE  HIGGINSON 


SEVENTY-SIXTH   SEASON 

1956-1957 

Academy  of  Music,  Brooklyn 

Under  the  auspices  of  the  Brooklyn  Institute  of  Arts  and  Sciences 
and  the  Philharmonic  Society  of  Brooklyn 


*956  -  *957 
THE  WOMEN'S  COMMITTEE 


FOR 


The  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra  Concerts 


IN  BROOKLYN 


Mrs.  Edward  C.  Blum 
Vice -Chairman 


Mrs.  Carroll  J.  Dickson,  Chairman 

Mrs.  Edwin  P.  Maynard,  Jr. 

Vice-Chairman 


Mrs.  H.  Haughton  Bell 
Vice-Chairman 


Mrs.  Irving  G.  Idler 
Chairman  of  Boxes 

Mrs.  Elias  J.  Audi  Mrs. 
Mrs.  Charles  L.  Babcock,  Jr.       Mrs. 

Mrs.  C.  Rankin  Barnes  Mrs. 

Mrs.  Bernard  S.  Barr  Mrs. 

Mrs.  John  R.  Bartels  Mrs. 

Mrs.  George  M.  Billings  Mrs. 

Mrs.  John  R.  H.  Blum  Mrs. 

Mrs.  Robert  E.  Blum  Mrs. 

Mrs.  Lawrence  J.  Bolvig  Mrs. 

Mrs.  Otis  Swan  Carroll  Mrs. 

Mrs.  Francis  T.  Christy  Mrs. 

Miss  Edith  U.  Conard  Mrs. 

Mrs.  Benjamin  S.  Conroy  Mrs. 

Mrs.  Donald  M.  Crawford  Mrs. 

Mrs.  Russell  V.  Cruikshank  Mrs. 

Mrs.  William  T.  Daily  Mrs. 

Mrs.  Frederick  I.  Daniels  Mrs. 

Mrs.  Berton  J.  Delmhorst  Mrs. 

Mrs.  Anthony  Di  Giovanna  Mrs. 

Mrs.  Remick  C.  Eckardt  Mrs. 

Mrs.  Alfred  H.  Everson  Mrs. 

Mrs.  James  F.  Fairman  Miss 

Mrs.  John  W.  Faison  Mrs. 

Mrs.  Merrill  N.  Foote  Miss 

Mrs.  Lewis  W.  Francis  Mrs. 

Mrs.  Laurance  E.  Frost  Mrs. 

Mrs.  Edwin  L.  Garvin  Mrs. 


Mrs.  Miles  M.  Kastendieck 
Chairman  of  Membership 


Andrew  L.  Gomory 
R.  Whitney  Gosnell 
Morgan  Grossman 
Arthur  C.  Hallan 
J.  Victor  Herd 
James  M.  Hills 
Francis  H.  Horn 
David  S.  Hunter 
Raymond  V.  Ingersoll 
Henry  A.  Ingraham 
Darwin  R.  James  III 
James  Vincent  Keogh 
John  Bailey  King 
Warner  King 
Almet  R.  Latson,  Jr. 
Abbott  Lippmann 
John  B.  Madden 
Albert  C.  Magee 
Eugene  R.  Marzullo 
Carleton  D.  Mason 
Richard  S.  Maynard 
Helen  M.  McWilliams 
Alfred  L.  Megill 
Emma  Jessie  Ogg 
William  M.  Parke 
William  B.  Parker 
Frank  H.  Parsons 


Mrs.  Raymond  King  Pendleton 

Mrs.  Franklyn  H.  Peper 

Mrs.  Valentine  K.  Raymond 

Mrs.  Frederick  H.  Rohlfs 

Mrs.  Donald  Ross 

Mrs.  Irving  J.  Sands 

Mrs.  Eliot  H.  Sharp 

Mrs.  Frank  E.  Simmons 

Mrs.  Donald  G.  C.  Sinclair 

Mrs.  Ainsworth  L.  Smith 

Mrs.  Sidney  L.  Solomon 

Mrs.  Harry  H.  Spencer 

Mrs.  Donald  Edgar  Swift 

Mrs.  Hollis  K.  Thayer 

Mrs.  Gilbert  H.  Thirkield 

Mrs.  John  Fairfield 

Thompson,  Jr. 

Mrs.  Theodore  N.  Trynin 

Mrs.  Franklin  B.  Tuttle 

Mrs.  Adrian  Van  Sinderen 

Mrs.  Thomas  K.  Ware 

Mrs.  Robert  F.  Warren 

Mrs.  Harold  E.  Weeks 

Mrs.  Frederick  Weisbrod 

Mrs.  Travis  H.  Whitney 

Miss  Elizabeth  T.  Wright 


Academy  of  Music,  Brooklyn 


SEVENTY-SIXTH  SEASON,  1956-1957 

Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 
Richard  Burgin,  Associate  Conductor 


Concert  Bulletin  of  the 
First  Concert 

FRIDAY  EVENING,  November  16 

with  historical  and  descriptive  notes  by 
John  N.  Burk 

The  TRUSTEES  of  the 
BOSTON  SYMPHONY  ORCHESTRA,  Inc. 

Henry  B.  Cabot  .        President 

Jacob  J.  Kaplan  .         Vice-President 

Richard  C.  Paine  .         Treasurer 

Talcott  M.  Banks,  Jr.  Michael  T.  Kelleher 

Theodore  P.  Ferris  Palfrey  Perkins 

Alvan  T.  Fuller  Charles  H.  Stockton 

Francis  W.  Hatch  Edward  A.  Taft 

Harold  D.  Hodgkinson  Raymond  S.  Wilkins 

C.  D.  Jackson  Oliver  Wolcott 

TRUSTEES  EMERITUS 
Philip  R.  Allen  M.  A.  De Wolfe  Howe 

N.  Penrose  Hallo  well  Lewis  Perry 

Thomas  D.  Perry,  Jr.,  Manager 
G.  W.  Rector  )   Assistant  J.  J.  Brosnahan,  Assistant  Treasurer 

N.  S.  Shirk        \   Managers         Rosario  Mazzeo,  Personnel  Manager 


[1] 


THE  WHITE   HOUSE 

WASHINGTON 


September  28,   1956 


Dear  Mr.   Cabot: 

The  reports  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 
during  its  recent  tour  of  Europe  have  given  me 
great  satisfaction.     Whenever  outstanding  Ameri- 
cans like  the  men  and  women  of  the  Boston  Symphony 
display  their  talents  to  the  people  of  other  countries, 
the  cause  of  international  understanding  is  advanced. 

Since  all  people  want  peace,  it  is  necessary  for  the 
people  of  all  nations  to  correspond  at  all  levels  and 
work  out  methods  by  which  we  can  gradually  learn 
more  of  each  other.     The  exchange  of  artists  is  one 
of  the  most  effective  methods  of  strengthening  world 
friendship.     Your  orchestra  has  demonstrated  this 
truth. 

I  should  add  that  it  is  gratifying  to  observe  that  the 
Boston  Symphony  Orchestra  has  developed,  in  typical 
American  fashion,  with  the  sponsorship  and  devoted 
support  of  private  citizens. 

Please  welcome  home  your  musicians  and  distinguished 
conductors,   Charles  Munch  and  Pierre  Monteux,   and 
accept  my  congratulations  on  a  job  well  done. 

Sincerely, 


oincerexy,  f- y 


Mr.  Henry  B.   Cabot 

President 

The  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra,  Inc. 

Symphony  Hall 

Boston,   Massachusetts 


SEVENTY-SIXTH  SEASON  •   NINETEEN   HUNDRED  FIFTY-SIX  AND  FIFTY-SEVEN 


ffirst  Concert 


FRIDAY  EVENING,  November  16,  at  8:30  o'clock 


Program 

Weber Overture  to  "Euryanthe" 

Debussy "Iberia"   ("Images"  for  Orchestra,  No.  2) 

I.     Par  les  rues  et  par  les  chemins  (In  the  streets  and  byways) 
II.     Les  parfums  de  la  nuit  (The  fragrance  of  the  night) 
III.     Le  matin  d'un  jour  de  fete  (The  morning  of  a  festival  day) 

INTERMISSION 

Beethoven Symphony  No.  3  in  E-flat  major,  "Eroica,"  Op.  55 

I.  Allegro  con  brio 

II.  Marcia  funebre:   Adagio  assai 

III.  Scherzo:   Allegro  vivace 

IV.  Finale:  Allegro  molto 


Performances  by  this  orchestra  are  broadcast  each  week  on  Monday 
evening  from  8:15  to  9:00  P.M.  on  the  NBC  Radio  Network. 

BALDWIN  PIANO  RCA  VICTOR  RECORDS 


[3] 


THE  EUROPEAN  TOUR 

At  the  Royal  Festival  Hall  in  London 
seven  weeks  ago,  on  September  25,  the 
Boston  Symphony  Orchestra  played  the 
final  concert  of  its  six-weeks  tour  of 
Europe  undertaken  in  cooperation  with 
the  International  Exchange  Program  of 
the  American  National  Theatre  and 
Academy  (A.N.T.A.).  The  Orchestra 
had  made  its  only  previous  tour  of 
Europe  in  May,  1952,  under  the  auspices 
of  the  Congress  for  Cultural  Freedom, 
when  it  performed  in  France,  Germany, 
Belgium,  Holland  and  England.  In  the 
tour  just  completed  only  Paris  and  Lon- 
don were  revisited.  A  total  of  twenty- 
eight  concerts  was  given  in  nineteen 
different  cities  in  thirteen  countries. 
Charles  Munch  conducted  eighteen  of 
the  concerts,  Pierre  Monteux,  ten. 


EUROPEAN  IMPRESSIONS 

From  the  prodigious  attention  in  the 
press  which  Boston's  orchestra  has  had 
on  its  European  tour,  paragraphs  from 
here  and  there  are  quoted: 

Edinburgh 

After  he  had  finished  his  concerts  on 
Friday,  Sir  Thomas  Beecham  kindly  but 
sarcastically  hoped  that  what  was  to 
follow  would  be  as  good. 

Last  night  the  Boston  Symphony  Or- 
chestra under  its  conductor  Charles 
Munch,  making  its  first  appearance  at 
the  Edinburgh  Festival,  took  over  the 
evening  concert  at  the  Usher  Hall,  and 
alas  for  Sir  Thomas's  sarcasm  and  for 
our  national  pride,  it  was  better — better 
than  the  Scottish  National,  the  B.B.C., 
or  the  Halle.  Fortunately  for  our  self- 
esteem,  it  is  also  no  less  clearly  better 
than  the  Concertgebouw,  or  the  Berlin 
Philharmonic. 

So  dazzling  to  the  ear  was  its  playing 
last  night  that  for  that  evening  at  least 
it  was  impossible  to  recall  anything  com- 
parable. There  can  in  fact  be  no  other 
orchestra  like  it  in  the  world.  It  has  no 
"departments,"  no  brass,  wind,  and 
strings  to  compare  and  evaluate.  Its 
sound  is  a  single  marvellously  rich 
silken  texture  into  which  every  note  of 
every  instrument  is  so  carefully  woven 
that  everything  can  be  heard  except  the 
joins.  Even  the  austerest  critics,  by 
temperament  resistant  to  the  seductions 
of  mere  gorgeousness  of  orchestral 
sound    or   virtuosity   of    technique,    and 

[4] 


boiled  hard  by  constant  listening,  were 
thrilled  by  it. — Colin  Mason,  Man- 
chester Guardian,  September  16. 

Moscow 

The  Soviet  Union's  musical  elite  gave 
the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra  a 
tumultuous  reception  tonight  culmi- 
nating in  a  ten-minute  standing  ovation 
after  the  orchestra  had  played  two  en- 
cores. 

Observers  who  saw  the  Boston  or- 
chestra open  Thursday  in  Leningrad 
said  tonight's  outburst  of  acclaim  in 
Moscow's  packed  Conservatory  sur- 
passed anything  the  orchestra  had  ever 
experienced. 

The  usually  decorous  elite  of  the 
Soviet  capital  went  wild  over  the  pro- 
gram, which  began  with  Charles  Munch 
leading  the  musicians  in  Beethoven's 
Symphony  No.  3,  the  "Eroica." 

The  excitement  rose  visibly  as  the 
orchestra  moved  into  the  Sixth  Sym- 
phony by  Walter  Piston,  whose  work  is 
practically  unknown  here.  Real  frenzy 
developed  after  Mr.  Munch  had  led  the 
musicians  through  Ravel's  second 
"Daphnis  et  Chloe"  Suite. — Welles 
Hangen,  New  York  Times,  Sept.  9. 

Chartres 

The  cathedral  was  specially  illumi- 
nated for  tonight's  performance.  Out- 
side the  great  rose  window  looking  to 
the  west  at  the  end  of  the  nave  were 
floodlights  which  shed  a  soft  glow  into 
the  interior. 

The  orchestra  itself  sat  beneath  the 
window  in  the  portico  of  the  church. 
Floodlights  lit  up  the  arches  of  the 
clerestory  and  other  floodlights  at  the 
east  end  of  the  church  shone  through 
the  stained-glass  windows  above  the 
altar.  Other  interior  lighting  included 
lights  above  the  confessionals. — Frank 
Kelley,  New  York  Herald  Tribune, 
September  22. 

London 

The  highlight  of  the  two  Boston  con- 
certs was  Debussy's  "La  Mer"  under 
Munch,  not  only  for  the  polished  bril- 
liance of  the  playing,  but  for  the  salutary 
reminder  that  these  bright,  clear,  and 
even  penetrating  French  orchestral  col- 
ours were  those,  of  the  composer's  own 
conception.  Here,  with  the  marine  tang 
of  the  woodwind  and  the  spitting  trum- 
pets, was  the  sea  itself,  buffeting  and 
invigorating  us  on  Thames-side. — Felix 
Aprahamian,  Sunday  Times,  Sept.  30. 


OVERTURE  TO  "EURYANTHE" 
By  Carl  Maria  von  Weber 

Born  in  Eutin,  Oldenburg,  December  18,  1786;  died  in  London,  June  5,  1826 


Composed  in  1823,  Euryanthe  was  first  performed  at  the  Kdrntnertortheater  in 
Vienna,  October  25  of  the  same  year. 

The  Overture  requires  the  following  orchestra:  2  flutes,  2  oboes,  2  clarinets, 
2  bassoons,  4  horns,  2  trumpets,  3  trombones,  timpani  and  strings. 

Weber  composed  Euryanthe,  his  "grand  heroic-romantic"  opera  for 
Domenico  Barbaja,  manager  of  the  Karnthnerthor  Theater  in 
Vienna,  who  had  a  hopeful  eye  upon  a  success  comparable  to  that  of 
Der  Freischiitz.  There  is  every  evidence  that  Weber  was  ambitious  for 
his  work  and  spared  no  pains  with  it.  Euryanthe  was  his  longest 
opera,  lasting,  as  first  performed,  four  hours.  Unlike  Der  Freischiitz, 
it  had  a  continuous  musical  score  with  no  interruptions  of  spoken 
dialogue.  Weber  completed  the  score  without  the  Overture  on  August 
29,  1823,  ana<  began  at  once  to  compose  the  Overture,  which  was  not 
ready  until  October  19,  six  days  before  the  first  performance.  On  the 
day  following  the  event,  October  26,  the  composer  wrote  to  his  wife: 
"My  reception,  when  I  appeared  in  the  orchestra,  was  the  most  enthu- 
siastic and  brilliant  that  one  could  imagine.  There  was  no  end  to  it. 
At  last  I  gave  the  signal  for  the  beginning.  Stillness  of  death.  The 
Overture  was  applauded  madly;  there  was  a  demand  for  a  repetition; 
but  I  went  ahead,  so  that  the  performance  might  not  be  too  long  drawn 
out."  Yet  the  success  was  not  unqualified;  the  printed  reports  were  not 
all  favorable.  The  libretto  in  particular  was  generally  denounced  as 
needlessly  involved.  The  opera  held  the  stage  for  hardly  more  than 
twenty  performances  in  the  season.  There  are  degrees  of  success,  and 
such  was  the  case  in  Vienna  in  1823.  Schubert,  whose  Rosamunde,  to 
a  text  by  the  same  librettist,  Helmina  von  Chezy,  was  mounted  on 
December  20  of  the  same  season,  had  reason  to  envy  Euryanthe,  for 
Rosamunde  did  not  survive  two  performances.  Beethoven,  who  was  in 
Vienna  and  had  a  long  and  cordial  meeting  with  Weber  at  the  time, 
also  envied  him  his  undoubted  instinct  for  the  theater  as  evidenced  in 
the  score  of  Der  Freischiitz,  which  he  had  studied  with  exclamations 
of  wonderment.* 

The  libretto  of  Euryanthe  has  been  held  to  account  for  the  fact  that 
the  opera  fell  considerably  short  of  Der  Freischiitz  in  popularity. 
Helmina  von  Chezy  derived  her  subject  from  an  old  French  tale  of 
the  13th  century,  "Histoire  de  Gerard  de  Nevers  et  de  la  belle  et 

*  This,  according  to  the  Life  of  Weber,  by  his  son  Baron  Max  Maria  von  Weber.  The  elder 
Weber  had  conducted  Fidelity,  and,  despite  various  acrimonious  remarks  upon  Beethoven  which 
are  attributed  to  him,  seems  to  have  been  a  sincere  admirer  of  his  genius. 

[5] 


vertueuse  Euryant  de  Savoye,  sa  mie,"  for  which  Boccaccio  found  use 
in  his  "Decameron"  (second  day,  ninth  novel),  and  Shakespeare  in  his 
Cymbeline.  Shakespeare's  rather  strained  plot  seems  a  model  of  lucidity 
beside  von  Chezy's. 

The  plot,  as  Frau  von  Chezy  presented  it,  devolved  upon  the  purity 
and  constancy  of  Euryanthe.  Her  suitor,  Count  Adolar,  praises  her 
beauty  and  virtue  in  a  public  assemblage,  and  accepts  the  wager  of 
the  supercilious  Count  Lysiart  that  he  can  "gain  her  favor."  There  is 
a  plot  to  besmirch  her  character,  in  which  Eglantine,  who  is  also  in 
love  with  Adolar  and  jealous  of  Euryanthe,  conspires.  Adolar,  believ- 
ing this  false  accusation,  drags  her  into  the  wilderness  to  slay  her,  and 
is  moved  with  pity  only  to  the  extent  of  leaving  her  there  to  die. 
Lysiart,  hearing  of  Eglantine's  treachery,  stabs  Eglantine  and  is  con- 
demned to  death.  Euryanthe,  who  is  announced  to  have  perished,  is 
found  to  have  been  only  in  a  faint,  and  is  restored  to  her  lover. 
There  are  other  extraneous  threads  to  the  plot,  such  as  the  ghosts  of 
Emma,  Adolar's  sister,  and  of  her  fiance\  Udo,  who  haunt  the  scene. 
Emma,  at  the  death  of  Udo,  who  fell  in  battle,  has  killed  herself  by 
means  of  a  poisoned  ring,  and  is  doomed  to  wander  as  a  ghost  until 
"the  ring  should  be  wet  with  the  tears  shed  by  an  innocent  maiden 
in  her  time  of  danger  and  extreme  need."  Eglantine  steals  the  ring 
from  the  sepulchre,  and  gives  it  to  Lysiart  with  a  false  story  to  prove 
the  guilt  of  Euryanthe. 

Weber  had  begun  the  rehearsals  by  reading  the  opera  book  to  the 
assembled  company,  but  in  spite  of  his  "admirable  declamation," 
there  seems  to  have  been  some  bewilderment  as  to  what  it  was  all 
about.  There  were  embarrassing  questions  from  all  sides.  Why  did 
Euryanthe  mutely  allow  herself  to  be  dragged  into  the  wilderness 
and  left  there;  why  did  she  not  lift  her  voice  to  expose  the  treacherous 
Eglantine  and  vindicate  herself?  Before  such  queries,  the  poor  com- 
poser could  only  "hang  his  head  in  despair."  From  its  first  perform- 
ance, public  objections  to  the  plot  were  equally  insistent.  No  less  an 
authority  than  Goethe  referred  to  it  as  "a  bad  subject,  with  which 
nothing  could  be  done."  Weber  once  said  at  dinner,  according  to  his 
son:  "My  Euryanthe  should  be  called  'Ennuyante.' "  Philipp  Spitta 
rises  to  the  defense  of  the  much-abused  libretto,  pointing  out  that, 
considered  as  a  vehicle  for  the  music  which  it  serves,  it  is  not  without 
merit,  and  "abounds  in  opportunities  for  the  descriptive  writing  in 
which  Weber  so  much  delighted  and  excelled.  .  .  .  Euryanthe,  like 
all  his  operas,  is  an  epic  procession,  an  enchanted  panorama,  repre- 
senting the  life  of  one  special  period,  that  of  mediaeval  history.  Looked 
at  from  this  point  of  view,  it  can  be  thoroughly  enjoyed." 

•    • 

The  overture,  after  an  opening  in  the  characteristic  fiery  Weberian 

[6] 


manner,  discloses  a  theme  from  Adolar's  "Ich  bau'  auf  Gott  und  meine 
Euryanth' "  (Act  I)  set  forth  by  the  wind  choirs.  The  second  theme 
(violins)  is  from  Adolar's  aria  "Wehen  mix  liifte  Ruh'  "  (Act  II). 
After  a  pause  of  suspense,  the  composer  introduces  a  largo  of  fifteen 
measures,  pianissimo,  for  violins,  muted  and  divided,  with  a  tremolo 
in  the  violas.  It  is  an  eerie  music  intended  to  suggest  the  scene  of  the 
sepulchre.  Weber  proposed,  but  abandoned,  the  idea  of  having  the 
curtain  raised  in  the  midst  of  the  overture  to  reveal  the  following 
tableau:  "The  interior  of  Emma's  tomb.  A  kneeling  statue  of  her  is 
beside  the  coffin,  which  is  surmounted  by  a  twelfth-century  baldacchino 
[canopy].  Euryanthe  prays  by  the  coffin,  while  the  spirit  of  Emma 
hovers  overhead.  Eglantine  looks  on."  In  a  fugato  of  the  development, 
the  first  theme  is  inverted.  The  lyrical  second  theme  brings  the 
conclusion. 

[COPYRIGHTED! 


"IBERIA,"  "IMAGES,"  for  Orchestra,  No.  2 
By  Claude  Debussy 

Born  at  St.  Germain    (Seine-et-Oise),  France,  August  22,  1862;  died  at  Paris, 

March  25,  1918 


Debussy  completed  the  "Rondes  de  Printemps"  in  1909,  "Ibiria"  in  1910,  and 
"Gigues"  in  1912.  The  three  "Images"  as  published  bore  numbers  in  reverse  order. 

"Iberia"  was  first  performed  by  Gabriel  Pierne  at  a  Golonne  concert  in  Paris, 
February  20,  1910.  It  had  its  first  performance  in  America,  January  3,  1911,  under 
Gustav  Mahler,  at  a  concert  of  the  New  York  Philharmonic  Society.  The  first 
performance  in  Boston  was  on  April  21,  1911,  by  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra. 
Max  Fiedler,  conductor. 

The  orchestration  requires  3  flutes  and  piccolo,  2  oboes  and  English  horn,  3 
clarinets,  3  bassoons  and  contra-bassoon,  4  horns,  3  trumpets,  3  trombones  and  tuba, 
timpani,  tambourine,  castanets,  military  drum,  cymbals,  xylophone,  celesta,  bells, 
two  harps  and  strings. 

Debussy  wrote  to  Durand,  his  publisher,  on  May  16,  1905,  of  his 
plan  to  compose  a  set  of  "Images**  (a  conveniently  noncommit- 
tal title)  for  two  pianos,  to  be  called  I.  "Gigues  Tristes"  II.  "IbMa," 
III.  "Valses  (?)"  Before  long  the  project  had  become  an  orchestral 
one,  and  the  questioned  "Valses"  had  been  dropped.  The  two  orches- 
tral pieces  were  expected  for  the  summer  of  1906.  They  were  not  forth- 
coming. The  musician  who  could  once  linger  over  his  scores  at  will, 
rewriting,  refining,  repolishing,  while  the  world  cared  little,  was  now 
the  famous  composer  of  "Pelleas"  Publishers,  orchestras,  were  at  his 
doorstep,  expectant,  insistent,  mentioning  dates.  Debussy  was  still  un- 

[7] 


hurried,  reluctant  to  give  to  his  publisher  a  score  which  might  still  be 
bettered.  He  wrote  to  Durand  in  August  of  1906:  "I  have  before  me 
three  different  endings  for  'Iberia';  shall  I  toss  a  coin  —  or  seek  a 
fourth?"  To  Durand,  July  17,  1907:  "Don't  hold  it  against  me  that  I 
am  behind;  I  am  working  like  a  laborer  —  and  making  some  progress, 
in  spite  of  terrible  and  tiring  setbacks!"  Two  months  later  he  promises 
that  "Iberia"  will  be  ready  as  soon  as  the  "Rondes  de  Printemps"  the 
third  of  the  "Images,"  is  "right  and  as  I  wish  it."  By  Christmas  of  1908, 
the  first  full  draft  of  "Iberia"  was  completed,  but  the  composer  was 
by  that  time  involved  in  a  project  for  an  opera  on  Poe's  "Fall  of  the 
House  of  Usher,"  immediately  followed  by  another  operatic  project 
which,  like  the  first,  came  to  nothing:    "The  Devil  in  the  Belfry." 


The  movements  are  as  follows: 

I.  "Par  les  rues  et  par  les  chemins"  ("In  the  streets  and  byways").  Asset  anime 
(dans  un  rhythme  alerte  mais  precis). 

II.  "Les  parfums  de  la  nuit"  ("The  fragrance  of  the  night") .  Lent  et  riveur. 

III.  "Le  matin  d'un  jour  de  fete"  ("The  morning  of  a  festival  day").  Dans  un 
rhythme  de  marche  lointaine,  alerte  et  joyeuse. 

There  was  a  considerable  expression  of  dissatisfaction  with  "Iberia" 
in  Paris,  when  it  was  first  heard.  "Half  the  house  applauded  furiously," 
reported  a  newspaper  correspondent,  "whereupon  hisses  and  cat  calls 
came  from  the  other  half.  I  think  the  audience  was  about  equally 
divided."  There  was  also  much  critical  disfavor,  while  certain  indi- 
viduals pronounced  roundly  in  favor  of  "Iberia." 

Manuel  de  Falla,  a  Spanish  purist  who  might  well  have  frowned 
upon  a  quasi  Spanish  product  of  France,  smiled  upon  this  piece  in  an 
article  printed  in  the  Chesterian: 

"The  echoes  from  the  villages,  a  kind  of  sevillana  —  the  generic 
theme  of  the  work  —  which  seems  to  float  in  a  clear  atmosphere  of 
scintillating  light;  the  intoxicating  spell  of  Andalusian  nights,  the 
festive  gaiety  of  a  people  dancing  to  the  joyous  strains  of  a  banda  of 
guitars  and  bandurrias  ...  all  this  whirls  in  the  air,  approaches  and 
recedes,  and  our  imagination  is  continually  kept  awake  and  dazzled 
by  the  power  of  an  intensely  expressive  and  richly  varied  music.  .  .  ."* 


♦Falla  further  states  that  Debussy  thus  pointed  the  way  te  Albeniz  towards  the  use  of  the 
fundamental  elements  of  popular  music,  rather  than  folk-tunes  as  such.  Vallas  points  out 
that  the  first  part  of  Albeniz's  "Iberia"  suite  appeared  as  early  as  1906,  and  was  well 
known  to  Debussy,  who  delighted  in  it  and  often  played  it.  The  last  part  of  the  "Iberia" 
of  Albeniz  appeared  in  1909,  at  which  time  its  composer  probably  knew  nothing  of  Debussy's 
score.  Debussy  was  thus  evidently  indebted  to  Albeniz,  for  he  never  made  the  visit  to  Spain 
which  could  have  given  him  material  at  first  hand.  The  "realism"  which  many  have  found  in 
Debussy's  "Iberia"  was  not  of  this  sort. 

[COPYRIGHTED] 

[8] 


I3ES2IES 


Munch 

conducts  Beethoven  s: 

PASTORAL  SYMPHONY 

Boston  Symphony      -  / 
Orchestra  ^~ 


I  THE  VIRTUOSO  ORCHESTRA  i  -"Wto.  [^ 

;■  Bo»w  Syflir.y  OreWrfi»...g»ifc»  Mtdi  \j 


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on  rca  Victor  records 


To  Charles  Munch,  conducting  is  not  a  profession  hut  a 
sacred  calling.  And  this  dedication,  combined  with  the 
magnificence  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra,  brings 
you  performances  of  unmatched  power  and  beauty.  You 
feel  and  hear  this  devotion  whether  he  conducts  Ravel, 
Berlioz  or  Beethoven  .  . .  whether  the  performance  is  in 
Symphony  Hall  or ...  on  RCA  Victor  Records,  of  course! 


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[9] 


SYMPHONY  NO.  3  IN  E-FLAT,  "EROICA,"  Op.  55 
By  Ludwig  van  Beethoven 

Born  in  Bonn,  December  16  (?),  1770;  died  at  Vienna,  March  26,  1827 


Composed  in  the  years  1802-1804,  the  Third  Symphony  was  first  performed  at 
a  private  concert  in  the  house  of  Prince  von  Lobkowitz  in  Vienna,  December,  1804, 
the  composer  conducting.  The  first  public  performance  was  at  the  Theater  an  der 
Wien,  April  7,  1805.  The  parts  were  published  in  1806,  and  dedicated  to  Prince 
von  Lobkowitz.  The  score  was  published  in  1820. 

The  symphony  is  scored  for  2  flutes,  2  oboes,  2  clarinets,  2  bassoons,  3  horns, 
2  trumpets,  timpani  and  strings. 

Those  who  have  listened  to  the  Eroica  Symphony  have  been  re- 
minded, perhaps  too  often,  that  the  composer  once  destroyed  in 
anger  a  dedication  to  Napoleon  Bonaparte.  The  music,  as  one  returns 
to  it  in  the  course  of  succeeding  years,  seems  to  look  beyond  Napoleon, 
as  if  it  really  never  had  anything  to  do  with  the  man  who  once  fell 
short  of  receiving  a  dedication.  Sir  George  Grove  once  wrote:  "Though 
the  Eroica  was  a  portrait  of  Bonaparte,  it  is  as  much  a  portrait  of 
Beethoven  himself  —  but  that  is  the  case  with  everything  he  wrote." 
Sir  George's  second  remark  was  prophetic  of  the  present  point  of  view. 
The  name  of  Napoleon  is  now  little  associated  with  the  score,  except 
in  the  form  of  an  often  repeated  anecdote. 

The  concept  of  heroism  which  plainly  shaped  this  symphony,  and 
which  sounds  through  so  much  of  Beethoven's  music,  would  give  no 
place  to  a  self-styled  "Emperor"  who  was  ambitious  to  bring  all 
Europe  into  vassalage,  and  ready  to  crush  out  countless  lives  in  order 
to  satisfy  his  ambition.  If  the  Eroica  had  ever  come  to  Napoleon's 
attention,  which  it  probably  did  not,  its  inward  nature  would  have 
been  quite  above  his  comprehension  —  not  to  speak,  of  course,  of 
musical  comprehension.  Its  suggestion  is  of  selfless  heroes,  those  who 
give  their  lives  to  overthrow  tyrants  and  liberate  oppressed  peoples. 
Egmont  was  such  a  hero,  Leonore  such  a  heroine.  The  motive  that  gave 
musical  birth  to  those  two  characters  also  animated  most  of  Beethoven's 
music,  varying  in  intensity,  but  never  in  kind.  It  grew  from  the 
thoughts  and  ideals  that  had  nurtured  the  French  Revolution. 

Beethoven  was  never  more  completely,  more  eruptively  revolution- 
ary than  in  his  Eroica  Symphony.  Its  first  movement  came  from  all 
that  was  defiant  in  his  nature.  He  now  tasted  to  the  full  the  intoxica- 
tion of  artistic  freedom.  This  hunger  for  freedom  was  one  of  his 
deepest  impulses,  and  it  was  piqued  by  his  sense  of  servitude  to  titles. 
Just  or  not,  the  resentment  was  real  to  him,  and  it  increased  his  kin- 
ship with  the  commoner,  and  his  ardent  republicanism.  The  Eroica, 
of  course,  is  no  political  document,  except  in  the  degree  that  it  was 
the  deep  and  inclusive  expression  of  the  composer's  point  of  view  at 
the  time.  And  there  was  much  on  his  heart.  This  was  the  first  out- 

[10] 


Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

(Seventy-sixth  Season,  1956-1957) 
CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 

RICHARD   BIJRGIN,  Associate   Conductor 


Violins 

Richard  Burgin 
Concert-master 

Alfred  Krips 
George   Zazofsky 
Rolland  Tapley 
Norbert  Lauga 
Vladimir  Resnikoff 
Harry  Dickson 
Gottfried  Wilfinger 
Einar   Hansen 
Joseph  Leibovici 
Emil   Kornsand 
Roger  Shermont 

Minot  Beale 
Herman  Silberman 

Stanley  Benson 
Leo    Panasevich 
Sheldon  Rotenberg 
Fredy  Ostrovsky 

Clarence  Knudson 
Pierre  Mayer 

Manuel  Zung 
Samuel  Diamond 

Victor  Manusevitch 
James   Nagy 

Melvin  Bryant 
Lloyd  Stonestreet 
Saverio  Messina 
William  Waterhouse 
William  Marshall 
Leonard  Moss 
Jesse  Ceci 
Noah  Bielski 
Alfred  Schneider 
Joseph  Silvers  tein 

Basses 

Georges  Moleux 
Gaston  Dufresne 
Ludwig  Juht 
Irving  Frankel 

Henry  Freeman 
Henry  Portnoi 

Henri  Girard 
John  Barwicki 


PERSONNEL 

Violas 
Joseph  de  Pasquale 
Jean   Cauhape 

Eugen   Lehner 
Albert   Bernard 

George  Humphrey 
Jerome  Lipson 
Robert   Karol 
Reuben  Green 

Bernard   Kadinoff 
Vincent  Mauricci 
John  Fiasca 
Earl  Hedberg 

Violoncellos 
Samuel  Mayes 
Alfred  Zighera 

Jacobus   Langendoen 
Mischa  Nieland 
Karl  Zeise 
Josef  Zimbler 

Bernard  Parronchi 
Martin  Hoherman 
Louis   Berger 
Richard   Kapuscinski 
Robert  Ripley 

Flutes 
Doriot  Anthony  Dwyer 
James  Pappoutsakis 
Phillip  Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George  Madsen 

Oboes 
Ralph  Gomberg 
Jean   Devergie 
John  Holmes 

English  Horn 
Louis  Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino  Cioffi 
Manuel  Valerio 
Pasquale  Cardillo 

E\)   Clarinet 

Bass  Clarinet 
Rosario  Mazzeo 


Bassoons 
Sherman  Walt 
Ernst  Panenka 
Theodore  Brewster 

Contra-Bassoon 
Richard  Plaster 

Horns 

James  Stagliano 
Charles  Yancich 

Harry  Shapiro 
Harold  Meek 
Paul  Keaney 
Osbourne  McConathy 

Trumpets 
Roger  Voisin 
Marcel  Lafosse 
Armando  Ghitalla 
Gerard  Goguen 

T ROM  rones 
William  Gibson 
William  Moyer 
Kauko  Kahila 
Josef  Orosz 

Tuba 
K.  Vinal  Smith 

Harps 
Bernard  Zighera 
Olivia  Luetcke 

Timpani 

Everett  Firth 
Harold  Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles  Smith 
Harold  Thompson 
Arthur  Press 

Piano 
Bernard  Zighera 

Library 
Victor  Alpert 


[»] 


spoken  declaration  of  independence  by  an  artist  who  had  outgrown 
the  mincing  restrictions  of  a  salon  culture  in  the  century  just  ended. 
But,  more  than  that,  it  was  a  reassertion  of  will  power.  The  artist, 
first  confronted  with  the  downright  threat  of  total  deafness,  answered 
by  an  unprecedented  outpouring  of  his  creative  faculties.  There,  es- 
pecially, lie  the  struggle,  the  domination,  the  suffering,  and  the  triumph 
of  the  Eroica  Symphony.  The  heroism  that  possesses  the  first  movement 
is  intrepidity  where  faith  and  strength  become  one,  a  strength  which 
exalts  and  purifies.  The  funeral  march,  filled  with  hushed  mystery,  has 
no  odor  of  mortality;  death  had  no  place  in  Beethoven's  thoughts  as 
artist.  The  spirit  which  gathers  and  rises  in  the  middle  portion  sweeps 
inaction  aside  and  becomes  a  life  assertion.  The  shouting  triumph 
of  the  variation  Finale  has  no  tramp  of  heavy,  crushing  feet;  it  is  a 
jubilant  exhortation  to  all  mankind,  a  foreshadowing  of  the  Finales 
of  the  Fifth  and  Ninth  Symphonies.  It  is  entirely  incongruous  as  ap- 
plied to  the  vain  and  preening  Corsican  and  his  bloody  exploits. 
Beethoven  may  once  have  had  some  misty  idea  of  a  noble  liberator;  he 
was  to  have  an  increasingly  bitter  experience  of  the  misery  which  spread 
in  Napoleon's  wake. 

Certain  definitely  established  facts,  as  well  as  legends  based  on  the 
sometimes  too  fertile  memories  of  his  friends,  surround  Beethoven's 
programmistic  intentions  regarding  the  Eroica  Symphony.  Ries  told 
how  in  the  early  spring  of  1804,  he  saw  the  completed  sheets  upon  Bee- 
thoven's work  table  with  the  word  "Buonaparte"  at  the  top,  "Luigi 
van  Beethoven"  at  the  bottom,  a  blank  space  between;  how  when  he 
told  Beethoven  a  few  weeks  later  that  the  "First  Consul"  had  pro- 
claimed himself  "Emperor  of  the  French,"  pushing  the  Pope  aside 
and  setting  the  crown  on  his  own  head,  the  composer  flew  into  a  rage, 
and  tore  the  title  page  in  two.  Schindler  confirms  this  tale,  having 
heard  it  from  Count  Moritz  Lichnowsky.  The  manuscript  copy  (not  in 
Beethoven's  script,  but  freely  marked  by  him)  which  has  come  down 
to  posterity  and  which  is  now  at  the  Library  of  the  Gesellschaft  der 
Musikfreunde  in  Vienna,  has  a  different  title  page.  It  reads:  "Sinfonia 
Grande  —  Intitulata  Bonaparte  —  804  in  August  —  del  Sigr.  Louis  van 
Beethoven  -  Sinfonia  3,  Op.  55."  The  words  "Intitulata  Bonaparte" 


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LAfayette  3-3871 

[12] 


asked  the  brahmin  of  the  brewer.  • . 


"Pray  tell,  good  fellow,  why  not  a  beverage 
Brewed  in  a  fashion  a  bit  above  the  average? 
A  light-hearted  ale,  dry  refreshing  beer 
Worthy  of  a  connoisseur,  worthy  of  a  Peer?" 


"Matey,  you're  in  luck",  said  the  Brewer  to  the  Brahmin, 
"You  and  the  missus  and  the  Beacon  Hill  barman, 
For  Carling's  now  in  Natick,  brewing  ale  and  beer 
Worthy  of  a  connoisseur,  worthy  of  a  Peer." 


CASHING    BREWING    CO. 


[13] 


have  been  blotted  out,  but  can  still  be  traced.  Under  his  name  in  lead 
pencil,  now  barely  discernible,  Beethoven  has  written:  "Geschrieben 
auf  Bonaparte.''  Beethoven  wrote  to  Breitkopf  and  Hartel,  August  26, 
1804,  offering  them  "a  new  grand  symphony,  really  entitled  Bonaparte, 
and  in  addition  to  the  usual  instruments  there  are  specially  three  ob- 
bligato  horns.  I  believe  it  will  interest  the  musical  public."  This  was 
the  Beethoven  who  liked  to  take  the  tone  of  a  shrewd  business  man, 
and  also  the  Beethoven  who  devised  his  dedications  with  a  cold  eye 
for  expediency.  The  symphony  "written  on  Bonaparte"  was  finally 
published  as  "Sinfonia  Eroica,  composed  to  celebrate  the  memory  of  a 
great  Man."  The  inscription  might  well  have  been  put  this  way: 
"Composed  in  memory  of  greatness  dreamed  by  a  musician  and  for- 
feited by  a  statesman." 

•    • 

The  immense  step  from  the  Second  Symphony  to  the  Third  is 
primarily  an  act  of  the  imagination.  The  composer  did  not  base  his 
new  power  on  any  new  scheme;  he  kept  the  form  of  the  salon  sym- 
phony* which,  as  it  stood,  could  have  been  quite  incongruous  to  his 
every  thought,  and  began  furiously  to  expand  and  transform.  The 
exposition  is  a  mighty  projection  of  155  bars,  music  of  concentrated 
force,  wide  in  dynamic  and  emotional  range,  conceived  apparently  in 
one  great  sketch,  where  the  pencil  could  hardly  keep  pace  with  the 
outpouring  thoughts.  There  are  no  periodic  tunes  here,  but  fragments 
of  massive  chords,  and  sinuous  rhythms,  subtly  articulated  but  inex- 
tricable, meaningless  as  such  except  in  their  context.  Every  bar  bears 
the  heroic  stamp.  There  is  no  melody  in  the  conventional  sense,  but 
in  its  own  sense  the  music  is  melody  unbroken,  in  long  ebb  and  flow, 
vital  in  every  part.  Even  before  the  development  is  reached  the  com- 
poser has  taken  us  through  mountains  and  valleys,  shown  us  the  range, 
the  universality  of  his  subject.  The  development  is  still  more  incredible, 
as  it  extends  the  classical  idea  of  a  brief  thematic  interplay  into  a  sec- 
tion of  250  bars.  It  discloses  vaster  scenery,  in  which  the  foregoing 
elements  are  newly  revealed,  in  their  turn  generating  others.  The  re- 
capitulation (beginning  with  the  famous  passage  where  the  horns 
mysteriously  sound  the  returning  tonic  E-flat  against  a  lingering 
dominant  chord)  restates  the  themes  in  the  increased  strength  and 
beauty  of  fully  developed  acquaintance. 

But  still  the  story  is  not  told.  In  an  unprecedented  coda  of  140  bars, 
the  much  exploited  theme  and  its  satellites  reappear  in  fresh  guise, 
as  if  the  artist's  faculty  of  imaginative  growth  could  never  expend 
itself.  This  first  of  the  long  codas  is  one  of  the  most  astonishing  parts 
of  the  Symphony.  A  coda  until  then  had  been  little  more  than  a  bril- 

*uHei  firs*  .£roiec1*d  the  movements  conventionally,  as  the  sketchbooks  show.  The  opening 
chords  of  the  first  movement,  stark  and  arresting,  were  originally  sketched  as  a  merely  stiff 
dominant-tonic  cadence  The  third  movement  first  went  upon  paper  as  a  minuet.  Variations 
were  then  popular,  and  so  were  funeral  marches,  although  they  were  not  used  in  symphonies. 

[Hi 


liant  close,  an  underlined  cadence.  With  Beethoven  it  was  a  resolution 
in  a  deeper  sense.  The  repetition  of  the  subject  matter  in  the  reprise 
could  not  be  for  him  the  final  word.  The  movement  had  been  a  narra- 
tive of  restless  action  —  forcefulness  gathering,  striding  to  its  peak  and 
breaking,  followed  by  a  gentler  lyricism  which  in  turn  grew  in  tension 
until  the  cycle  was  repeated.  The  movement  required  at  last  an  es- 
tablished point  of  repose.  The  coda  sings  the  theme  softly,  in  confident 
reverie  under  a  new  and  delicate  violin  figure.  As  the  coda  takes  its 
quiet  course,  the  theme  and  its  retinue  of  episodes  are  transfigured 
into  tone  poetry  whence  conflict  is  banished.  The  main  theme,  ringing 
and  joyous,  heard  as  never  before,  brings  the  end. 

The  second  movement,  like  the  first,  is  one  of  conflicting  impulses, 
but  here  assuaging  melody  contends,  not  with  overriding  energy,  but 
with  the  broken  accents  of  heavy  sorrow.  The  legato  second  strain  in 
the  major  eases  the  muffled  minor  and  the  clipped  notes  of  the  open- 
ing "march"  theme,  to  which  the  oboe  has  lent  a  special  somber  shad- 
ing. The  middle  section,  in  C  major,  begins  with  a  calmer,  elegiac 
melody,  over  animating  staccato  triplets  from  the  strings.  The  triplets 
become  more  insistent,  ceasing  only  momentarily  for  broad  fateful 
chords,  and  at  last  permeating  the  scene  with  their  determined  rhythm, 
as  if  the  composer  were  setting  his  indomitable  strength  against  tragedy 
itself.  The  opening  section  returns  as  the  subdued  theme  of  grief  gives 
its  dark  answer  to  the  display  of  defiance.  But  it  does  not  long  continue. 
A  rew  melody  is  heard  in  a  fugato  of  the  strings,  an  episode  of  quiet, 
steady  assertion,  characteristic  of  the  resolution  Beethoven  found  in 


Academy  of  Music,  Brooklyn 


Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 


SECOND    CONCERT 

Friday  Evening,  December  14 


[15] 


counterpoint.  The  whole  orchestra  joins  to  drive  the  point  home.  But 
a  tragic  decrescendo  and  a  reminiscence  of  the  funeral  first  theme  is 
again  the  answer.  Now  Beethoven  thunders  his  protest  in  mighty 
chords  over  a  stormy  accompaniment.  There  is  a  long  subsidence  —  a 
magnificent  yielding  this  time  —  and  a  return  of  the  first  theme  again, 
now  set  forth  in  full  voice.  As  in  the  first  movement,  there  is  still  lack- 
ing the  final  answer,  and  that  answer  comes  in  another  pianissimo  coda, 
measures  where  peacefulness  is  found  and  sorrow  accepted,  as  the 
theme,  broken  into  incoherent  fragments,  comes  to  its  last  concord. 

The  conquering  life  resurgence  comes,  not  shatteringly,  but  in  a 
breath-taking  pianissimo,  in  the  swiftest,  most  wondrous  Scherzo  Bee- 
thoven had  composed.  No  contrast  more  complete  could  be  imagined. 
The  Scherzo  is  another  exhibition  of  strength,  but  this  time  it  is 
strength  finely  controlled,  unyielding  and  undisputed.  In  the  Trio,  the 
horns,  maintaining  the  heroic  key  of  E-flat,  deliver  the  principal  phrases 
alone,  in  three-part  harmony.  The  Scherzo  returns  with  changes,  such 
as  the  repetition  of  the  famous  descending  passage  of  rhythmic  dis- 
placement in  unexpected  duple  time  instead  of  syncopation.  If  this 
passage  is  "humorous,"  humor  must  be  defined  as  the  adroit  and  fanci- 
ful play  of  power. 

And  now  in  the  Finale,  the  tumults  of  exultant  strength  are  released. 
A  dazzling  flourish,  and  the  bass  of  the  theme  is  set  forward  simply 
by  the  plucked  strings.  It  is  repeated,  its  bareness  somewhat  adorned 
before  the  theme  proper  appears  over  it,  by  way  of  the  wood  winds.* 
The  variations  disclose  a  fugato,  and  later  a  new  theme,  a  sort  of 
"second  subject"  in  conventional  martial  rhythm  but  an  inspiriting 
stroke  of  genius  in  itself.  The  fugato  returns  in  more  elaboration,  in 
which  the  bass  is  inverted.  The  music  takes  a  graver,  more  lyric  pace 
for  the  last  variation,  a  long  poco  andante.  The  theme  at  this  tempo 
has  a  very  different  expressive  beauty.  There  grows  from  it  a  new 
alternate  theme  (first  given  to  the  oboe  and  violin).  The  principal 
theme  now  strides  majestically  across  the  scene  over  triplets  of  increas- 
ing excitement  which  recall  the  slow  movement.  There  is  a  gradual 
dying  away  in  which  the  splendor  of  the  theme,  itself  unheard,  still 
lingers.  A  presto  brings  a  gleaming  close. 

*  The  varied  theme  had  already  appeared  under  Beethoven's  name  as  the  finale  of 
Premetheus,  as  a  contra-dance,  and  as  a  set  of  piano  variations.  Was  this  fourth  use  of 
it  the  persistent  exploitation  of  a  particularly  workable  tune,  or  the  orchestral  realization 
for  which  the  earlier  uses  were  as  sketches?  The  truth  may  lie  between. 

[copyrighted! 


EDNA  NITKIN,  M.Mus. 

PIANIST 
ACCOMPANIST        TEACHER 

Studio:   500  Boylston  St.,  Copley  Sq. 
Boston  KE  6-4062 


[16 


RCA    VICTOR    RECORDS 

BOSTON  SYMPHONY  ORCHESTRA 


Recorded  under  the  leadership  of  CHARLES  MUNCH 

Beethoven  Overtures  Leonore  Nos.  1,  2,  3 ;  "Fidelio" ;  "Coriolan" 
Symphonies  Nos.  5,  6,  7 
Violin  Concerto  (Heifetz) 
Berlioz  "Fantastic     Symphony" ;     Overture     to     "Beatrice    and     Benedick" ; 
"Romeo  and  Juliet"  (complete)  ;  "Summer  Nights"  (De  Los  Angeles); 
"The  Damnation  of  Faust"  (complete) 
Brahms  Piano  Concerto  No.  2  (Rubinstein) 

Symphonies  Nos.  2,  4 ;  "Tragic  Overture" 
Bruch  Violin  Concerto  No.  1  (Mentjhin) 
Chausson  "Poeme"  for  Violin  and  Orchestra  (Oistbakh) 
Chopin  Piano  Concerto  No.  2  (Brailowsky) 
Debussy  "The  Martyrdom  of  St.  Sebastian" ;  "Prelude  to  the  Afternoon  of  a 

Faun";  "The  Blessed  Damozel"  (De  Los  Angeles) 
Handel  "Water  Music"  Suite  (arr.  Harty) 
Haydn  Symphony  No.  104 
Honegger  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  5 
halo  Overture  to  "Le  Roi  d'Ys" 
Menotti  Violin  Concerto  (Spivakovsky) 
Mozart  Overture  to  "The  Marriage  of  Figaro" 
Ravel  "Daphnis  and  Chloe"  (complete)  ;  "Pavane" 

Newly  Recorded :   "Bolero"  ;  "La  Valse"  ;  "Rapsodie  Espagnole" 
Roussel  "Bacchus  and  Ariane,"  Suite  No.  2 

Saint-Saens  "Introduction  and  Rondo  Capriccioso"   (Oistrakh) 
Overture  to  "La  Princesse  Jaune" 
Piano  Concerto  No.  4  (Brailowsky) 
Schubert  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  8  ("Unfinished"  Symphony) 
Schumann  Overture  to  "Genoveva"        Symphony  No.  1 
Strauss  "Don  Quixote"  (Soloist,  Piatigorsky) 

Tchaikovsky  Violin  Concerto   (Milstein)  ;  "Francesca  da  Rimini";  "Romeo 
and  Juliet"  ;  Symphony  No.  4 

Among  the  recordings  under  the  leadership  of  SERGE  KOUSSEVITZKY 


Bach  Brandenburg  Concertos  Nos.  1,  6 ; 
Suites  Nos.  1,  4 

Beethoven  Symphonies  Nos.  3,  5,  9 

Berlioz  "Harold  in  Italy"  (Primrose) 

Brahms  Symphony  No.  3;  Violin  Con- 
certo (Heifetz) 

Copland  "A  Lincoln  Portrait" ;  "Appala- 
chian Spring" ;  "El  Salon  Mexico" 

Hanson  Symphony  No.  3 

Harris  Symphony  No.  3 

Haydn  Symphonies  Nos.  92,  "Oxford" ; 
94,  "Surprise" 

Ehatchaturian  Piano  Concerto  (Kapell) 

Mendelssohn  Symphony  No.  4,  "Italian" 


Mozart  "Eine  kleine  Nachtmusik" ;  Sere- 
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SEVENTY-SIXTH   SEASON 
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Academy  of  Music,  Brooklyn 


SEVENTY-SIXTH  SEASON,  1956-1957 

Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 
Richard  Burgin,  Associate  Conductor 


Concert  Bulletin  of  the 
Second  Concert 

FRIDAY  EVENING,  December  14 

with  historical  and  descriptive  notes  by 
John  N.  Burk 

The  TRUSTEES  of  the 
BOSTON  SYMPHONY  ORCHESTRA,  Inc. 

Henry  B.  Cabot  .         President 

Jacob  J.  Kaplan  .         Vice-President 

Richard  C  Paine  .         Treasurer 

Talcott  M.  Banks,  Jr.  Michael  T.  Kelleher 

Theodore  P.  Ferris  Palfrey  Perkins 

Alvan  T.  Fuller  Charles  H.  Stockton 

Francis  W.  Hatch  Edward  A.  Taft 

Harold  D.  Hodgkinson  Raymond  S.  Wilkins 

C.  D.  Jackson  Oliver  Wolcott 

TRUSTEES  EMERITUS 
Philip  R.  Allen  M.  A.  DeWolfe  Howe 

N.  Penrose  Hallo  well  Lewis  Perry 

Thomas  D.  Perry,  Jr.,  Manager 
G.  W.  Rector  )   Assistant  J.  J.  Brosnahan,  Assistant  Treasurer 

N.  S.  Shirk        \   Managers         Rosario  Mazzeo,  Personnel  Manager 


[1] 


Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

(Seventy-sixth  Season,  1956-1957) 
CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 

RICHARD   BURGIN,  Associate   Conductor 
PERSONNEL 

Violas 
Joseph  de  Pasquale 
Jean  Cauhape 
Eugen   Lehner 


Violins 
Richard  Burgin 
Concert-master 

Alfred  Krips 

George   Zazofsky 
Rolland  Tapley 

Norbert  Lauga 
Vladimir  Resnikoff 
Harry  Dickson 
Gottfried  Wilfinger 
Einar   Hansen 
Joseph  Leibovici 
Emil  Kornsand 
Roger  Shermont 

Minot  Beale 
Herman  Silberman 
Stanley  Benson 
Leo    Panasevich 

Sheldon  Rotenberg 
Fredy  Ostrovsky 

Clarence  Knudson 
Pierre  Mayer 

Manuel  Zung 
Samuel  Diamond 

Victor  Manusevitch 
James   Nagy 

Melvin  Bryant 
Lloyd  Stonestreet 
Saverio  Messina 
William  Waterhouse 
William   Marshall 
Leonard  Moss 
Jesse  Ceci 
Noah  Biekki 
Alfred  Schneider 
Joseph  Silverstein 

Basses 

Georges  Moleux 
Gaston  Dufresne 
Ludwig  Juht 
Irving  Frankel 

Henry  Freeman 
Henry  Portnoi 
Henri  Girard 
John  Barvvicki 

[2] 


Albert   Bernard 
George  Humphrey 
Jerome  Lipson 
Robert   Karol 
Reuben  Green 
Bernard   Kadinoff 
Vincent  Mauricci 

John  Fiasca 
Earl  Hedberg 

Violoncellos 
Samuel  Mayes 
Alfred  Zighera 

Jacobus   Langendoen 
Mischa  Nieland 
Karl  Zeise 
Josef  Zimbler 
Bernard   Parronchi 
Martin  Hoherman 
Louis   Berger 
Richard   Kapuscinski 
Robert  Ripley 

Flutes 
Doriot  Anthony  Dwyer 
James  Pappoutsakis 
Phillip  Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George  Madsen 

Oboes 
Ralph  Gomberg 
Jean   Devergie 
John   Holmes 

English  Horn 
Louis  Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino  Cioffi 
Manuel  Valerio 
Pasquale  Cardillo 

E\)   Clarinet 

Bass  Clarinet 
Rosario  Mazzeo 


Bassoons 

Sherman  Walt 
Ernst  Panenka 
Theodore  Brewster 


Contra-Bassoon 
Richard  Plaster 

Horns 
James  Stagliano 
Charles  Yancich 

Harry  Shapiro 
Harold  Meek 
Paul  Keaney 
Osbourne  McConathy 

Trumpets 

Roger  Voisin 
Marcel  Lafosse 
Armando  Ghitalla 
Gerard  Goguen 

Tromronf.s 

William  Gibson 
William   Moyer 
Kauko  Kabila 
Josef  Orosz 

Tuba 
K.  Vinal  Smith 

Harps 
Bernard  Zighera 
Olivia  Luetcke 

Timpani 

Everett  Firth 
Harold  Farberman 

Percussion 
Charles  Smith 
Harold  Thompson 
Arthur  Press 

Piano 
Bernard  Zighera 

Library 
Victor  Alpert 


SEVENTY-SIXTH  SEASON  •   NINETEEN   HUNDRED  FIFTY-SIX  AND  FIFTY-SEVEN 


Second  Concert 


FRIDAY  EVENING,  December  14,  at  8:30  o'clock 


Program 


Stravinsky "Jeu  de  Cartes"  ("Card  Game")  Ballet  in  Three  Deals 


Barber Medea's  Meditation  and  Dance  of  Vengeance,  Op.  23-A 


INTERMISSION 


Beethoven Symphony  No.  6,  in  F  major,  "Pastoral,"  Op.  68 

I.     Awakening  of  serene  impressions  on  arriving  in  the  country;  Allegro 
ma  non  troppo 

II.     Scene  by  the  brookside:  Andante  molto  moto 

III.  Jolly  gathering  of  country  folk:  Allegro;  in  tempo  d'allegro;  Thunder- 

storm; Tempest:  Allegro 

IV.  Shepherd's   Song:    Gladsome   and    thankful   feelings   after   the   storm: 

Allegretto 


Performances  by  the  orchestra  are  broadcast  each  week  on  Monday 
evenings  from  8:05  to  9:00  P.M.  on  the  NBC  Radio  Network. 

BALDWIN  PIANO  RCA  VICTOR  RECORDS 


[3] 


"]EU  DE  CARTES,  Ballet  en  trois  donnes" 
By  Igor  Stravinsky 

Born  in  Oranienbaum,  near  St.  Petersburg,  on  June  17,  1882. 


Stravinsky  composed  his  ballet  "The  Card  Game"  between  the  summer  of  1936 
and  the  end  of  the  year.  The  piece  was  performed  by  the  American  Ballet  (for 
which  it  was  composed)  on  April  27  of  1937,  at  the  Metropolitan  Opera  House  in 
New  York.  George  Balanchine  was  in  charge  of  the  choreography;  Mr.  Stravinsky 
conducted.  The  ballet  as  a  concert  piece  (which  uses  the  score  unaltered)  was 
presented  by  the  Philadelphia  Orchestra,  Eugene  Ormandy  conducting,  January 
14,  1938.  It  was  first  heard  in  Boston  when  Stravinsky  conducted  the  Boston 
Symphony  Orchestra,  December  1,  1939,  repeated,  again  under  the  composer's  direc- 
tion, January  14,  1944,  and  under  the  direction  of  Charles  Munch  on  January  27, 
1950.  Guido  Cantelli  conducted  it  on  January  30-31,  1952. 

The  orchestration  of  the  suite  is  as  follow:  2  flutes  and  piccolo,  2  oboes  and 
English  horn,  2  clarinets  2  bassoons,  4  horns,  2  trumpets,  3  trombones  and  tuba, 
timpani,  bass  drum,  and  strings. 

TIThen  Stravinsky  was  asked  by  Mr.  Warburg  for  a  new  piece  to 
*  *  be  presented  by  the  American  Ballet,  he  had  already  contem- 
plated a  ballet  with  an  interplay  of  numerical  combinations,  with 
"Chiffres  dansants"  not  unlike  Schumann's  "Lettres  dansantes."  The 
action  was  to  be  implicit  in  the  music.  One  of  the  characters  would 
be  a  malignant  force  whose  ultimate  defeat  would  impart  a  moral 
conclusion  to  the  whole. 

The  ballet,  as  it  was  at  last  worked  out,  presented  an  enormous 
card  table,  the  cards  of  the  pack  represented  by  individual  dancers. 
The  shuffling  and  dealing  made  a  ceremonial  introduction  to  each  of 
the  three  deals.  According  to  the  mis-en-scene,  at  the  end  of  each  play, 
giant  fingers,  which  might  have  been  those  of  invisible  croupiers, 
removed  the  cards. 

The  following  summary  is  that  of  the  composer: 

"The  characters  in  this  ballet  are  the  cards  in  a  game  of  poker,  dis- 
puted between  several  players  on  the  green  baize  table  of  a  gaming 
house.  Attach  deal  the  situation  is  complicated  by  the  endless  guiles 
of  the  perfidious  Joker,  who  believes  himself  invincible  because  of  his 
ability  to  become  any  desired  card. 

"During  the  first  deal,  one  of  the  players  is  beaten,  but  the  other 
two  remain  with  even  'straights,'  although  one  of  them  holds  the 
Joker. 

"In  the  second  deal,  the  hand  which  holds  the  Joker  is  victorious, 
thanks  to  four  Aces  who  easily  beat  four  Queens. 

"Now  comes  the  third  deal.  The  action  grows  more  and  more  acute. 
This  time  it  is  a  struggle  between  three  'Flushes.'  Although  at  first 
victorious  over  one  adversary,  the  Joker,  strutting  at  the  head  of  a 

[4] 


sequence  of  Spades,  is  beaten  by  a  'Royal  Flush'  in  Hearts.  This  puts 
an  end  to  his  malice  and  knavery.  As  La  Fontaine  once  said: 

'One  should  ever  struggle  against  wrongdoers. 

Peace,  I  grant,  is  perfect  in  its  way, 

But  what  purpose  does  it  serve 

With  enemies  who  do  not  keep  faith?'  " 

First  Deal  Second  Deal 

Introduction  Introduction 

Pas  d'action  March 

Dance  of  the  Joker  Variations  of  the  four  Queens 

Little  Waltz  Variation  of  the  Jack  of  Hearts  and  Coda 

March,  and  Ensemble 

Third  Deal 

Introduction 

Waltz-Minuet 

Presto  (Combat  between  Spades  and  Hearts) 

Final  Dance  (Triumph  of  the  Hearts) 

The  music  is  played  without  interruption. 

[copyrighted] 


"MEDEA'S  MEDITATION  AND  DANCE  OF  VENGEANCE," 

Op.  23-A 

By  Samuel  Barber 

Born  in  West  Chester,  Pennsylvania,  March  9,  1910 


The  Ballet  Medea,  from  which  this  is  an  excerpt,  was  composed  by  commission 
of  the  Alice  M.  Ditson  Fund  of  Columbia  University  and  was  first  danced  by  Martha 
Graham,  to  whom  it  is  dedicated,  and  her  company  at  the  Macmillan  Theater  of  the 
University  in  May  1946.  (The  Ballet  was  at  first  entitled  "The  Serpent  Heart,"  and 
later  "The  Cave  of  the  Heart.")  An  orchestral  suite  in  seven  movements  was  derived 
from  this  score  and  performed  by  the  Philadelphia  Orchestra  under  the  direction 
of  Eugene  Ormandy  on  December  5,  1947.  In  1955  Mr.  Barber  rescored  "Medea's 
Meditation  and  Dance  of  Vengeance"  for  a  full  orchestra. 

The  instruments  required  are  3  flutes  and  piccolo,  2  oboes  and  English  horn,  2 
clarinets,  E -flat  clarinet  and  bass  clarinet,  2  bassoons  and  contra-bassoon,  4  horns, 
3  trumpets,  3  trombones  and  tuba,  timpani,  triangle,  cymbals,  side  drums,  tom-tom, 
bass  drum,  tam-tam,  whip,  xylophone,  and  strings. 

The  tragedy  of  Medea  by  Euripides,  which  was  produced  in  Greece 
431  B.C.,  has  furnished  Mr.  Barber  with  the  subject  for  his  Ballet. 
He  was  drawn  by  its  dark  and  ferocious  theme  of  vengeance,  which 
becomes  the  dominating  purpose  of  Medea,  the  princess  of  Colchis 

[5] 


endowed  with  magic  powers,  who,  having  enabled  Jason  to  obtain  the 
Golden  Fleece  in  Colchis,  has  fled  with  him  to  Corinth.  Two  children 
have  been  born  of  their  union,  but  Jason  has  abandoned  her  to  marry 
the  daughter  of  the  Corinthian  king,  leaving  her  without  status,  grief- 
stricken  but  proud,  jealous,  passionately  vengeful.  To  bring  down  the 
pride  of  Jason,  her  unfaithful  lover,  she  goes  to  the  length  of  murdering 
her  children  which  are  also  his. 

The  "Dance  of  Vengeance"  is  the  peak  of  intensity  and  the  culminat- 
ing point  of  the  Ballet.  Samuel  Barber  has  explained  that  the  excerpt 
"is  directly  related  to  the  central  character  in  Medea,  tracing  her  emo- 
tions from  her  tender  feelings  towards  her  children,  through  the  mount- 
ing suspicions  and  her  decision  to  avenge  herself.  The  piece  increases 
in  intensity  to  close  in  the  frenzied  Dance  of  Vengeance  of  Medea,  the 
Sorceress  descended  from  the  Sun  God." 

Medea: 

This  thing  was  not  to  be, 

That  thou  shouldst  live  a  merry  life,  my  bed 

Forgotten  and  my  heart  uncomforted, 

Thou  nor  thy  princess:  nor  the  king  that  planned 

Thy  marriage  drive  Medea  from  this  land, 

And  suffer  not.  Call  me  what  thing  thou  please, 

Tigress  or  Skylla  from  the  Tuscan  seas: 

My  claws  have  gripped  thine  heart,  and  all  things  shine. 

Translation  by  Gilbert  Murray 
(Oxford  University  Press) 

About  the  Ballet  Mr.  Barber  has  furnished  the  following  informa- 
tion: 

"Neither  Miss  Graham  nor  the  composer  wished  to  use  the  Medea- 
Jason  legend  literally  in  the  ballet.  These  mythical  figures  served  rather 
to  project  psychological  states  of  jealousy  and  vengeance  which  are 
timeless. 

"The  choreography  and  music  were  conceived,  as  it  were,  on  two  time 
levels,  the  ancient  mythological  and  the  contemporary.  Medea  and 
Jason  first  appear  as  godlike,  superhuman  figures  of  the  Greek  tragedy. 
As  the  tension  and  the  conflict  between  them  increase,  they  step  out  of 
their  legendary  roles  from  time  to  time  and  become  the  modern  man 
and  woman,  caught  in  the  nets  of  jealousy  and  destructive  love;  and  at 
the  end  reassume  their  mythical  quality.  In  both  the  dancing  and 
music,  archaic  and  contemporary  idioms  are  used.  Medea,  in  her  final 
scene  after  the  denouement,  becomes  once  more  the  descendant  of  the 
sun." 


[6] 


The  following  works  by  Samuel  Barber  have  been  performed  at  the 
Boston  Symphony  Concerts  (Friday  and  Saturday  series): 

Overture,  "The  School  for  Scandal" 
Essay  for  Orchestra  No.  1   (Performed  twice) 
Violin  Concerto  (Soloist,  Ruth  Posselt) 
Overture,  "The  School  for  Scandal" 
Commando  March 

Second  Symphony  (Dedicated  to  the  Army  Air  Forces;  First  per- 
formance) 

Violoncello  Concerto  (Soloist,  Raya  Garbousova;  First  performance) 
"Knoxville:  Summer  of  1915"  (Soloist,  Eleanore  Steber,  Soprano; 
First  performance) 

Violin  Concerto  (Soloist,  Ruth  Posselt) 
Overture,  "The  School  for  Scandal" 
Second  Symphony 
Overture,  "The  School  for  Scandal" 
Adagio  for  String  Orchestra* 
"Prayers  of  Kierkegaard,"  Op.  30 

(Assisting:  Cecilia  Society;  Leontine  Price,  Soprano;  Jean  Kraft, 
Contralto;  Edward  Munro,  Tenor;  First  performance) 

*  The  Adagio    for    String    Orchestra    was    performed    in    the    Cathedral    at    Chartres,    France, 
September  21,  1956. 

[copyrighted] 


1940 

(Nov. 

»5) 

1941 

(April 

25) 

1942 

(Mar. 

6) 

!942 

(Oct. 

16) 

*943 

(Oct. 

29) 

1944 

(Mar. 

3) 

1946 

(April 

5) 

1948 

(April 

9) 

1949 

(Jan. 

7) 

1950 

(Feb. 

10) 

»95! 

(April 

6) 

»952 

(April 

25) 

*953 

(Feb. 

27) 

*954 

(Dec. 

3) 

ENTR'ACTE 

MIND  AND  MUSIC 

By  Ernest  Newman 

(Sunday  Times,  London,  July  8,  1956) 


IN  a  recent  radio  talk  it  was  pointed  out  by  a  specialist  that,  like 
sundry  other  sciences,  psychology  is  in  the  melting-pot  at  present. 
Our  fathers  had  not  the  slightest  doubt  that  they  understood  what  they 
were  talking  about  when  they  spoke  of  "the  mind."  But  this  com- 
placency is  over;  it  is  becoming  more  and  more  evident  to  us  that  our 
ignorance  of  the  "mind"  is  as  complete  as  our  ignorance  of  most  other 
matters  that  concern  the  world  of  today.  A  great  deal  of  the  scientific 
attention  of  the  specialists  is  concentrated  now  on  the  problem  of  that 
other  self  of  ours,  the  subconscious  mind,  on  which  I  touched  cursorily 
last  week. 

As  I  said  then,  I  am  deeply  interested  in  the  problem  of  the  part  this 
other  self  plays  in  the  creation  of  all  art,  and  more  especially  of  music. 
Composers,  however,  are  not  greatly  given  to  public  self-analysis,  and 
the  purely  musical  material  available  to  the  investigator  is  therefore 

[71 


lamentably  limited.  So  far  as  my  own  knowledge  extends,  it  is  only 
Berlioz  and  Wagner  who  are  of  much  service  to  those  of  us  who  are  in 
quest  of  a  light  upon  the  more  secret  processes  of  the  creative  musical 
mind. 

Berlioz,  I  think,  needs  to  be  read  with  a  little  caution.  He  has  told 
us  in  his  Memoirs  of  a  dream  he  once  had  two  nights  in  succession  in 
which  not  only  the  general  idea  but  almost  the  whole  working  out  of  a 
symphonic  first  movement  occurred  to  him.  He  resisted,  however,  the 
temptation  to  put  it  all  on  paper,  because,  he  said,  it  would  so  thor- 
oughly occupy  him  for  many  months  that  he  would  have  too  little 
time  to  carry  on  the  literary  work  by  which  he  earned  his  living.  My 
private  feeling  is  that  when  he  came  to  write  his  Memoirs  he  could  not 
help  adding  a  certain  literary  embroidery  to  his  story.  I  doubt  whether 
whole  long  works,  or  even  whole  sections  of  such  works,  ever  come 
into  being  in  dreams. 

Wagner,  with  his  addiction  to  letter-writing,  is  of  much  more  help 
to  us  in  our  quest.  He  himself  manifestly  had  no  notion  that  he  was 
becoming  enmeshed  in  problems  of  creative  artistic  psychology:  he 
was  merely  recording  certain  curious  personal  experiences  as  and  when 
they  occurred.  For  us  today,  however,  they  throw  a  good  deal  of  light 
on  the  operations  of  the  unconscious  in  a  great  composer. 

For  instance,  when  he  was  doggedly  grinding  out  the  tiresome 
American  Centennial  March  in  1876  he  was  unaccountably  visited  by 
the  theme  for  the  ensemble  of  the  Flower  Maidens  in  "Parsifal":  the 
conscious  upper  layer  of  his  mind  had  forgotten  all  about  "Parsifal" 
at  the  time,  but  not  so  the  unconscious  layer.  Again  and  again,  indeed, 
we  see  him  obeying  what  he  would  no  doubt  have  called  an  "instinct" 
that  was  really  an  upsurge  in  the  artistic  depths  of  him  of  a  complex 
of  ideas  from  another  milieu  from  which  his  conscious  upper  mind  had 
long  detached  itself. 

We  can  see  now  that  what  really  made  him  put  aside  for  many  years 
the  composition  of  "Siegfried"  after  completing  the  second  act  was  the 
stirring  in  the  depths  of  him  of  a  new  musical  creative  world  that 
called  imperiously  for  his  whole  attention  now:  "Tristan,"  in  fact, 
was  clamouring  in  the  darkness  to  be  brought  to  birth.  His  letters  to 
the  young  Marie  von  Wittgenstein  make  this  perfectly  clear.  Long 
before  he  had  even  begun  the  second  act  of  "Siegfried,"  we  now  know, 
he  had  been  tortured  by  a  desire  to  do  something,  though  he  did  not 
yet  know  what,  with  the  Tristan  subject;  so  tremendous  did  this  pres- 
sure on  his  subconscious  become  that  he  actually  began  sketching  a 
vague  kind  of  "Tristan"  music  before  he  had  even  got  so  far  with  the 
idea  of  an  opera  on  that  subject  as  to  draft  a  prose  scenario  of  the 
stage  action. 

[8] 


WSMWgwmM'-1'-1 '  "stub.  ;v»i"M  Mmwtw.p m  ,11  TIM 

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To  Charles  Munch,  conducting  is  not  a  profession  but  a 
sacred  calling.  And  this  dedication,  combined  with  the 
magnificence  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra,  brings 
you  performances  of  unmatched  power  and  beauty.  You 
feel  and  hear  this  devotion  whether  he  conducts  Ravel, 
Berlioz  or  Beethoven  .  .  .  whether  the  performance  is  in 
Symphony  Hall  or ...  on  RCA  Victor  Records,  of  course! 


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[9l 


Most  remarkable  of  all  were  his  experiences  in  the  reverse  direction, 
so  to  speak;  now  and  then  when  consciously  entirely  absorbed  in  the 
"Ring"  his  subconscious  daemon  kept  pounding  away  on  "Tristan." 
The  most  curious  instance  of  this  was  in  connection  with  the  "joyous" 
melody  the  shepherd  was  to  play  on  his  pipe  in  the  third  act  when 
Isolde's  ship  was  sighted.  Wagner's  conscious  mind  had  found  what  he 
took  to  be  the  right  melody  for  this  episode.  But  gradually  something 
deep  down  within  him  told  him  that  this  tune  was  not  psychologically 
right;  and  at  last  it  dawned  on  him  that  it  was  really  incongruous  with 
the  finer-nerved  "Tristan"  world  and  really  belonged  to  that  of  the 
"Ring";  it  actually  went,  in  time,  into  the  "Ring,"  becoming  the  robust 
motif  of  "Love's  Resolution"  in  the  final  pages  of  "Siegfried." 

Now  that  we  have  the  present  "joyous"  melody  of  the  shepherd  we 
realise  how  subtly  different  the  "joy"  of  it  is  from  that  of  the  vigorous 
"Siegfried"  motif.  The  composer's  subconscious  daemon  was  artisti- 
cally wiser  than  his  conscious  mind. 


SYMPHONY  NO.  6,   IN    F   MAJOR,  "PASTORAL,"  Op.  68 

By  Ludwig  van  Beethoven 
Born  at   Bonn,  December    16    (?),    1770;  died  at   Vienna,   March   26,   1827 


The  "Pastoral"  Symphony,  completed  in  1808,  had  its  first  performance  at 
the  Theater-an-der-Wien,  in  Vienna,  December  22,  1808,  the  concert  consisting 
entirely  of  unplayed  music  of  Beethoven,  including  the  C  minor  Symphony,  the 
Fourth    Piano  Concerto,  and  the  Choral   Fantasia. 

The  Symphony  is  scored  for  2  flutes  and  piccolo,  2  oboes,  2  clarinets,  2  bassoons, 
2  horns,  2  trumpets,  2  trombones,  timpani,  and  strings.  The  dedication  is  to 
Prince   Lobkowitz   and   Count  Razumoffsky. 

Beethoven  had  many  haunts  about  Vienna  which,  now  suburbs, 
were  then  real  countryside.  Here,  probably  in  the  neighborhood  of 
Heiligenstadt,  he  completed  the  Pastoral  Symphony,  and  the  C  minor 
Symphony  as  well.  The  sketchbooks  indicate  that  he  worked  upon  the 
two  concurrently;  that,  unlike  the  C  minor  Symphony,  which  had 
occupied  him  intermittently,  the  Pastoral  was  written  "with  unusual 
speed."  The  C  minor  Symphony  was,  in  the  opinion  of  Nottebohm, 
completed  in  March,  1808.  The  Pastoral,  as  some  have  argued,  may 
have  been  finished  even  earlier,  for  when  the  two  were  first  performed 
from  the  manuscript  at  the  same  concert,  in  December,  the  program 
named  the  Pastoral  as  "No.  5,"  the  C  minor  as  "No.  6"  -  which  is 
building  a  case  on  what  looks  like  nothing  more  than  a  printer's  error. 

[10] 


After  the  tension  and  terseness,  the  dramatic  grandeur  of  the  Fifth 
Symphony,  its  companion  work,  the  Sixth,  is  a  surprising  study  in 
relaxation  and  placidity.  One  can  imagine  the  composer  dreaming 
away  lazy  hours  in  the  summer  heat  at  Dobling  or  Grinzing,  linger- 
ing in  the  woods,  by  a  stream,  or  at  a  favorite  tavern,  while  the 
gentle,  droning  themes  of  the  symphony  hummed  in  his  head,  taking 
limpid  shapes.  The  symphony,  of  course,  requires  in  the  listener  some- 
thing of  this  patient  relaxation,  this  complete  attunement  to  a  mood 
which  lingers  fondly  and  unhurried.  There  are  the  listeners  such  as 
an  English  critic  of  1823,  wno  found  it  "always  too  long,  particularly 
the  second  movement,  which,  abounding  in  repetitions,  might  be 
shortened  without  the  slightest  danger  of  injuring  that  particular 
part,  and  with  the  certainty  of  improving  the  effect  of  the  whole." 
One  can  easily  reach  this  unenviable  state  of  certainty  by  looking 
vainly  for  the  customary  contrasting  episodes,  and  at  the  same  time 
missing  the  detail  of  constant  fresh  renewal  within  the  more  obvious 
contours  of  thematic  reiteration. 

Opening  in  the  key  of  F  major,  which  according  to  the  testimony 
of  Schindler  was  to  Beethoven  the  inevitable  sunny  key  for  such  a 
subject,  the  symphony  lays  forth  two  themes  equally  melodic  and 
even-flowing.  They  establish  the  general  character  of  the  score,  in 
that  they  have  no  marked  accent  or  sharp  feature;  the  tonal  and 
dynamic  range  is  circumscribed,  and  the  expression  correspondingly 
delicate,  and  finely  graded.  There  is  no  labored  development,  but  a 
drone-like  repetition  of  fragments  from  the  themes,  a  sort  of  mur- 
muring monotony,  in  which  the  composer  charms  the  ear  with  a  con- 
tinuous, subtle  alteration  of  tonality,  color,  position.  "I  believe," 
wrote  Grove,  "that  the  delicious,  natural  May-day,  out-of-doors  feel- 
ing of  this  movement  arises  in  a  great  measure  from  this  kind  of 
repetition.  It  causes  a  monotony  which,  however,  is  never  monotonous 
—  and  which,  though  no  imitation,  is  akin  to  the  constant  sounds 
of  Nature  —  the  monotony  of  rustling  leaves  and  swaying  trees,  and 
running  brooks  and  blowing  wind,  the  call  of  birds  and  the  hum  of 
insects."  One  is  reminded  here  (as  in  the  slow  movement)  of  the 
phenomenon  of  unfolding  in  nature,  of  its  simplicity  and  charm  of 
surface  which  conceals  infinite  variety,  and  organic  intricacy. 

The  slow  movement  opens  suggestively  with  an  accompaniment  of 
gently  falling  thirds,  in  triplets,  a  murmuring  string  figure  which  the 
composer  alters  but  never  forgets  for  long,  giving  the  entire  move- 
ment a  feeling  of  motion  despite  its  long-drawn  songfulness.  The  ac- 
companiment is  lulling,  but  no  less  so  than  the  graceful  undulation  of 
the  melody  over  it.  Professor  Tovey  states  that  the  slow  moA^ement  is 
"one  of  the  most  powerful  things  in  music,"  basing  his  adjective  on 


the  previous  assertion  that  this  symphony  "has  the  enormous  strength 
of  someone  who  knows  how  to  relax."  He  adds:  "The  strength  and 
the  relaxation  are  at  their  highest  point  in  the  slow  movement."  The 
analyst  finds  sufficient  proof  for  his  statement  in  the  form,  which  is 
like  a  fully  developed  first  movement.* 

The  episode  of  the  bird-call  inserted  before  the  three  concluding 
measures  has  come  in  for  plentiful  comment,  and  cries  of  "Malerei."f 
The  flute  trill  of  the  nightingale,  the  repeated  oboe  note  of  the 
quail  (in  characteristic  rhythm)  and  the  falling  third  (clarinet)  of 
the  cuckoo,  are  blended  into  an  integrated  phrase  in  a  pendant  to 
the  coda  before  its  final  rapturous  cadence.  Beethoven  may  have  re- 
ferred to  these  bars  as  a  "joke"  in  a  conversation  with  Schindler,  but 
it  was  a  whim  refined  so  as  to  be  in  delicate  keeping  with  the  affecting 
pianissimo  of  his  close.  Perhaps  his  most  serious  obstacle  was  to  over- 
come the  remembrance  among  his  critics  of  cruder  devices  in  bird 
imitation. 

The  third  movement  is  a  scherzo  in  form  and  character,  though 
not  so  named,  and,  as  such,  fills  symphonic  requirements,  fits  in  with 
the  "program"  scheme  by  providing  a  country  dance,  and  brings 
the  needed  brightness  and  swift  motion  after  the  long  placidities.  The 
trio  begins  with  a  delightful  oboe  solo,  to  a  simple  whispered  ac- 
companiment for  the  violins  and  an  occasional  dominant  and  octave 
from  the  bassoon,  as  if  two  viMage  fiddlers  and  a  bassoon  were  doing 
their  elementary  best.  Beethoven  knew  such  a  rustic  band  at  the 
tavern  of  the  "Three  Ravens"  in  the  Upper  Bruhl,  near  Modling. 
"Their  music  and  their  performance  were  both  absolutely  national 

*  To  achieve  this  in  a  slow  tempo  always  implies  extraordinary  concentration  and  terseness 
of  design;  for  the  slow  tempo,  which  inexperienced  composers  are  apt  to  regard  as  haying 
no  effect  upon  the  number  of  notes  that  take  place  in  a  given  time,  is  much  more  rightly 
conceived  as  large  than  as  slow.  Take  a  great  slow  movement  and  write  it  out  in  such  a 
notation  as  will  make  it  correspond  in  real  time  values  to  the  notes  of  a  great  quick  move- 
ment; and  you  will  perhaps  be  surprised  to  find  how  much  in  actual  time  the  mere  first 
theme  of  the  slow  movement  would  cover  of  the  whole  exposition  of  the  quick  movement. 
Any  slow  movement  in  full  sonata  form  is,  then,  a  very  big  thing.  But  a  slow  movement  in 
full  sonata  form  which  at  every  point  asserts  its  deliberate  intention  to  be  lazy  and  to  say 
whatever  occurs  to  it  twice  in  succession,  and  which  in  so  doing  never  loses  flow  and  never 
falls  out  of  proportion,  such  a  slow  movement  is  as  strong  as  an  Atlantic  liner  that  should 
bear  taking  ou^  of  water  and  supporting  on  its  two  ends. 

t Beethoven   at   first   inscribed   this    warning   on    the   title-page  of   his   score :    "More  an   expres- 
sion of  feeling  than  painting." 


GEBELE1N 
sovessMmf 


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Foot   of  Beacon  Hill  CEBELEIN 
LAfayetta  3-3871 

[12] 


asked  the  brahmin  of  the  brewer. . . 


'Pray  tell,  good  fellow,  why  not  a  beverage 
Brewed  in  a  fashion  a  bit  above  the  average? 
A  light-hearted  ale,  dry  refreshing  beer 
Worthy  of  a  connoisseur,  worthy  of  a  Peer?" 


"Matey,  you're  in  luck",  said  the  Brewer  to  the  Brahmin, 
"You  and  the  missus  and  the  Beacon  Hill  barman, 
For  Carling's  now  in  Natick,  brewing  ale  and  beer 
Worthy  of  a  connoisseur,  worthy  of  a  Peer." 


CARLING    BREWING    CO. 


[13] 


and  characteristic,  and  seem  to  have  attracted  Beethoven's  notice 
shortly  after  his  first  arrival  in  Vienna.  He  renewed  the  acquaintance 
at  each  visit  to  Modling,  and  more  than  once  wrote  some  waltzes 
for  them.  In  1819  he  was  again  staving  at  Modling,  engaged  on  the 
Mass  in  D.  The  band  was  still  there,  and  Schindler  was  present 
when  the  great  master  handed  them  some  dances  which  he  had  found 
time  to  write  among  his  graver  labours,  so  arranged  as  to  suit  the 
peculiarities  which  had  grown  on  them;  and  as  Dean  Aldrich,  in 
his  Smoking  Catch,  gives  each  singer  time  to  fill  or  light  his  pipe, 
or  have  a  puff,  so  Beethoven  had  given  each  player  an  opportunity 
of  laying  down  his  instrument  for  a  drink,  or  even  for  a  nap.  In  the 
course  of  the  evening  he  asked  Schindler  if  he  had  ever  noticed  the 
way  in  which  they  would  go  on  playing  till  they  dropped  off  to 
sleep;  and  how  the  instrument  would  falter  and  at  last  stop  altogether, 
and  then  wake  with  a  random  note,  but  generally  in  tune.  'In  the 
Pastoral  Symphony,'  continued  Beethoven,  'I  have  tried  to  copy  this.'  " 
There  is  a  brief  episode  of  real  rustic  vigor  in  duple  time,*  a  re- 
prise, likewise  brief,  which  rises  to  a  high  pitch  of  excitement,  and  is 
broken  off  suddenly  on  its  dominant  of  F  by  the  ominous  rumble  of 
the  'cellos  and  basses  in  a  tremolo  on  D-flat.  The  storm  is  sometimes 
looked  upon  as  the  fourth  of  five  movements.  It  forms  a  sort  of 
transition  from  the  scherzo  to  the  finale,  which  two  movements  it 
binds  without  any  break.  The  instrumental  forces  which  Beethoven 
calls  upon  are  of  interest.  In  his  first  two  movements,  he  scaled  his 
sonority  to  the  moderation  of  his  subject,  using  only  the  usual  wood 
winds  and  strings,  with  no  brass  excepting  the  horns,  and  no  per- 
cussion. The  scherzo  he  appropriately  brightened  by  adding  a  trumpet 
to  his  scheme.  In  the  storm  music  he  heightened  his  effects  with  a 
piccolo  and  two  trombones,  instruments  which  he  had  used  in  his 
symphonies  for  the  first  time  when  he  wrote  his  Fifth.  The  trombones 
are  retained  in  the  Finale,  but  they  are  sparingly  used.  The  timpani 
makes  its  only  entrance  into  the  symphony  when  Beethoven  calls 
upon  it  for  his  rolls  and  claps  of  thunder;  and  he  asks  for  no  other 
percussion.*  There  are  those  who  find  Beethoven's  storm  technique 
superseded  by  Liszt,  who  outdid  his  predecessor  in  cataclysmic  effects, 
and  at  the  same  time  put  the  stamp  of  sensationalism  upon  Bee- 
thoven's chromatics  and  his  diminished  seventh  chords.  Beethoven 
could  easily  have  appalled  and  terrified  his  audience  with  devices 
such  as  he  later  used  in  his  "Battle  of  Victoria,"  had  he  chosen  to 
plunge  his  Pastoral  Symphony  to  the  pictorial  level  of  that  piece, 


♦Berlioz  sees,   in   this   "melody  of   grosser  character  the  arrival  of  mountaineers  with   their 

heavy   sabots,"    while  the  bassoon   notes   in   the    "musette."    as   he   calls    it,    reminds   him    of 

some   good    old    German    peasant,    mounted   on    a    barrel,    and    armed    with    &   dilapidated 

instrument." 

[H] 


mar  its  idyllic  proportions,  and  abandon  the  great  axiom  which  he 
set  himself  on  its  title-page.  Beethoven  must  have  delighted  in  sum- 
mer thunder  showers,  and  enjoyed,  so  his  friends  have  recorded, 
being  drenched  by  them.  This  one  gives  no  more  than  a  momentary 
contraction  of  fear  as  it  assembles  and  breaks.  It  clothes  nature  In 
majesty  always  —  in  surpassing  beauty  at  its  moment  of  ominous 
gathering  and  its  moment  of  clearing  and  relief.  Critics  listening 
to  the  broad  descending  scale  of  the  oboe  as  the  rumbling  dies  away 
have  exclaimed  "the  rainbow"  —  and  any  listener  is  at  liberty  to 
agree  with  them. 

Peaceful  contentment  is  re-established  by  yodelling  octaves  in  peasant 
fashion  from  the  clarinet  and  horn,  which  rises  to  jubilation  in  the 
"Hirtengesang"  the  shepherd's  song  of  thanks  in  similar  character, 
sung  by  the  violins.  Robert  Haven  Schauffler  went  so  far  as  to  say  that 
"the  bathetic  shepherd's  pipe  and  thanksgiving  hymn  that  follow 
suddenly  reveal  a  degenerate  Beethoven,  almost  on  the  abject  plane 
of  the  'Battle'  symphony."  There  will  be  no  lack  of  dissenters  with 
this  view,  who  will  point  out  that  slight  material  has  been  used  to 
great  ends  —  and  never  more  plainly  than  here.  Beethoven  was  in- 
deed at  this  point  meekly  following  convention,  as  in  every  theme 
of  the  Pastoral  Symphony,  in  writing  which  he  must  have  been  in  a 


Academy  of  Music,  Brooklyn 


Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 


THIRD   CONCERT 

Friday  Evening,  January  II 

RICHARD  BURGIN,  Conductor 
Soloist  RUTH  POSSELT,    Violin 


[i5l 


mood  of  complacent  good-humor,  having  expended  his  revolutionary 
ardors  upon  the  C  minor.  No  musical  type  has  been  more  conven- 
tion-ridden than  the  shepherd,  with  his  ram  des  vaches,  and  even 
Wagner  could  "stoop"  to  gladsome  shepherd's  pipings  in  "Tristan," 
clearing  the  air  of  tensity  and  oppression  as  the  ship  was  sighted. 
Beethoven  first  noted  in  the  sketchbooks  the  following  title  for  the 
Finale:  "Expression  of  Thankfulness.  Lord,  we  thank  Thee";  where- 
upon we  need  only  turn  to  Sturm's  "Lehr  und  Erbauungs  Buch" 
from  which  Beethoven  copied  lines  expressing  a  sentiment  very  com- 
mon at  the  time:  the  "arrival  at  the  knowledge  of  God,"  through 
Nature  —  "the  school  of  the  heart."  He  echoed  the  sentiment  of  his 
day  in  his  constant  praise  of  "God  in  Nature,"  but  the  sentiment 
happened  also  to  be  a  personal  conviction  with  him,  a  conviction 
which,  explain  it  how  you  will,  lifted  a  music  of  childlike  simplicity 
of  theme  to  a  rapturous  song  of  praise  without  equal,  moving  sus- 
tained and  irresistible  to  its  end.  One  cannot  refrain  from  remarking 
upon  the  magnificent  passage  in  the  coda  where  the  orchestra  makes 
a  gradual  descent,  serene  and  gently  expanding,  from  a  high  pitched 
fortissimo  to  a  murmuring  pianissimo.  There  is  a  not  unsimilar  pas- 
sage before  the  close  of  the  first  movement. 

[copyrighted] 


EDNA  NITKIN,  M.Mus. 

PIANIST 
ACCOMPANIST        TEACHER 

Studio:   500  Boylston  St.,  Copley  Sq. 
Boston  KE  6-4062 


BOUND  VOLUMES  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CONCERT     BULLETINS 

CONTAINING:  Analytical  and  descriptive  notes  by  Mr.  JOHN  N.  BURK 
on  all  works  performed  during  the  season. 
fr*A  Musical  education  in  One  Volume" 
'"Boston's  Remarkable  "Book  of  Knowledge" 

Lawrence   Gilman   in   the  N.   Y.   Herald  and   Tribune 
Price  $6.00  per  volume 
^Address:  SYMPHONY  HALL       •       BOSTON,  MASS. 


[16] 


RCA    VICTOR    RECORDS 

BOSTON  SYMPHONY  ORCHESTRA 


Recorded  under  the  leadership  of  CHARLES  MUNCH 
Beethoven  Overtures  Leonore  Nos.  1,  2,  3 ;  "Fidelio"  ;  "Coriolan" 
Symphonies  Nos.  5,  6,  7 
Violin  Concerto  (Heifetz) 
Berlioz  "Fantastic    Symphony";     Overture    to    "Beatrice    and    Benedick"; 
"Romeo  and  Juliet"  (complete)  ;  "Summer  Nights"  (De  Los  Angeles); 
"The  Damnation  of  Faust"  (complete) 
Brahms  Piano  Concerto  No.  2  (Rubinstein) 

Symphonies  Nos.  2,  4 ;  "Tragic  Overture" 
Bruch  Violin  Concerto  No.  1  (Menuhin) 
Chausson  "Poeme"  for  Violin  and  Orchestra  (Oistbakh) 
Chopin  Piano  Concerto  No.  2  (Brailowsky) 
Debussy  "The  Martyrdom  of  St.  Sebastian" ;  "Prelude  to  the  Afternoon  of  a 

Faun";  "The  Blessed  Damozel"  (De  Los  Angeles) 
Handel  "Water  Music"  Suite  (arr.  Harty) 
Haydn  Symphony  No.  104 
Honegger  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  5 
Lalo  Overture  to  "Le  Roi  d'Ys" 
Menotti  Violin  Concerto  (Spivakovsky) 
Mozart  Overture  to  "The  Marriage  of  Figaro" 
Ravel  "Daphnis  and  Chloe"  (complete)  ;  "Pa vane" 

Newly  Recorded :  "Bolero"  ;  "La  Valse"  ;  "Rapsodie  Espagnole" 
Roussel  "Bacchus  and  Ariane,"  Suite  No.  2 
Saint-Saens  "Introduction  and  Rondo  Capriccioso"  (Oistbakh) 
Overture  to  "La  Princesse  Jaune" 
Piano  Concerto  No.  4  (Brailowsky) 
Schubert  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  8  ("Unfinished"  Symphony) 
Schumann  Overture  to  "Genoveva"        Symphony  No.  1 
Strauss  "Don  Quixote"  (Soloist,  Piatigorsky) 

Tchaikovsky  Violin  Concerto    (Milstein)  ;  "Francesca  da  Rimini";  "Romeo 
and  Juliet"  ;  Symphony  No.  4 

Among  the  recordings  under  the  leadership  of  SERGE  KOUSSEVITZKY 


Bach  Brandenburg  Concertos  Nos.  1,  6 ; 

Suites  Nos.  1,  4 
Beethoven  Symphonies  Nos.  3,  5,  9 
Berlioz  "Harold  in  Italy"  (Primrose) 
Brahms  Symphony  No.  3;   Violin   Con- 
certo (Heifetz) 

Copland  "A  Lincoln  Portrait" ;  "Appala- 
chian Spring" ;  "El  Salon  Mexico" 

Hanson  Symphony  No.  3 

Harris  Symphony  No.  3 

Haydn  Symphonies  Nos.  92,  "Oxford" ; 
94,  "Surprise" 

Khatchaturian  Piano  Concerto  (Kapell) 

Mendelssohn  Symphony  No.  4,  "Italian" 


Mozart  "Eine  kleine  Nachtmusik" ;  Sere- 
nade No.  10,  for  Woodwinds;  Sym- 
phonies Nos.  36,  "Linz"  ;  39 

Prokofieff  "Classical"  Symphony;  "Lt. 
Kije"  Suite  ;  "Romeo  and  Juliet,"  Suite 
No.  2;  Symphony  No.  5;  Violin  Con- 
certo No.  2  (Heifetz) 

Rachmaninoff  "Isle  of  the  Dead" 

Ravel  "Bolero" ;  "Ma  Mere  L'Oye"  Suite 

Schubert  Symphony  in  B  Minor,  "Un- 
finished" 

Sibelius  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  5 

Strauss,  R.  "Don  Juan" 

Tchaikovsky  Serenade  in  C ;  Symphonies 
Nos.  4,  5 

Wagner  Siegfried  Idyll 


Recorded  under  the  leadership  of  PIERRE  MONTEUX 

Debussy  "La  Mer" ;  "Nocturnes"  Tchaikovsky  Symphony  No.  6,   "Pathe- 

Liszt  "Les  Preludes"  tique" 
Mozart  Piano  Concertos  Nos.  12,  18  (Lili 

Kraus)  Delibes  Ballets  "Sylvia,"  "Coppelia"  by 

Scriabin  "The  Poem  of  Ecstasy"  Members    of    the    Boston    Symphony 

Stravinsky  "Le  Sacre  du  Prin temps"  Orchestra 

Recorded  under  the  leadership  of  Leonard  Bernstein 
^^^^^    Stravinsky  "L'Histoire  du  Soldat" ;  Octet  for  Wind  Instruments 

The  above  recordings  are  available  on  Long  Play  (33%  r.p.m.)  and  (in  some  cases) 
45  r.p.m. 


for  your  briefest  ^^ 

leisure  moment 


In  today's  all  too  busy,  time-crowded  world,  it  isn't 

easy  to  make  our  important  leisure  moments  really 

count  toward  mental  and  physical  refreshment  .  .  .  that's  why 

we  would  like  to  introduce  you  to  today's  newest  and 

most  rewarding  hobby  .  .  .  music  you  play 

yourself  on  the  Orga-sonic  Spinet  Organ. 

Me  .  .  .  play  the  organ? — you'll  ask  .  .  .  the  answer  is 

absolutely  yes!  But  don't  take  our  word  for  it — 

come  in  soon.  We'll  show  you  that  you  can  play  "right  away/ 


THE  BALDWIN  PIANO  COMPANY 

CINCINNATI 

OHIO 


Baldwin,  Acrosonic  and  Hamilton  Pianos  •  Baldwin  and  Orga-sonic  Or  gam 


BOSTON 

SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 


FOUNDED  IN  1881  BY 
HENRY  LEE  HIGGINSON 


SEVENTY-SIXTH   SEASON 
1956-1957 

Academy  of  Music,  Brooklyn 

Under  the  auspices  of  the  Brooklyn  Institute  of  Arts  and  Sciences 
and  the  Philharmonic  Society  of  Brooklyn 


i956  -  mi 

THE  WOMEN'S  COMMITTEE 

FOR 

The  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra  Concerts 

IN  BROOKLYN 


Mrs.  Edward  C.  Blum 
Vice -Chairman 


Mrs.  Carroll  J.  Dickson,  Chairman 

Mrs.  Edwin  P.  Maynard,  Jr. 
Vice-Chairman 


Mrs.  H.  Haughton  Bell 
Vice -Chair  man 


Mrs.  Irving  G.  Idler 
Chairman  of  Boxes 

Mrs.  Alexander  Aldrich  Mrs. 

Mrs.  Elias  J.  Audi  Mrs. 

Mrs.  Charles  L.  Babcock,  Jr.  Mrs. 

Mrs.  C.  Rankin  Barnes  Mrs. 

Mrs.  Bernard  S.  Barr  Mrs. 

Mrs.  John  R.  Bartels  Mrs. 

Mrs.  George  M.  Billings  Mrs. 

Mrs.  John  R.  H.  Blum  Mrs. 

Mrs.  Robert  E.  Blum  Mrs. 

Mrs.  Lawrence  J.  Bolvig  Mrs. 

Mrs.  Otis  Swan  Carroll  Mrs. 

Mrs.  Francis  T.  Christy  Mrs. 

Miss  Edith  U.  Conard  Mrs. 

Mrs.  Benjamin  S.  Conroy  Mrs. 

Mrs.  Donald  M.  Crawford  Mrs. 

Mrs.  Russell  V.  Cruikshank  Mrs. 

Mrs.  William  T.  Daily  Mrs. 

Mrs.  Frederick  I.  Daniels  Mrs. 

Mrs.  Berton  J.  Delmnorst  Mrs. 

Mrs.  Anthony  Di  Giovanna  Mrs. 

Mrs.  James  B.  Donovan  Mrs. 

Mrs.  Remick  C.  Eckardt  Mrs. 

Mrs.  Alfred  H.  Everson  Mrs. 

Mrs.  James  F.  Fairman  Miss 

Mrs.  John  W.  Faison  Mrs. 

Mrs.  Merrill  N.  Foote  Miss 

Mrs.  Lewis  W.  Francis  Mrs. 

Mrs.  Laurance  E.  Frost  Mrs. 

Mrs.  Edwin  L.  Garvin  Mrs. 


Mrs.  Miles  M.  Kastendieck 
Chairman  of  Membership 


Andrew  L.  Gomory 
R.  Whitney  Gosnell 
Morgan  Grossman 
Arthur  C.  Hallan 
J.  Victor  Herd 
James  M.  Hills 
Francis  H.  Horn 
David  S.  Hunter 
Raymond  V.  Ingersoll 
Henry  A.  Ingraham 
Darwin  R.  James  III 
Walter  M.  Jeffords,  Jr. 
James  Vincent  Keogh 
John  Bailey  King 
Warner  King 
Almet  R.  Latson,  Jr. 
Abbott  Lippmann 
Everett  J.  Livesey 
John  B.  Madden 
Albert  C.  Magee 
Eugene  R.  Marzullo 
Carleton  D.  Mason 
Richard  S.  Maynard 
Helen  M.  McWilliams 
Alfred  L.  Megill 
Emma  Jessie  Ogg 
Harold  Ostergren 
William  M.  Parke 
William  B.  Parker 


Mrs.  Frank  H.  Parsons 
Mrs.RaymondKingPendleton 
Mrs.  Franklyn  H.  Peper 
Mrs.  Valentine  K.  Raymond 
Mrs.  Frederick  H.  Rohlfs 
Mrs.  Donald  Ross 
Mrs.  Abraham  M.  Sands 
Mrs.  Irving  J.  Sands 
Mrs.  Martin  Segal 
Mrs.  Eliot  H.  Sharp 
Mrs.  Frank  E.  Simmons 
Mrs.  Donald  G.  C.  Sinclair 
Mrs.  Ainsworth  L.  Smith 
Mrs.  Sidney  L.  Solomon 
Mrs.  Harry  H.  Spencer 
Mrs.  Donald  Edgar  Swift 
Mrs.  Hollis  K.  Thayer 
Mrs.  Gilbert  H.  Thirkield 
Mrs.  John  F.  Thompson,  Jr. 
Mrs.  Theodore  N.  Trynin 
Mrs.  Franklin  B.  Tuttle 
Mrs.  Adrian  Van  Sinderen 
Mrs.  Thomas  K.  Ware 
Mrs.  Robert  F.  Warren 
Mrs.  Harold  E.  Weeks 
Mrs.  Frederick  Weisbrod 
Mrs.  Travis  H.  Whitney 
Miss  Elizabeth  T.  Wright 


Academy  of  Music,  Brooklyn 


SEVENTY-SIXTH  SEASON,   1956-1957 

Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 
Richard  Burgin,  Associate  Conductor 


Concert  Bulletin  of  the 
Third  Concert 

FRIDAY  EVENING,  January  11 

with  historical  and  descriptive  notes  by 
John  N.  Burk 

The  TRUSTEES  of  the 
BOSTON  SYMPHONY  ORCHESTRA,  Inc. 

Henry  B.  Cabot  .         President 

Jacob  J.  Kaplan  .         Vice-President 

Richard  C.  Paine  .         Treasurer 

Talcott  M.  Banks,  Jr.  Michael  T.  Kelleher 

Theodore  P.  Ferris  Palfrey  Perkins 

Alvan  T.  Fuller  Charles  H.  Stockton 

Francis  W.  Hatch  Edward  A.  Taft 

Harold  D.  Hodgkinson  Raymond  S.  Wilkins 

C.  D.  Jackson  Oliver  Wolcott 

TRUSTEES  EMERITUS 
Philip  R.  Allen  M.  A.  DeWolfe  Howe 

N.  Penrose  Hallo  well  Lewis  Perry 

Thomas  D.  Perry,  Jr.,  Manager 
G.  W.  Rector  )   Assistant  J.  J.  Brosnahan,  Assistant  Treasurer 

N.  S.  Shirk        J   Managers         Rosario  Mazzeo,  Personnel  Manager 


[1] 


Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

(Seventy-sixth  Season,  1956-1957) 
CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 

RICHARD   BURGIN,   Associate   Conductor 


Violins 

Richard  Burgin 
Concert-master 

Alfred  Krips 

George   Zazofsky 
Roll  and  Tapley 

Norbert  Lauga 
Vladimir  Resnikoff 
Harry  Dickson 
Gottfried  Wilfinger 
lunar   Hansen 
Joseph  Leibovici 
Emil   Kornsand 
Roger  Shermont 

Minot  Beale 
Herman   Silberman 
Stanley  Benson 
Leo    Panasevich 
Sheldon  Rotenberg 
Fredy  Ostrovsky 

Clarence  Knudson 
Pierre  Mayer 

Manuel   Zung 
Samuel  Diamond 

Victor  Manusevitch 
James   Nagy 

Melvin  Bryant 
Lloyd  Stonestreet 
Saverio  Messina 
William  Waterhouse 
William   Marshall 
Leonard  Moss 
Jesse  Ceci 
Noah  Bidski 
Alfred  Schneider 
Joseph  Silverstein 

Basses 

Georges  Moleux 
Gaston  Dufresne 
Ludwig  Juht 
Irving  Frankel 
Henry  Freeman 
Henry  Portnoi 
Henri  Girard 
John   Barwicki 


PERSONNEL 

Violas 
Joseph  de  Pasquale 
Jean  Cauhape 

Eugen  Lehner 
Albert  Bernard 

George  Humphrey 
Jerome  Lipson 
Robert  Karol 
Reuben  Green 

Bernard   KadinofE 
Vincent  Mauricci 
John  Fiasca 
Earl  Hedberg 

Violoncellos 
Samuel  Mayes 
Alfred  Zighera 

Jacobus   Langendoen 
Mischa  Nieland 
Karl  Zeise 
Josef  Zimbler 

Bernard   Parronchi 
Martin  Hoherman 
Louis   Berger 
Richard   Kapuscinski 
Robert   Ripley 

Flutes 
Doriot   Anthony  Dwyer 
James  Pappoutsakis 
Phillip  Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George   Madsen 

Oboes 
Ralph  Gomberg 
Jean    Devergie 
John    Holmes 

English  Horn 
Louis  Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino  Cioffi 
Manuel  Valerio 
Pasquale  Cardillo 

E\)   Clarinet 

Bass  Clarinet 
Rosario  Mazzeo 


Bassoons 

Sherman  Walt 
Ernst  Panenka 
Theodore  Brewster 

Contra-Bassoon 
Richard  Plaster 

Horns 

James  Stagliano 
Charles  Yancich 

Harry  Shapiro 
Harold  Meek 
Paul  Keaney 
Osbourne  McConathy 

Trumpets 
Roger  Voisin 
Marcel  Lafosse 
Armando  Ghitalla 
Gerard  Goguen 

Trombones 
William  Gibson 
William   M oyer 
Kauko  Kahila 
Josef  Orosz 

Tuba 
K.  Vinal  Smith 

Harps 

Bernard  Zighera 
Olivia  Luetcke 

Timpani 

Everett  Firih 
Harold  Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles  Smith 
Harold  Thompson 
Arthur  Press 

Piano 
Bernard  Zighera 

Library 
Victor  Alpert 


[2] 


SEVENTY-SIXTH  SEASON   •    NINETEEN   HUNDRED    FIFTY-SIX    AND    FIFTY-SEVEN 


Third  Concert 


FRIDAY  EVENING,  January  11,  at  8:30  o'clock 


RICHARD  BURGIN,  Conductor 

Program 

Debussy "Rondes  de  printemps  "   (Image  No.  3) 


Bruch Violin  Concerto  in  G  minor,  No.  1,  Op.  26 

I.     Prelude:    Allegro  moderato 
II.     Adagio 
III.     Allegro  energico 

INTERMISSION 

Mahler Symphony  No.  4,  in  G  major  (with  Soprano  Voice) 

I.  Bedachtig  (Deliberately) 

II.  In  gemachlicher  Bewegung  (With  leisurely  motion) 

III.  Ruhevoll  (Peacefully) 

IV.  Sehr  behaglich   (Very  easily) 

Soprano  Solo:  Nancy  Carr 


soloist 
RUTH  POSSELT,    Violin 


Performances  by  this  orchestra  are  broadcast  each  week  on  Monday 
evenings  from  8:05  to  9:00  P.M.  on  the  NBC  Radio  Network. 

BALDWIN  PIANO  RCA  VICTOR  RECORDS 


[3] 


TANGLEWOOD     1957 

The 

Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 


The   Berkshire  Festival 

Twentieth  Season 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Conductor 


The   Berkshire  Music  Center 

Fifteenth  Season 
CHARLES  MUNCH,    Director 


To  receive  further  announcements,  write  to 
Festival  Office,  Symphony  Hall,  Boston 


[4) 


RICHARD  BURGIN 

"O  ichard  Burgin  studied  with  Lotto,  later  with  Joachim  in  Berlin, 
-"-  and  from  the  years  1908  to  1912  with  Leopold  Auer  in  Leningrad, 
where  he  was  a  fellow  pupil  with  Toscha  Seidel  and  a  boy  named 
Jascha  Heifetz.  His  first  public  appearance  was  at  the  age  of  eleven  as 
soloist  with  the  Warsaw  Philharmonic  Society  on  December  7,  1903. 
He  was  concertmaster  and  soloist  of  the  Leningrad  Symphony  Orches- 
tra, the  Helsinki  Symphony  Orchestra,  the  Christiania  (now  Oslo) 
Philharmonic  Society,  and  the  Stockholm  Concert  Society.  As  concert- 
master  he  had  served,  before  he  came  to  Boston,  under  two  former 
conductors  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra,  Messrs.  Max  Fiedler 
and  Arthur  Nikisch,  likewise  as  concertmaster  under  Richard  Strauss, 
Schneevoigt,  the  Finnish  conductor,  and  under  Sibelius  in  Helsinki. 
At  Stockholm  and  Christiania  he  was  assistant  teacher  with  Auer  in 
1916-17.  In  Christiania  he  led  a  string  quartet,  and  in  Stockholm 
formed  the  Burgin  Quartet.  In  the  fall  of  1920  he  came  to  America 
to  be  concertmaster  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra.  In  1921,  he 
organized  the  Burgin  String  Quartet.  Mr.  Burgin  is  the  Associate 
Conductor  of  the  Orchestra,  and  has  conducted  many  concerts.  On 
the  faculty  of  the  Berkshire  Music  Center  at  Tanglewood  he  is  in 
charge  of  the  chamber  music  and  has  often  conducted  amateur  or 
student  orchestras. 

France  made  him  Chevalier  of  the  Legion  of  Honor  in  1955. 


"RONDES  DE  PRINTEMPS"  (IMAGE  NO.  3) 
By  Claude  Debussy 

Born  at  St.  Germain  (Seine-et-Oise),  France,  August  22,  1862; 
died  at  Paris,  March  25,  1918 


Rondes  de  Printemps,  completed  in  1909,  the  third  of  the  Images,  was  first 
performed  on  March  2,  1910  at  a  concert  organized  by  Debussy's  publisher  Durand, 
the  composer  conducting.  The  first  performance  in  America  was  on  November  15, 
1910,  by  the  New  York  Philharmonic  Society,  conducted  by  Gustav  Mahler.  Ten 
days  later  (November  25)  it  was  introduced  in  Boston  by  the  Boston  Symphony 
Orchestra.  Max  Fiedler,  the  conductor,  repeated  it  ("by  request")  on  December 
16.  There  were  later  performances  on  April  13,  1917  and  January  19,  1923.  The 
score  is  dedicated  "A  Emma  Claude  Debussy  .  .  .  p.m.,  son  mari,  C.  D.  (1909)." 

The  orchestra  called  for  consists  of  3  flutes  and  piccolo,  2  oboes  and  English 
horn,  3  clarinets,  3  bassoons  and  contra-bassoon,  4  horns,  timpani,  triangle,  tam- 
bourine, cymbals,  celesta,  2  harps,  and  strings. 

TN  the  year  1905  Debussy  planned  three  "Images"  as  compositions 
A  for  two  pianos.  They  were  to  be  called,  so  wrote  the  composer 
to  his  publisher,   "Gigues  Tristes,"  "Iberia"  and  "Valse."    Debussy 

[5] 


lingered  over  the  scores,  and  they  gradually  took  orchestral  form. 
By  Christmas  of  1908,  Iberia  was  completed  in  full  orchestral  draft. 
Rondes  was  completed  and  delivered  on  the  19th  of  May  of  the  year 
following.  Gigues  did  not  come  into  the  publisher's  hands  until  1911, 
when  final  details  of  the  orchestration  were  left  to  Andre  Caplet. 

There  is  nothing  canonic  about  the  "Spring  Rounds."  Debussy, 
working  upon  the  piece,  warned  his  publisher,  Durand,  not  to  expect 
anything  formal  that  the  title  might  imply.  He  wrote  on  August  23, 
1908:  "The  Images  will  be  ready  if  I  can  manage  to  finish  'Rondes' 
as  I  wish  and  as  it  should  be.  The  music  of  this  piece  has  an  insub- 
stantiality  of  its  own,  and  is  not  to  be  handled  like  a  robust  symphony 
which  walks  on  four  feet    (sometimes  they  get  through  on  three). 

"I  tell  myself  with  increasing  assurance  that  music  in  its  very  nature 
is  not  a  thing  to  pour  into  a  rigid  and  traditional  form.  It  is  a  thing 
of  color  and  rhythms.  That  idea  is  a  stupidity  of  cold-blooded  imbe- 
ciles who  climb  upon  the  backs  of  the  Masters,  these  having  for  the 
most  part  simply  made  the  music  of  their  epoch! 

"Only  Bach  foresaw  the  truth. 

"In  any  case,  music  is  a  youthful  art,  both  in  manner  and  in  theory." 

On  the  score  of  Rondes  de  Printemps  is  a  motto  taken  from  the 
Maggiolata,  the  spring  festival  of  medieval  Florence: 

Vive  le  Mai,  bienvenu  soit  le  Mai 
Avec  son  gonfalon  sauvage! 

It  has  been  pointed  out  by  Laloy  that  each  of  the  three  Images  has  a 
different  national  thematic  germ.  Iberia,  of  course,  derives  from  Spain, 
Gigues  is  suggestive  of  an  English  or  Scottish  jig  tune,  Rondes  de 
Printemps  turns  to  a  French  play  song  "Nous  n'irons  plus  au  bois" 
this  last  having  also  appeared  in  Debussy's  "Estampe"  for  piano, 
Jardins  sous  la  pluie.  The  three  works  are  not  unified  into  a  suite 
by  this  slightest  of  common  denominators,  nor  yet  by  the  vague  and 
noncommittal  title  "Images." 

Although  the  composer  numbered  this  as  the  third  in  order,  it  is 
more  like  a  scherzo  than  a  finale  (in  spirit,  not  in  form).  The  mood 
is  light,  transparent,  opening  and  proceeding  in  a  shimmering  atmos- 
phere of  tremolo  strings.  The  integrating  characteristic  of  the  entire 
piece  is  a  persistent  triplet  rhythm,  taking  the  form  of  6-8,  15-8,  or 
9-8  measures,  lively  and  lilting  always,  increasing  in  urgency  up  to  the 
last  chord,  a  harp  glissando.  The  use  of  the  folk  tune  is  subtle  rather 
than  naive.  It  is  lightly  alluded  to  rather  than  boldly  quoted,  frag- 
mentarily  (and  piquantly)  worked  in  rather  than  traditionally  devel- 
oped. Louis  Laloy,  Debussy's  militant  champion  when  the  Images 
first  appeared,  summed  up  Rondes  when  he  described  its  "single  idea, 

[6] 


which  now  glides,  now  runs  through  light  fronds  of  melody,  until  it 
joins  in  a  breathless  dance,  whirls  wildly  for  a  moment,  then  grows 
calm  and  vanishes  into  clear  air." 

Philip  Hale  has  written  in  these  programs: 

"Both  the  air  of  'Nous  n' irons  plus  au  bois'  and  the  refrain  appear 
in  veiled  form  and  rhythmically  changed;  the  former,  as  in  the  theme 
for  oboe  solo,  'gracefully  and  gaily'  early  in  the  work  and  in  the  forte 
passage  for  strings,  wood-wind  instruments,  and  horns  that  follows 
soon  afterwards. 

"It  may  be  said  that  the  composition  is  based  on  two  sections:  the 
first,  a  sort  of  introduction,  moderement  anime,  with  a  short  figure 
first  occurring  in  the  bassoons;  the  second,  un  peu  plus  mouvemente 
(15-8)  with  a  triplet  figure  given  to  wood-wind  instruments. 

"The  music  of  this  round,  for  a  long  time  one  of  the  most  popular 
with  little  girls  of  France,  may  be  found  in  Weckerlin's  Chansons 
Populaires  du  Pays  de  France.  One  girl  stands  in  the  middle  of  the 
ring  formed  by  her  companions  holding  hands.  With  each  verse  one 
enters  the  ring,  sometimes  two,  and  this  continues  until  they  who 
turn  about  them  are  exhausted. 

"The  chief  characteristic  of  the  Rondo  or  Rondeau  is  the  return  of 
some  pregnant  thought,  a  recurring  refrain.  The  first  section  was  so 
contrived  that  it  could  furnish  the  end,  and  the  reprises  were  usually 
three  or  four  in  number.  Johannes  Mattheson  in  1737  declared  that 
the  rondeau  awakened  cheerfulness:  'The  136th  Psalm  is  nothing  but 
a  Rondeau.  Luther  names  it  a  litany.  I  do  not  know  whether  this 
kind  of  melody  is  often  used  for  dancing;  but  it  is  used  for  singing  and 
still  more  in  concerts  of  instruments.  In  a  good  Rondeau  the  prevail- 
ing characteristic  is  steadiness,  or  better  a  constant  confidence;  at 
least  the  Rondeau  portrays  admirably  this  disposition  of  the  soul.' 
But  Debussy,  writing  Rondes  de  Printemps,  was  not  obsessed  by  aca- 
demic thoughts." 

[copyrighted] 


CONCERTO  FOR  VIOLIN  NO.   1,  in  G  minor,  Op.  26 

By  Max  Bruch 
Born  in  Cologne,  January  6,  1838;  died  in  Friedenau,  October  2,  1920 


Bruch  completed  his  First  Violin  Concerto  in  1866,  from  sketches  begun  in  1857. 
The  first  performance  was  given  at  Coblenz,  April  24,  1866,  Otto  von  Konigslow 
soloist,  the  composer  conducting. 

The  orchestration  calls  for  2  flutes,  2  oboes,  2  clarinets,  2  bassoons,  4  horns, 
2  trumpets,  timpani  and  strings. 

A/Tax  Bruch  was  one  of  those  composers  who,  a  master  craftsman 
1VA  of  his  art,  could  work  with  performers  to  eminently  satisfactory 
ends,  supply  them  with  workable  music  lying  comfortably  within  the 

[7] 


instrument  or  the  singing  voice,  and  delight  an  audience  with  a  new 
work  in  full  accord  with  their  taste  and  expectations  —  music  always 
quite  free  from  disturbing  innovations.  As  sometimes  happens  with 
composers  in  such  complete  rapport  with  their  period,  their  vogue 
lessens  as  tastes  change.  When  Herr  Bruch  died  at  eighty-two  in  a 
country  then  lately  disrupted  by  war,  the  quantities  of  music  which 
had  always  succeeded  in  "coming  off"  beautifully  —  operas,  choral 
works,  symphonies,  concertos,  chamber  pieces  —  had  no  place  in  a 
world  which  had  changed,  for  better  or  for  worse,  to  other  ways.  His 
numerous  oratorios,  called  by  the  early  lexicographer  Riemann  as  the 
"Schwerpunkt,"  the  crux  of  his  art,  had  gone  the  way  of  other  things 
once  considered  of  the  utmost  beauty  and  importance.  By  some  strange 
circumstance,  Bruch,  who  was  never  a  performing  violinist,  survives 
by  his  works  for  this  instrument  (together  with  his  Kol  Nidrei  for 
'cello). 

The  G  minor  Concerto  may  be  said  to  have  the  qualities  which 
graced  all  of  his  music  —  clear  and  luminous  scoring,  and  the  fullest 
advantage  of  the  virtuoso  and  his  instrument.  Bruch  held  this  con- 
certo in  sketch  form  for  several  years  before  it  was  ready  for  perform- 
ance, in  1866.  After  the  performance,  the  composer,  with  characteristic 
thoroughness,  gave  the  score  a  careful  and  drastic  revision,  then  sent 
it  to  Joseph  Joachim  for  suggestions  which  were  freely  made  and  freely 
adopted.  Joachim  performed  the  Concerto  at  Bremen,  January  7,  1868, 
and  received  the  dedication  on  the  publication  of  the  score  in  that  year. 

[copyrighted] 


R 


uth  Posselt,  born  in  Medford,  Massachusetts,  made  her  debut  at 
the  age  of  nine,  giving  a  recital  in  Carnegie  Hall.  Her  subsequent 
career  has  led  to  six  tours  of  Europe,  where  she  has  appeared  in  recitals 
and  with  the  principal  orchestras  of  various  countries,  including  Soviet 
Russia.  She  played  under  Monteux  and  Paray  in  Paris,  Mengelberg 
and  Szell  in  Holland.  Her  tours  of  this  country  include  appearances 
as  soloist  with  orchestras  in  Boston,  New  York,  Chicago,  Detroit, 
Washington,  Cincinnati,  St.  Louis,  Hartford  and  other  cities.  Miss 
Posselt  is  on  the  faculty  of  the  Berkshire  Music  Center,  in  the  depart 
ment  of  chamber  music. 


Q^> 


[8] 


FTHE  VIRTUOSO  ORCHESTRA  ' ' "V^.J\^J 

'  Bona  t;-rfc'.«r  OirhtMn...O«4c*  MtaMk 


munch  in  person 

on  rca  Victor  records 


To  Charles  Munch,  conducting  is  not  a  profession  but  a 
sacred  calling.  And  this  dedication,  combined  with  the 
magnificence  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra,  brings 
you  performances  of  unmatched  power  and  beauty.  You 
feel  and  hear  this  devotion  whether  he  conducts  Ravel, 
Berlioz  or  Beethoven  . . .  whether  the  performance  is  in 
Symphony  Hall  or ...  on  RCA  Victor  Records,  of  course! 


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[91 


SYMPHONY  NO.  4  in  G  Major 
By  Gustav  Mahler 

Born  at  Kalischt,  in  Bohemia,  July  7,  i860;  died  at  Vienna,  May  8,  1911 


Mahler  began  his  Fourth  Symphony  at  Ausee  in  the  summer  of  1899  and  finished 
it  there  in  the  following  summer.  It  was  first  performed  by  the  Kaim  Orchestra 
in  Munich,  November  25,  1901,  Felix  Weingartner  conducting.  The  first  perform- 
ance in  this  country  was  by  the  Symphony  Society  of  New  York,  Walter  Damrosch, 
conductor,  in  1904.  The  composer  conducted  a  performance  there  by  the  Philhar- 
monic Orchestra,  January  17,  1911.  The  last  two  movements  were  played  by  the 
Boston  Symphony  Orchestra  (January  30,  1942,  Richard  Burgin  conducting,  Cleora 
Wood,  soloist)  ;  the  entire  symphony  March  23,  1945  (Mona  Paulee,  soloist)  and 
March  21,  1947,  when  Bruno  Walter  conducted  and  Desi  Halban  was  the  soloist. 
Mr.  Burgin  conducted  it  March  19-20,  1954,  Anne  English,  soloist. 

The  orchestration  requires  4  flutes  and  piccolo,  3  oboes  and  English  horn,  3  clari- 
nets and  bass  clarinet,  3  bassoons  and  contra-bassoon,  4  horns,  3  trumpets,  Glocken- 
spiel, sleigh  bells,  bass  drum,  cymbals,  tam-tam,  timpani,  triangle,  harp,  and  strings. 

The  years  surrounding  the  composition  of  the  Fourth  Symphony 
were  years  of  constant  activity  for  Mahler  as  conductor.  He  was 
then  music  director  of  the  opera  at  Vienna.  Fresh  production  of  the 
operas  of  Gluck,  Mozart,  and  Wagner  exacted  his  time  and  energies. 
It  was  only  after  the  musical  season  that  he  was  able  to  devote  him- 
self to  his  creative  projects.  "A  holiday  composer"  was  what  he  called 
himself  in  a  letter  to  his  friend  Max  Marschalk,  and  hardly  to  be 
compared  with  the  "concert  matadors  of  today,"  who  have  the  year 
around  at  their  disposal.  But  it  must  be  granted  that  he  did  very  well 
as  regards  quantity  in  his  summer  intervals,  for  he  had  then  found  time 
to  compose  his  first  four  symphonies  and  his  song  cycles.  Indeed, 
driven  to  the  end  of  his  life  by  conductorial  obligations,  his  summers 
remained  his  creative  periods.  As  had  been  the  case  with  the  sym- 
phonies which  preceded  this  one,  he  completed  his  sketches  in  the 
little  summer  house  which  he  occupied  on  the  beautiful  Lake  Ausee, 
and,  returning  to  his  duties  as  conductor  in  town,  rose  early  each 
morning  that  he  might  write  a  page  or  two  of  his  score  in  fair  copy, 
before  going  to  his  morning  rehearsal. 

Mahler  was  honored  as  a  conductor,  little  regarded  as  a  composer, 
before  the  arresting  impact  of  the  Fifth  Symphony  compelled  general 
attention.  When  the  Fourth  Symphony  was  first  performed,  loud 
voices  were  raised  pro  and  con.  He  was  badgered  for  a  program, 
as  he  had  always  been  and  always  would  be.*  It  is  hard,  looking  back, 
to  understand  why  hearers  insisted  upon  explanations  of  this  simple- 
hearted,  straightforward,  lyrical  music,  and  why  they  did  not  simply 
accept  the  text  as  self-evident  and  self-sufficient.  It  is  equally  hard  to 
account  for  the  furious  controversy  the  Symphony  aroused  or  such  at- 


*  A  significant  line  appeared  on  the  program  when  he  conducted  the  symphony  at  a 
Philharmonic  concert  in  New  York,  January  17,  1911  :  "In  deference  to  Mr.  Mahler's  wishes, 
there  shall  be  no  attempt  at  an  analysis  or  description  here  of  this  symphony." 

[10] 


tacks  as  the  one  by  the  correspondent  of  the  Musical  Courier  at  the 
time,  who  righteously  spared  his  readers  "a  detailed  description  of  that 
musical  monstrosity"  and  dismissed  it  in  this  fashion:  "There  is 
nothing  in  the  design,  content,  or  execution  of  the  work  to  impress 
the  musician,  except  its  grotesquery.  The  only  part  of  the  symphony 
which  is  bearable  is  the  soprano  solo  at  the  end,  and  that  is  not 
symphony." 

The  Fourth  Symphony  is  content  with  an  essentially  simple  style, 
through  which  dance-like  or  songful  measures  have  free  play,  prompted 
by  the  naive  fantasy  of  folk  poetry.  Jean  Paul  Richter  had  furnished 
images  for  the  First  Symphony.  Mahler  later  discovered  Des  Knaben 
Wunderhorn,  and  his  fancy  lingered  over  this  collection  of  old  Ger- 
man songs  compiled  almost  a  century  before  by  Ludwig  von  Arnim 
and  Clemens  Brentano.  He  set  many  of  them,  and  reflected  thoughts 
found  their  way  into  the  Second,  Third,  and  Fourth  symphonies.  The 
extravagant  fairy  folklore  of  an  earlier  romanticism  was  a  curiosity  to 
most  people  in  Mahler's  time,  while  this  strange  figure  of  unabashed 
sentiment  subjected  himself  to  its  spell  and  allowed  it  to  suffuse  his 
music.  The  Fourth  Symphony  is  freer  than  any  of  its  companions  from 
dark  or  morbid  thoughts.  Its  sunny  serenity  is  unclouded,  unless 
one  feels  a  macabre  suggestion  in  the  violin  solo  of  the  scherzo. 
Certainly  no  shadow  passes  over  the  bright  course  of  the  last  two 
movements.  Comparing  the  Fourth  Symphony  with  the  Third,  Bruno 
Walter  remarks  in  his  book  on  Mahler  that  "it  reaches  even  greater 
heights  of  a  strangely  exalted  gayety.  .  .  .  For  now  he  felt  him- 
self carried  on  high  as  in  a  dream  and  no  longer  was  there  any 
ground  under  his  feet.  An  account  of  such  a  floating  condition  is 
given  in  the  Fourth.  In  its  final  movement  it  even  represents,  themat- 
ically,  a  sequel  to  the  'Angel  Movement'  of  the  Third  and,  in  its 
general  tone,  follows  its  spiritual  direction.*  After  the  works  of  pathos, 
a  yearning  for  gaiety  or,  rather,  for  serenity  had  sprung  up  in  Mahler's 
heart,  and  so  he  created  the  idyll  of  the  Fourth  in  which  a  devout 
piety  dreams  its  dream  of  Heaven.  Dream-like  and  unreal,  indeed,  is 
the  atmosphere  of  the  work  —  a  mysterious  smile  and  a  strange  humor 
cover  the  solemnity  which  so  clearly  had  been  manifested  in  the  Third. 
In  the  fairy-tale  of  the  Fourth  everything  is  floating  and  unburdened 
which,  in  his  former  works,  had  been  mighty  and  pathetic  —  the 
mellow  voice  of  an  angel  confirms  what,  in  the  Second  and  Third,  a 
prophet  had  foreseen  and  pronounced  in  loud  accents.  The  blissful 
feeling  of  exaltation  and  freedom  from  the  world  communicates  itself 
to  the  character  of  the  music  —  but,  in  contrast  to  the  Third,  from  afar, 
as  it  were.  The  three  orchestral  movements  take  their  course  without 


*  The  Finale  of  the  Fourth  was  originally  planned  as  an  additional  movement  of  the  Third 
Symphony,  which  was  to  be  called  "What  the  Angels  tell  me." 

["] 


a  condensation  of  the  peculiar  moods  out  of  which  they  grew  into  a 
definite  idea. 

"The  first  movement  and  the  'Heavenly  Life'  are  dominated  by  a 
droll  humor  which  is  in  strange  contrast  to  the  beatific  mood  form- 
ing the  key-note  of  the  work.  The  scherzo  is  a  sort  of  uncanny  fairy- 
tale episode.  Its  demoniac  violin  solo  and  the  graceful  trio  form  an 
interesting  counterpart  to  the  other  sections  of  the  symphony  without 
abandoning  the  character  of  lightness  and  mystery.  Referring  to  the 
profound  quiet  and  clear  beauty  of  the  andante,  Mahler  said  to  me 
that  they  were  caused  by  his  vision  of  one  of  the  church  sepulchers 
showing  the  recumbent  stone  image  of  the  deceased  with  the  arms 
crossed  in  eternal  sleep.  The  poem  whose  setting  to  music  forms  the 
last  movement  depicts  in  words  the  atmosphere  out  of  which  the 
music  of  the  Fourth  grew.  The  childlike  joys  which  it  portrays  are 
symbolic  of  heavenly  bliss,  and  only  when,  at  the  very  end,  music 
is  proclaimed  the  sublimest  of  joys  is  the  humorous  character  gently 
changed  into  one  of  exalted  solemnity. 

"In  the  first  four  symphonies  an  important  part  of  the  history  of 
Mahler's  soul  is  unfolded.  The  force  of  spiritual  events  is  matched 
by  the  power  of  musical  language.  The  correlation  of  the  world  of 
sound  and  that  of  imagination,  thoughts,  and  emotions,  is  thus  com- 
mon to  them  both.  While,  however,  in  the  First  the  subjective  experi- 
ence with  its  tempest  of  emotions  is  exerting  its  influence  upon  the 
music,  metaphysical  questions  strive  to  find  an  answer  and  deliver- 
ance in  music  in  the  Second  and  in  subsequent  symphonies.  Three 
times  he  gives  the  answer  and  every  time  from  a  new  point  of  view. 
In  the  Second  he  asks  the  reason  for  the  tragedy  of  human  existence 
and  is  sure  its  justification  is  to  be  found  in  immortality.  In  the  Third, 
with  a  feeling  of  reassurance,  he  looks  out  upon  nature,  runs  the 
rounds  of  its  circles,  and  finishes  in  the  happy  awareness  that  it  is 
'almighty  love  that  forms  all  things  and  preserves  all  things.'  In  the 
Fourth,  he  assures  himself  and  us  of  a  sheltered  security  in  the  sub- 
limely serene  dream  of  a  heavenly  life." 

The  Fourth  Symphony  is  long,  lasting  a  little  short  of  an  hour,  but 


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[12] 


asked  the  brahmin  of  the  brewer. .  • 


"Pray  tell,  good  fellow,  why  not  a  beverage 
Brewed  in  a  fashion  a  bit  above  the  average? 
A  light-hearted  ale,  dry  refreshing  beer 
Worthy  of  a  connoisseur,  worthy  of  a  Peer?" 


"Matey,  you're  in  luck",  said  the  Brewer  to  the  Brahmin, 
"You  and  the  missus  and  the  Beacon  Hill  barman, 
For  Carling's  now  in  Natick,  brewing  ale  and  beer 
Worthy  of  a  connoisseur,  worthy  of  a  Peer." 


CARLING    BREWING    CO. 


[i3l 


it  is  the  shortest  that  Mahler  wrote.  It  is  the  lightest  in  instrumenta- 
tion: only  four  horns  are  used,  the  solidity  of  trombones  and  tuba 
dispensed  with. 

The  first  movement,  Heiter,  Beddchtig  (Gay,  Deliberate) ,  is  also 
marked  Recht  gemdchlich  (Leisurely) .  It  is  based  on  two  ingratiating 
melodies,  the  first  immediately  stated  by  the  first  violins.  Another 
lilting  theme  in  the  lower  strings  is  heard,  and  a  characteristic  horn 
figure  before  the  second  theme,  as  simple  and  diatonic  as  the  first,  is 
played  by  the  'cellos.  Other  themes  or  fragments  of  themes  are  intro- 
duced, but  their  role  is  subservient  or  episodic.  There  are  ingenious 
combinations  and  structures  along  the  way.  The  mood  becomes 
boisterous  for  a  while,  but  the  two  main  themes  dominate  and  the 
sense  of  naive  simplicity  is  never  lost. 

The  second  movement  is  marked  In  gemdchlicher  Bewegung  (With 
leisurely  motion) .  It  opens  with  a  delightful  horn  motive,  but  almost 
immediately  the  solo  violin  breaks  in.  The  instrument  is  tuned  one 
tone  higher,  which  gives  it  a  shrill  and  angular  effect.  The  concert 
master  is  directed  to  play  "wie  ein  Fidel/'  giving  the  antique,  uncouth 
effect  of  an  old-time  village  fiddler.  Paul  Stefan  considers  that  "Only 
one  being  can  play  thus:  Death.  He  is  very  good-natured  and  lets  the 
others  go  on  dancing,  but  they  must  not  forget  who  is  making  the 
music.  When  he  lets  his  bow  fall,  the  other  players  try  to  overtake 
him;  they  are  in  major,  but  even  that  sounds  creepy  enough,  as  in 
the  sermon  to  the  fishes  [in  the  last  movement].  Then  the  piece  be- 
comes somewhat  livelier  (Trio) ,  but  the  ghostly  theme  returns  and  re- 
mains." But  the  movement  is  not  really  sinister,  and  the  surrounding 
material  is  quite  otherwise,  notably  a  tripping  theme  with  trills  first 
heard  from  the  clarinets. 

The  third  movement,  Ruhevoll  (Peacefully) ,  Poco  adagio,  is 
Mahler's  only  full  use  of  the  variation  form  in  his  symphonies.  The 
theme,  broad  and  simple,  is  disclosed  by  the  low  strings.  Several  counter- 
themes  are  woven  in  as  the  score  takes  its  contrapuntal  course.  The 
oboe  gives  forth  one  of  these,  "klagend,"  and  the  clarinets,  another  in 
a  faster  tempo.  The  former  tempo  returns,  and  the  movement  ends,  in 
a  long-drawn  pianissimo  with  arpeggios,  harp  glissandi,  horn  calls,  and 
sustained,  widespread  chords. 

The  fourth  movement,  Sehr  behaglich  (Very  easily)  utilizes  verses 
from  an  old  Bavarian  folk  song,  "Der  Himmel  hdngt  voll  Geigen" 
("In  Heaven  Hang  Many  Fiddles") ,  from  "Des  Knaben  Wunderhorn." 
The  movement  takes  strophic  shape,  the  orchestral  portion  being  light 
and  piquant  but  free  and  independent,  in  no  sense  a  mere  accompani- 
ment. Interludes  after  each  verse  are  reminiscent  of  a  jingling  theme 
in  the  opening  movement.  There  are  fleeting  touches  of  realism,  as 

[14] 


when  the  oboe  suggests  the  bleating  lamb;  the  basses,  the  bellowing 
ox.  St.  Peter  brings  in  sudden  measures  of  quiet  dignity,  with  an 
appropriate  archaic  flavor  of  open  fifths.  The  text  sets  forth  the 
simple  peasant's  idea  of  Heaven  —  a  place  not  solemn  and  awesome, 
but  homely  and  friendly,  where  a  holiday  spirit  prevails,  where  delect- 
able things  to  eat  rise  before  one  at  a  wish,  where  game  runs  con- 
veniently in  the  streets,  and  even  the  saints  are  sociable  souls  contribut- 
ing to  the  general  good  time.  One  is  reminded  that  Marc  Connolly's 
Green  Pastures  was  not  the  first  reflection  of  a  faith  which  is  strong 
because  confiding  and  unquestioning,  which  is  born  of  wonderment, 
is  the  source  of  folklore,  and  gives  birth  to  true  poetry.  Mahler 
wrote  over  the  voice  part  in  his  score:  "With  childlike,  bright  ex- 
pression, always  without  parody!"  It  was  the  composer's  rarest  quality 
that  he  could  enter  quite  simply  into  this  spirit  of  wonder. 
The  text  is  as  follows,  together  with  a  literal  translation: 

Wir  geniessen  die  himmlischen  Freuden,  So  delightful  are  the  joys  of  Heaven, 

Drum  tun  wir  das  Irdische  meiden.  We  have  no  need  of  earthly  ones. 

Kein  weltlich  Getummel  No  worldly  turmoil 

Hort  man  nicht  im  Himmel!  Is  heard  in  Heaven! 

Lebt  alles  in  sanf tester  Ruh'.  There  all  live  in  sweetest  peace. 

Wir  fuhren  ein  englisches  Leben,  We  live  an  angel's  life, 

Sind  dennoch  ganz  lustig  daneben,  But  we  are  merry  too, 

Wir  tanzen  und  springen,  Dancing  and  leaping 

Wir  hiipfen  und  singen.  Skipping  and  singing. 


Academy  of  Music,  Brooklyn 


Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 


FOURTH  CONCERT 

Friday  Evening,  February  8 

Soloist:   NICOLE  HENRIOT,  Piano 


['5l 


Sanct  Peter  im  Himmel  sieht  zu! 
Johannes  das  Lammlein  auslasset, 
Der  Metzger  Herodes  drauf  passe t! 
Wir  fuhren  ein  unschuldig's 
Unschuldig's  geduldig's 
Ein  Liebliches  Lammlein  zu  Tod! 

Sanct  Lukas  den  Ochsen  tat  schlachten, 
Ohn'  einig's  Bedenken  und  Achten, 
Der  Wein  kost  kein  Heller, 
Im  himmlischen  Keller, 

Die  Englein,  die  backen  das  Brot. 

Gut  Krduter  von  allerhand  Arten, 
Die  wachsen  im  himmlischen  Garten! 
Gut  Spargel,  Fisolen 
Und  was  wir  nur  wollen! 
Ganze  Schiisseln  voll  sind  uns  bereit! 

Gut  Apfel,  gut  Birn,  und  gut  Trauben, 
Die  Gartner  die  alles  erlauben! 
Willst  Rehbock,  willst  Hasen, 

Auf  offener  Strassen 

Sie  laufen  herbei. 

Sollt  ein  Festtag  etwa  kommen 
Alle   Fische   gleich    mit   Freuden 

schwommen! 
Dort  lauft  schon  Sanct  Peter 
Mit  Netz  und  mit  Koder 
Zum  himmlischen  Weiher  hinein. 
Sanct  Martha  die  Kochen  muss  sein! 

Kein  Musik  ist  ja  nicht  auf  Erden, 

Die  uns'rer  verglichen  kann  werden. 

Elf  lausend  Jungfrauen 

Zu  tanzen  sich  trauen! 

Sanct  Ursula  selbst  dazu  lacht— 

Cacilia  mit  ihren  Verwandten 

Sind  treffliche  Hofmusikanten! 

Die  englischen  Stimmen 

Ermuntern  die  Sinnen, 

Das  alles  fur  Freuden  erwacht. 


ange- 


Saint  Peter  in  Heaven  looks  on! 
John  gives  up  his  little  lamb, 
Which  goes  to  the  butcher  Herod! 
We  lead  an  innocent, 
Innocent  and  patient  creature  — 
A  dear  little  lamb  to  its  death! 

St.  Luke  slaughters  the  oxen 
Without  a  moment's  thought  or  care. 
Wine  in  the  cellar  of  Heaven  costs  not 

a  penny. 
The  angels  are  baking  bread. 

Sweet  herbs  of  every  kind 

Are  growing  in  Heaven's  garden, 

Asparagus,    green    peas;     whatever    we 

wish, 
Platters  heaped  high  and  ready! 

Good    apples,    good    pears,    and    good 

grapes, 
The  gardeners  offer  them  all. 
Do  you  prefer  roebuck  or  rabbit? 
They  are  running  in  the  streets. 

Should  a  fast  day  come  along, 

Every  kind  of  fish  swims  gayly  by! 

And  there  goes  St.  Peter  with  nets  and 

bait 
Running  to  the  heavenly  pond. 
St.  Martha  shall  be  our  cook. 


No 


music  on  earth 

with  ours; 
Eleven    thousand    maidens 

dancing, 
Even  St.  Ursula  is  smiling. 
Cecilia  and  all  her  kind 
Are  excellent  court  musicians; 
The  angels'  sweet  voices 
Brighten  our  spirits, 
And  joy  awakens  in  all. 
[copyrighted] 


is  to  be  compared 
are    busily 


NANCY  CARR  was  born  in  Springfield,  Ohio,  and  there  had  her 
first  musical  training  under  her  mother  and  later  Theodore  Harrison. 
Living  near  Chicago,  she  attended  the  American  Conservatory  of 
Music  there.  She  made  her  first  extensive  recital  tour  in  the  season 
1953-54  antl  has  likewise  sung  with  principal  orchestras  (notably  with 
the  Chicago  Orchestra  in  Mahler's  Second  and  Fourth  Symphonies, 
under  the  direction  of  Bruno  Walter). 


EDNA  NITKIN,  M.Mus. 

PIANIST 

ACCOMPANIST        TEACHER 

Studio:   500  Boylston  St.,  Copley  Sq. 

Boston  KE  6-4062 


[16] 


RCA    VICTOR    RECORDS 

BOSTON  SYMPHONY  ORCHESTRA 


Recorded  under  the  leadership  of  CHARLES  MUNCH 

Beethoven  Overtures  Leonore  Nos.  1,  2,  3 ;  "Fidelio" ;  "Coriolan" 
Symphonies  Nos.  5,  6,  7 
Violin  Concerto  (Heifetz) 
Berlioz  "Fantastic    Symphony" ;     Overture    to    "Beatrice    and    Benedick" ; 
"Romeo  and  Juliet"  (complete)  ;  "Summer  Nights"  (De  Los  Angeles)  ; 
"The  Damnation  of  Faust"  (complete) 
Brahms  Piano  Concerto  No.  2  (Rubinstein) 

Symphonies  Nos.  2,  4 ;  "Tragic  Overture" 
Bruch  Violin  Concerto  No.  1  (Menuhin) 
Chausson  "Poeme"  for  Violin  and  Orchestra  (Oistrakh) 
Chopin  Piano  Concerto  No.  2  (Brailowsky) 
Debussy  "The  Martyrdom  of  St.  Sebastian" ;  "Prelude  to  the  Afternoon  of  a 

Faun";  "The  Blessed  Damozel"  (De  Los  Angeles) 
Handel  "Water  Music"  Suite  (arr.  Harty) 
Haydn  Symphony  No.  104 
Honegger  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  5 
halo  Overture  to  "Le  Roi  d'Ys" 
Menotti  Violin  Concerto  (Spivakovsky) 
Mozart  Overture  to  "The  Marriage  of  Figaro" 
Ravel  "Daphnis  and  Chloe"  (complete)  ;  "Pa vane" 

Newly  Recorded :   "Bolero"  ;  "La  Valse"  ;  "Rapsodie  Espagnole" 
Roussel  "Bacchus  and  Ariane,"  Suite  No.  2 

Saint-Saens  "Introduction  and  Rondo  Capriccioso"  (Oistrakh) 
Overture  to  "La  Princesse  Jaune" 
Piano  Concerto  No.  4  (Brailowsky) 
Schubert  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  8  ("Unfinished"  Symphony) 
Schumann  Overture  to  "Genoveva"        Symphony  No.  1 
Strauss  "Don  Quixote"  (Soloist,  Piatigorsky) 

Tchaikovsky  Violin  Concerto   (Milstein)  ;  "Francesca  da   Rimini";  "Romeo 
and  Juliet" ;  Symphony  No.  4 

Among  the  recordings  under  the  leadership  of  SERGE  KOUSSEVITZKY 


Bach  Brandenburg  Concertos  Nos.  1,  6; 

Suites  Nos.  1,  4 
Beethoven  Symphonies  Nos.  3,  5,  9 
Berlioz  "Harold  in  Italy"  (Primrose) 
Brahms   Symphony  No.  3;   Violin   Con- 
certo (Heifetz) 
Copland  "A  Lincoln  Portrait" ;  "Appala- 
chian Spring" ;  "El  Salon  Mexico" 

Hanson  Symphony  No.  3 

Harris  Symphony  No.  3 

Haydn  Symphonies  Nos.  92,  "Oxford" ; 

94,  "Surprise" 
Khatchaturian  Piano  Concerto  (Kapell) 
Mendelssohn  Symphony  No.  4,  "Italian" 


Mozart  "Eine  kleine  Nachtmusik"  ;  Sere^ 
nade  No.  10,  for  Woodwinds;  Sym- 
phonies Nos.  36,  "Linz" ;  39 

Prokofleff  "Classical"  Symphony;  "Lt 
Kije"  Suite ;  "Romeo  and  Juliet,"  Suite 
No.  2 ;  Symphony  No.  5 ;  Violin  Con- 
certo No.  2  (Heifetz) 

Rachmaninoff  "Isle  of  the  Dead" 

Ravel  "Bolero" ;  "Ma  Mere  L'Oye"  Suite 

Schubert  Symphony  in  B  Minor,  "Un- 
finished" 

Sibelius  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  5 

Strauss,  R.  "Don  Juan" 

Tchaikovsky  Serenade  in  C ;  Symphonies 
Nos.  4,  5 

Wagner  Siegfried  Idyll 


Recorded  under  the  leadership  of  PIERRE  MONTE UX 

Debussy  "La  Mer" ;  "Nocturnes"  Tchaikovsky  Symphony  No.  6,   "Path<§- 

Liszt  "Les  Preludes"  tique" 
Mozart  Piano  Concertos  Nos.  12, 18  (Lili 

Kbatjs)  Delibes  Ballets  "Sylvia,"  "Coppelia"  by 

Scriabin  "The  Poem  of  Ecstasy"  Members    of    the    Boston    Symphony 

Stravinsky  "Le  Sacre  du  Printemps"  Orchestra 

Recorded  z.nder  the  leadership  of  Leonard  Bernstein 
Stravinsky  "L'Histoire  du  Soldat" ;  Octet  for  Wind  Instruments 

The  above  recordings  are  available  on  Long  Play  (33%  r.p.m.)  and  (in  some  cases; 
45  r.p.m. 


At  This  Concert 


RUTH  POSSELT 
Violinist 


NANCY  CARR 
Soprano 


The  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 
uses  and  endorses  the  Baldwin. 


RICHARD  BURGIN 
Conductor 

THE  BALDWIN  PIANO  COMPANY 
CINCINNATI,  OHIO 


lalitom 


BALDWIN    GRAND    PIANOS 
HAMILTON   STUDIO   PIANOS 


ACROSONIC    SPINET    AND    CONSOLE    PIANOS 
BALDWIN   AND   ORGA-SONIG   ELECTRONIC   ORGANS 


*k 


BOSTON 

SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 


FOUNDED  IN  1881  BY 
HENRY  LEE  HIGGINSON 


SEVENTY-SIXTH   SEASON 
1956-1957 

Academy   of  Music,  Brooklyn 

Under  the  auspices  of  the  Brooklyn  Institute  of  Arts  and  Sciences 
and  the  Philharmonic  Society  of  Brooklyn 


i956  "  *957 
THE  WOMEN'S  COMMITTEE 

FOR 

The  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra  Concerts 

IN  BROOKLYN 


Mrs.  Carroll  J.  Dickson,  Chairman 


Mrs.  Edward  C.  Blum 
Vice-Chairman 


Mrs.  Edwin  P.  Maynard,  Jr. 
Vice-Chairman 


Mrs.  H.  Haughton  Bell 
Vice-Chairman 


Mrs.  Irving  G.  Idler 
Chairman  of  Boxes 


Mrs.  Miles  M.  Kastendieck 
Chairman  of  Membership 


Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Miss 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 

Mrs. 


Alexander  Aldrich 
Elias  J.  Audi 
Charles  L.  Babcock,  Jr. 
C.  Rankin  Barnes 
Bernard  S.  Barr 
John  R.  Bartels 
George  M.  Billings 
John  R.  H.  Blum 
Robert  E.  Blum 
Lawrence  J.  Bolvig 
Otis  Swan  Carroll 
Francis  T.  Christy 
Edith  U.  Conard 
Benjamin  S.  Conroy 
Donald  M.  Crawford 
Russell  V.  Cruikshank 
William  T.  Daily 
Frederick  I.  Daniels 
Berton  J.  Delmhorst 
Anthony  Di  Giovanna 
James  B.  Donovan 
Remick  C.  Eckardt 
Alfred  H.  Everson 
James  F.  Fairman 
John  W.  Faison 
Merrill  N.  Foote 
Lewis  W.  Francis 
Laurance  E.  Frost 
Edwin  L.  Garvin 


Mrs.  Andrew  L.  Gomory 
Mrs.  R.  Whitney  Gosnell 
Mrs.  Morgan  Grossman 
Mrs.  Arthur  C.  Hallan 
Mrs.  J.  Victor  Herd 
Mrs.  James  M.  Hills 
Mrs.  Francis  H.  Horn 
Mrs.  David  S.  Hunter 
Mrs.  Raymond  V.  Ingersoll 
Mrs.  Henry  A.  Ingraham 
Mrs.  Darwin  R.  James  III 
Mrs.  Walter  M.  Jeffords,  Jr. 
Mrs.  James  Vincent  Keogh 
Mrs.  John  Bailey  King 
Mrs.  Warner  King 
Mrs.  Almet  R.  Latson,  Jr. 
Mrs.  Abbott  Lippmann 
Mrs.  Everett  J.  Livesey 
Mrs.  John  B.  Madden 
Mrs.  Albert  C.  Magee 
Mrs.  Eugene  R.  Marzullo 
Mrs.  Carleton  D.  Mason 
Mrs.  Richard  S.  Maynard 
Miss  Helen  M.  McWilliams 
Mrs.  Alfred  L.  Megill 
Miss  Emma  Jessie  Ogg 
Mrs.  Harold  Ostergren 
Mrs.  William  M.  Parke 
Mrs.  William  B.  Parker 


Mrs.  Frank  H.  Parsons 
Mrs.RaymondKingPendleton 
Mrs.  Franklyn  H.  Peper 
Mrs.  Valentine  K.  Raymond 
Mrs.  Frederick  H.  Rohlfs 
Mrs.  Donald  Ross 
Mrs.  Abraham  M.  Sands 
Mrs.  Irving  J.  Sands 
Mrs.  Martin  Segal 
Mrs.  Eliot  H.  Sharp 
Mrs.  Frank  E.  Simmons 
Mrs.  Donald  G.  C.  Sinclair 
Mrs.  Ainsworth  L.  Smith 
Mrs.  Sidney  L.  Solomon 
Mrs.  Harry  H.  Spencer 
Mrs.  Donald  Edgar  Swift 
Mrs.  Hollis  K.  Thayer 
Mrs.  Gilbert  H.  Thirkield 
Mrs.  John  F.  Thompson,  Jr. 
Mrs.  Theodore  N.  Trynin 
Mrs.  Franklin  B.  Tuttle 
Mrs.  Adrian  Van  Sinderen 
Mrs.  Thomas  K.  Ware 
Mrs.  Robert  F.  Warren 
Mrs.  Harold  E.  Weeks 
Mrs.  Frederick  Weisbrod 
Mrs.  Travis  H.  Whitney 
Miss  Elizabeth  T.  Wright 


Academy  of  Music,  Brooklyn 


SEVENTY-SIXTH  SEASON,  1956-1957 

Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 
Richard  Burgin,  Associate  Conductor 


Concert  Bulletin  of  the 
Fourth  Concert 

FRIDAY  EVENING,  February  8 

with  historical  and  descriptive  notes  by 
John  N.  Burk 

The  TRUSTEES  of  the 
BOSTON  SYMPHONY  ORCHESTRA,  Inc. 

Henry  B.  Cabot  .         President 

Jacob  J.  Kaplan  .         Vice-President 

Richard  C.  Paine  .         Treasurer 

Talcott  M.  Banks,  Jr.  E.  Morton  Jennings,  Jr. 

Theodore  P.  Ferris  Michael  T.  Kelleher 

Alvan  T.  Fuller  Palfrey  Perkins 

Francis  W.  Hatch  Charles  H.  Stockton 

Harold  D.  Hodgkinson  Edward  A.  Taft 

C.  D.  Jackson  Raymond  S.  Wilkins 

Oliver  Wolcott 

TRUSTEES  EMERITUS 
Philip  R.  Allen  M.  A.  DeWolfe  Howe 

N.  Penrose  Hallo  well  Lewis  Perry 

Thomas  D.  Perry,  Jr.,  Manager 
G.  W.  Rector  )   Assistant  J.  J.  Brosnahan,  Assistant  Treasurer 

N.  S.  Shirk        (  Managers         Rosario  Mazzeo,  Personnel  Manager 

hi 


Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

(Seventy-sixth  Season,  1956-1957) 
CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 

RICHARD   BURGIN,  Associate   Conductor 


Violins 

Richard  Burgin 
Concert-master 

Alfred  Krips 
George   Zazofsky 
Rolland  Tapley 
Norbert  Lauga 
Vladimir  Resnikoff 
Harry  Dickson 
Gottfried  Wilfinger 
Einar   Hansen 
Joseph  Leibovici 
Emil  Kornsand 
Roger  Shermont 

Minot  Beale 
Herman  Silberman 
Stanley  Benson 
Leo    Panasevich 

Sheldon  Rotenberg 
Fredy  Ostrovsky 

Clarence  Knudson 
Pierre  Mayer 

Manuel  Zung 
Samuel  Diamond 

Victor  Manusevitch 
James   Nagy 

Melvin  Bryant 
Lloyd  Stonestreet 
Saverio  Messina 
William  Waterhouse 
William  Marshall 
Leonard  Moss 
Jesse  Ceci . 
Noah  Bielski 
Alfred  Schneider 
Joseph  Silverstein 

Basses 

Georges  Moleux 
Gaston  Dufresne 

Irving  Frankel 
Henry  Freeman 
Henry  Portnoi 
Henri  Girard 

John  Barwicki 


[*] 


PERSONNEL 

Violas 
Joseph  de  Pasquale 
Jean  Cauhape 
Eugen  Lehner 
Albert  Bernard 
George  Humphrey 
Jerome  Lipson 
Robert  Karol 
Reuben  Green 

Bernard   Kadinoff 
Vincent  Mauricci 

John  Fiasca 
Earl  Hedberg 

Violoncellos 
Samuel  Mayes 
Alfred  Zighera 

Jacobus   Langendoen 
Mischa  Nieland 
Karl  Zeise 
Josef  Zimbler 

Bernard  Parronchi 
Martin  Hoherman 
Louis   Berger 
Richard  Kapuscinski 
Robert  Ripley 

Flutes 
Doriot  Anthony  Dwyer 
James  Pappoutsakis 
Phillip  Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George  Madsen 

Oboes 
Ralph  Gomberg 
Jean   Devergie 
John  Holmes 

English  Horn 
Louis  Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino  Cioffi 
Manuel  Valerio 
Pasquale  Cardillo 

E\)   Clarinet 

Bass  Clarinet 
Rosario  Mazzeo 


Bassoons 
Sherman  Walt 
Ernst  Panenka 
Theodore  Brewster 

Contra-Bassoon 
Richard  Plaster 

Horns 
James  Stagliano 
Charles  Yancich 

Harry  Shapiro 
Harold  Meek 
Paul  Keaney 
Osbourne  McConathy 

Trumpets 
Roger  Voisin 
Marcel  Lafosse 
Armando  Ghitalla 
Gerard  Goguen 

Trombones 

William  Gibson 
William  Moyer 
Kauko  Kahila 
Josef  Orosz 

Tuba 
K.  Vinal  Smith 

Harps 
Bernard  Zighera 
Olivia  Luetcke 

Timpani 

Everett  Firth 
Harold  Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles  Smith 
Harold  Thompson 
Arthur  Press 

Piano 
Bernard  Zighera 

Library 
Victor  Alpert 


SEVENTY-SIXTH  SEASON  •   NINETEEN  HUNDRED  FIFTY-SIX  AND  FIFTY-SEVEN 


Fourth  Concert 


FRIDAY  EVENING,  February  8,  at  8:30  o'clock 


Program 

Britten Variations  for  String  Orchestra,  on  a  Theme  by 

Frank  Bridge,  Op.  10 
Introduction  and  Theme 

Variations:     Adagio  —  March  —  Aria     Italiana  —  Bourree     classique  —  Moto 
perpetuo  —  Marcia  funebre  —  Fugue  and  Finale. 

Prokofieff Piano  Concerto  No.  2,  in  G  minor,  Op.  16 

I.  Andantino;  Allegretto;  Andantino 

II.  Scherzo:  Vivace 

III.  Intermezzo:  Allegro  moderato 

IV.  Finale:  Allegro  tempestoso 


INTERMISSION 


Brahms Symphony  No.  1,  in  C  minor,  Op.  68 

I.  Un  poco  sostenuto;  Allegro 

II.  Andante  sostenuto 

III.  Un  poco  allegretto  e  grazioso 

IV.  Adagio;  Allegro  non  troppo,  ma  con  brio 


SOLOIST 

NICOLE  HENRIOT 

Miss  Henriot  uses  the  Baldwin  Piano 


Performances  by  this  orchestra  are  broadcast  each  week  on  Monday 
evenings  from  8:05  to  9:00  P.M.  on  the  NBC  Radio  Network. 

BALDWIN  PIANO  RCA  VICTOR  RECORDS 


[3] 


TANGLEWOOD     1957 

The 

Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 


The  Berkshire  Festival 

Twentieth  Season 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Conductor 


The   Berkshire  Music  Center 

Fifteenth  Season 
CHARLES  MUNCH,    Director 


To  receive  further  announcements,  write  to 
Festival  Office,  Symphony  Hall,  Boston 


[4] 


VARIATIONS  FOR  STRING  ORCHESTRA  ON  A  THEME  OF 

FRANK  BRIDGE,  Op.  10 

By  Benjamin  Britten 
Born  at  Lowestoft,  England,  November  22,  1913 


These  Variations  were  composed  in  1937  and  in  that  year  had  their  first  perform- 
ance, at  the  Salzburg  Festival.  They  were  performed  at  the  Boston  Symphony  Con- 
certs April  25-26,  1941,  and  February  3-4,  1950. 

The  brief  introduction  to  the  Variations  consists  of  broad  chords 
and  displayful  runs  and  trills.  The  theme  is  given  out  by  the  first 
violins  allegro  poco  lento.  It  is  to  be  varied  with  such  freedom  as  often 
to  be  scarcely  recognizable.  The  descending  interval  of  a  fifth  which 
begins  it  becomes  a  sort  of  earmark.  An  "Adagio"  follows,  consisting  of 
soft  chords  for  lower  strings  and  ornamental  passages  for  the  violins. 
There  is  a  lively  "March,"  light  and  staccato,  presto  alia  marcia.  An 
"Aria  Italiana"  follows,  allegro  brillante.  The  first  violins  with  orna- 
mental trills  suggest  the  operatic,  coloratura  style.  The  next  movement 
is  a  "Bourree  Classique"  a  simple  but  strongly  rhythmed  movement 
with  a  pianissimo  middle  section.  A  Moto  Perpetuo  progresses  upon 
rapid  and  unremitting  sixteenth  notes  to  a  fortissimo  climax.  A  Marcia 
Funebre  follows.  The  final  Fugue  is  in  a  lively  12-8  rhythm,  sometimes 
suggestive,  as  it  gathers  impetus,  of  the  tarantella.  The  orchestra,  much 
divided,  attains  a  considerable  complexity  and  sets  forth  the  usual 
devices  of  augmentation  and  inversion.  At  last,  lento  e  solenne,  the 
violins  revert  to  a  full-length  statement  of  the  theme.  The  orchestra 
ultimately  spreads  into  diaphanous  arpeggios,  punctuated  in  the  last 
measure  by  a  strong  chord.  A  "Wiener  Walz"  and  "Chant"  are  omitted 
in  this  performance. 

Benjamin  Britten  was  only  twelve  years  old  when  he  began  to  study 
with  Frank  Bridge,  his  fellow  English  composer,  who  remained  his 
life-long  friend.*  Mr.  Britten  attended  the  Royal  College  of  Music  of 
London,  where  John  Ireland  became  his  teacher  in  composition,  Arthur 
Benjamin  his  teacher  in  piano. 

It  was  in  1934,  when  the  composer  was  barely  of  age,  that  his  music, 
which  he  produced  with  considerable  regularity,  began  to  be  played. 
His  published  works  include  a  Sinfonietta  for  chamber  orchestra, 
1932;  Phantasy  for  oboe  and  strings,  1932;  Choral  Variations  A  Boy 
Was  Born,  1933;  Simple  Symphony  for  string  orchestra,  1934;  Holiday 
Tales  for  piano,  1934;   Te  Deum  for  chorus  and  organ,  1934;  Suite 

*  Frank  Bridge  conducted  his  own  orchestral  suite  "The  Sea"  at  the  concerts  of  the  Boston 
Symphony  Orchestra,  October  26,  1923.    He  died  in  1941. 

[5] 


for  Violin  and  Piano,  1935;  Friday  Afternoon,  School  Songs,  1935; 
Our  Hunting  Fathers,  symphonic  cycle  for  soprano  and  orchestra,  1936; 
Soirees  Musicales,  Suite  for  orchestra,  1936;  On  This  Island,  songs  by 
W.  H.  Auden,  1937;  Mont  Juic,  Catalan  Dance  Suite,  1937;  Piano 
Concerto,  1938;  Ballad  of  Heroes,  for  tenor,  chorus  and  orchestra, 
1939;  Violin  Concerto;  Les  Illuminations,  for  voice  and  string  orches- 
tra; Kermesse  Canadienne,  for  orchestra;  Sinfonia  da  Requiem  (in 
1940).  In  1940  also  he  composed  his  opera  Paul  Bunyan,  and  it  has 
been  in  the  following  years  that  he  has  established  himself  in  the  world 
of  opera.  Peter  Grimes  (introduced  to  this  country  by  the  Berkshire 
Music  Center  at  Tanglewood  in  1946)  has  been  followed  by  Albert 
Herring  (introduced  to  this  country  by  the  Berkshire  Music  Center  at 
Tanglewood,  1949),  The  Rape  of  Lucretia,  Billy  Budd,  The  Turn  of 
the  Screw,  Gloriana  (on  the  subject  of  his  Queen,  on  her  coronation). 
He  has  revised  The  Beggar's  Opera  and  recently  composed  a  children's 
opera  Let's  Make  an  Opera  in  which  the  audience  participates.  He  has 
written  a  cantata,  St.  Nicholas,  and  a  Spring  Symphony  with  chorus 
which  had  its  first  American  performance  at  the  Berkshire  Festival  in 
1949.  Mr.  Britten,  who  has  visited  this  country  several  times,  made  a 
tour  with  the  tenor  Peter  Pears,  accompanying  the  singer  and  conduct- 
ing his  own  music. 

[copyrighted! 


PIANO  CONCERTO  NO.  2,  in  G  minor,  Op.  16 

By  Serge  Prokofieff 

Born  in  Sontsovka,  Russia,  April  23,  1891;  died  near  Moscow,  March  4,  1953 


Composed  in  1912-1913,  Prokofieff's  Second  Concerto  was  first  performed  August 
23,  1913,  at  Pavlovsk  (near  St.  Petersburg),  Aslanov  conducting,  the  composer 
playing  the  solo  part.  The  score,  according  to  Philip  Hale,  was  lost  "when  his 
apartment  was  confiscated  [requisitioned?]  by  the  decree  of  the  Soviet  Government. 
Sketches  of  the  piano  part  were  saved.  They  were  taken  away  by  the  composer's 
mother  in  1921."  It  was  from  these  sketches  that  the  composer  rewrote  the  Concerto 
at  Etal  in  Bavaria  in  1923.  The  revised  version  was  performed  in  Paris,  May  8, 
1923,  Koussevitzky  conducting.  Prokofieff  was  the  soloist  and  performed  it  for  the 
first  time  in  the  United  States  with  this  conductor  at  concerts  of  the  Boston  Sym- 
phony Orchestra  in  Boston,  January  31,  February  1,  1930.  There  was  a  performance 
at  a  Berkshire  Festival  concert,  August  5,  1951,  when  Eleazar  de  Carvalho  was  the 
conductor  and  Jorge  Bolet  the  soloist. 

TN  1913,  Serge  Prokofieff,  still  a  student  at  the  St.  Petersburg  Con- 
A  servatory,  caused  considerable  commotion  in  musical  circles  by 
performing  his  Second  Concerto  at  Pavlovsk.  His  First  Concerto  heard 
the  year  before  had  warned  conservative  listeners  to  expect  from  the 
brilliant  young  pianist  (there  was  no  denying  his  ability  as  a  per- 
former) an  unbridled  onslaught  upon  traditional  harmony.  The 
Second  Concerto  sounded  even  bolder  than  the  First.    The  critics  of 

[6] 


St.  Petersburg  must  have  considered  the  composer  as  newsworthy,  if 
only  from  the  point  of  view  of  scandal,  for  they  seemed  to  have  been 
present  in  Pavlovsk  in  force.  Almost  unanimously  they  attacked  him. 
"The  debut  of  this  cubist  and  futurist,"  said  the  reviewer  in  the 
Petersburgskaya  Gazeta,  "has  aroused  universal  interest.  Already  in 
the  train  to  Pavlovsk  one  heard  on  all  sides  'Prokofieff,  Prokofieff, 
Prokofieff.'  A  new  piano  star!  On  the  platform  appears  a  lad  with  the 
face  of  a  student  from  the  Peterschule  [a  fashionable  school].  He 
takes  his  seat  at  the  piano  and  appears  to  be  either  dusting  off  the 
keys,  or  trying  out  notes  with  a  sharp,  dry  touch.  The  audience  does 
not  know  what  to  make  of  it.  Some  indignant  murmurs  are  audible. 
One  couple  gets  up  and  runs  toward  the  exit.  'Such  music  is  enough 
to  drive  you  crazy!'  is  the  general  comment.  The  hall  empties.  The 
young  artist  ends  his  concerto  with  a  relentlessly  discordant  combina- 
tion of  brasses.  The  audience  is  scandalized.  The  majority  hisses. 
With  a  mocking  bow  Prokofieff  resumes  his  seat  and  plays  an  encore. 
The  audience  flees,  with  exclamations  of:  'To  the  devil  with  all  this 
futurist  music!  We  came  here  for  enjoyment.  The  cats  on  our  roof 
make  better  music  than  this!'  "  Other  Petersburg  critics  spoke  of  "a 
babble  of  insane  sounds,"  a  "musical  mess."  A  lone  voice  was  that  of 
V.  G.  Karatygin  who  reported  "The  fact  that  the  public  hissed  means 
nothing.  Ten  years  from  now  it  will  atone  for  last  night's  catcalls  by 
unanimous  applause  for  this  new  composer."* 

Unless  the  revision  of  1923  is  radically  different  from  the  original 
version,  which  is  unlikely,  it  is  hard  to  recognize  the  Concerto  in  the 
epithets  which  were  hurled  at  it  by  the  early  critics.  The  "babel  of 
insane  sounds"  is  in  reality  a  clear,  lightly  scored  and  delicately 
wrought  piece,  mostly  in  elementary  common  time,  with  an  elementary 
bass  and  a  lyric  piano  part,  varied  by  pianistic  embellishment.  What 
apparently  disturbed  its  hidebound  hearers  were  the  then  unaccus- 
tomed melodic  skips  and  occasional  untraditional  harmonies,  the  very 
characteristics  which  were  later  found  fresh,  piquant,  and  often  entirely 
charming,  the  exclusive  outcome  of  this  composer's  special  fantasy  in 
lyricism.  The  Concerto  begins  quietly  and  elegantly,  the  solo  part 
lightly,  but  colorfully  supported.  Here,  and  throughout,  the  pianist's 
aim  must  be  the  utmost  crispness  and  delicacy  of  touch.  There  is  a 
middle  section  with  a  melody  which  could  have  been  written  by  none 
other  than  the  destined  composer  of  the  March  from  The  Love  for 
Three  Oranges.  A  part  for  the  soloist  unaccompanied  is  not  a  cadenza 
but  a  continuation  of  the  development.  This  leads  to  a  climax  by  the 
full  orchestra  and  a  pianissimo  close  by  the  pianist,  as  if  to  assure  us 
that  this  is  after  all  no  concerto  in  the  grand  style. 

*  These  reviews  are  quoted  by  Israel  V.  Nestyev,  Serge  Prokofieff,  His  Musical  Life. 

[71 


The  Scherzo  is  a  swift  moto  perpetuo  for  the  soloist,  in  breathless 
and  unbroken  sixteenths  by  the  two  hands  in  octave  unison. 

The  Intermezzo  opens  on  a  theme  with  a  flavor  of  the  Scythian 
demons  or  the  Suggestions  diaboliques.  A  repeated  bass  theme  with 
varying  embellishment  of  delicate  piano  figures  approximates  a 
passacaglia. 

The  Finale  at  last  injects  into  the  Concerto  a  more  traditional 
bravura.  The  pianist  has  still  the  commanding  part,  a  dramatic 
"cadenza'"  carrying  on  the  development,  as  in  the  first  movement, 
and  building  to  a  now  expectedly  brilliant  close. 

•    • 

The  young  man  was  impossible  to  ignore.  The  several  piano  pieces 
he  had  written  were  violently  challenging;  the  First  Concerto  had  been 
labelled  by  one  critic  as  "football  music"  presumably  on  account  of 
the  way  the  harmony  was  kicked  around.  When  Prokofieff  brought 
forth  his  Scythian  Suite  (1916)  with  its  piquant  barbarism  and  Sept, 
Us  sont  sept  (1917)  which  was  even  more  primitive,  Prokofieff  began 
to  be  called  an  "enfant  terrible/'  as  if  he  either  enjoyed  shocking  staid 
people  or  used  violence  for  the  purpose  of  attracting  attention  to 
himself.  He  became  a  topic  and  was  compared  to  the  cubists,  although 
he  had  no  very  special  interest  in  that  school  of  painting.  These  were 
the  critics  who  tended  to  lump  into  one  category  all  new  ways  which 
they  could  not  comprehend.  Any  resemblance  between  Prokofieff 's 
early  music  and  the  work  of  the  cubists  or  futurists  lay  in  an  impulse 
to  break  up  conventional  lines  and  express  himself  boldly  and  vividly. 
The  comparison  was  just  about  as  deceptive  as  the  linking  of  Debussy 
with  the  French  impressionist  poets. 

Prokofieff  then  came  under  the  disapproval  of  such  conservatives 
as  Glazounov,  the  director  of  the  Conservatory  where  he  was  studying. 
When  he  competed  for  the  first  prize,  Glazounov  was  opposed,  and 
was  outvoted.  Prokofieff  won  the  award,  but  as  pianist,  not  as  com- 
poser. Medtner  made  the  unintentionally  revealing  remark:  "If  that 
is  music,  I. am  no  musician."  But  Prokofieff  had  his  champions,  such 
as  the  composer  Miaskovsky,  who  was  his  friend  for  life,  and  Igor 
Glebov  (Boris  Asafyev),  the  critic.  This  outraged  attitude  toward 
Prokofieff  as  a  sort  of  mischievous  imp  of  music,  knocking  over  the 
block  houses  of  tradition  for  the  clatter  they  would  make,  reads 
strangely  in  a  later  day.  It  would  seem  in  the  light  of  his  full-rounded 
development  that  the  youthful  Prokofieff,  an  artist  in  whom  vitality, 
fantasy,  and  skill  were  already  abundant,  was  merely  following  out  his 
own  ideas  to  his  own  ends  —  ventures  always  arresting  towards  ends 
not  always  attained.  When  he  was  mocking  or  sharply  satirical  it  was 
the  music  and  the  subject,  not  the  audience,  which  made  him  so. 

[8] 


munch  in  person 

on  rca  Victor  records 


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sacred  calling.  And  this  dedication,  combined  with  the  WORLD'S 

magnificence  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra,  brings  GREATEST 

ARTISTS 
you  performances  of  unmatched  power  and  beauty.  You 

feel  and  hear  this  devotion  whether  he  conducts  Ravel, 

Berlioz  or  Beethoven  . . .  whether  the  performance  is  in 

Symphony  Hall  or ...  on  RCA  Victor  Records,  of  course! 


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[9] 


The  matured  composer  remained  bluntly  uncompromising.  That  he 
became  less  experimental  is  in  the  nature  of  growth.  The  independent 
spirit  of  Prokofieff  at  that  time,  to  which  some  so  strenuously  objected 
—  if  they  noticed  him  at  all  —  was  eventually  recognized  as  something 
far  sturdier,  far  deeper,  than  the  irresponsible  obstreperousness  of 
which  he  was  once  accused.  He  would  at  any  time  give  a  bludgeoning 
passage  to  a  full  orchestra  when  he  saw  fit.  While  he  was  always  ready 
to  compose  descriptive  music  for  the  stage  or  film,  he  became  increas- 
ingly symphonic  and  serious  in  his  aims,  particularly  from  the  time 
of  the  Fifth  Symphony. 

[copyrighted] 


NICOLE  HENRIOT 


'VTicole  Henriot  was  born  in  Paris  on  November  23,  1925.  She 
*•  ^  studied  with  Marguerite  Long  and  entered  the  Paris  Conversatory 
at  the  age  of  twelve,  taking  a  first  prize  in  a  year  and  a  half.  During  the 
war  she  played  with  the  principal  orchestras  of  Paris  and  Belgium.  Her 
New  York  press  bureau  gives  the  information  that  she  was  active  in 
the  French  resistance  together  with  her  two  brothers.  Since  the  war 
she  has  played  in  numerous  European  cities.  She  made  her  American 
debut  January  29,  1948,  then  playing  the  first  of  many  concerts  in  this 
country,  including  several  appearances  with  this  Orchestra. 


SYMPHONY  IN  C  MINOR,  NO.  1,  Op.  68 

By  Johannes  Brahms 

Born  in  Hamburg,  May  7,  1833;  died  in  Vienna,  April  3,  1897 


The  First  Symphony  of  Brahms  had  its  initial  performance  November  4,  1876, 
at  Carlsruhe,  Otto  Dessoff  conducting. 

The  symphony  is  scored  for  2  flutes,  2  oboes,  2  clarinets,  2  bassoons,  contra- 
bassoon,  4  horns,  2  trumpets,  3  trombones,  timpani  and  strings  The  trombones 
are  used  only  in  the  finale. 

"VTOT  until  he  was  forty-three,  did  Brahms  present  his  First  Sym- 
1^1  phony  to  the  world.  His  friends  had  long  looked  to  him  ex- 
pectantly to  carry  on  this  particular  glorious  German  tradition.  As 
early  as  1854  Schumann,  who  had  staked  his  strongest  prophecies  on 

[10] 


Brahms'  future,  wrote  to  Joachim:  "But  where  is  Johannes?  Is  he  flying 
high,  or  only  under  the  flowers?  Is  he  not  yet  ready  to  let  drums  and 
trumpets  sound?  He  should  always  keep  in  mind  the  beginning  of  the 
Beethoven  symphonies:  he  should  try  to  make  something  like  them. 
The  beginning  is  the  main  thing;  if  only  one  makes  a  beginning,  then 
the  end  comes  of  itself."  Schumann,  that  shrewd  observer,  knew  that 
the  brief  beginnings  of  Brahms  were  apt  to  germinate,  to  expand,  to 
lead  him  to  great  ends.  Also,  that  Beethoven,  symphonically  speaking, 
would  be  his  point  of  departure. 

To  write  a  symphony  after  Beethoven  was  "no  laughing  matter," 
Brahms  once  wrote,  and  after  sketching  a  first  movement  he  admitted 
to  Hermann  Levi  —  "I  shall  never  compose  a  symphony!  You  have  no 
conception  of  how  the  likes  of  us  feel  when  we  hear  the  tramp  of  a 
giant  like  him  behind  us." 

To  study  Brahms  is  to  know  that  this  hesitancy  was  not  prompted 
by  any  craven  fear  of  the  hostile  pens  which  were  surely  lying  in  wait 
for  such  an  event  as  a  symphony  from  the  newly  vaunted  apostle  of 
classicism.  Brahms  approached  the  symphony  (and  the  concerto  too) 
slowly  and  soberly;  no  composer  was  ever  more  scrupulous  in  the  com- 
mitment of  his  musical  thoughts  to  paper.  He  proceeded  with  elaborate 


Friends  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra— 
travel  with  your  Orchestra  in  Europe! 


A  special  meeting  of  the  Friends  will  take  place  on  Thurs- 
day afternoon,  February  14,  at  4  o'clock,  Symphony  Hall, 
Boston.  It  will  be  open  to  Friends  only.  Mr.  J.  Edward 
Fitzgerald  of  United  Press  News  Pictures,  who  travelled 
with  the  Orchestra  last  summer,  will  show  colored  slides  of 
the  European  tour. 

Each  Friend  enrolled  by  February  7,  will  receive  by  mail 

a  card  of  admission. 

Palfrey  Perkins 

Chairman 


examination  of  his  technical  equipment  —  with  spiritual  self-question- 
ing —  and  with  unbounded  ambition.  The  result  —  a  period  of  fourteen 
years  between  the  first  sketch  and  the  completed  manuscript;  and  a 
score  which,  in  proud  and  imposing  independence,  in  advance  upon  all 
precedent  —  has  absolutely  no  rival  among  the  first-born  symphonies, 
before  or  since. 

His  first  attempt  at  a  symphony,  made  at  the  age  of  twenty,  was 
diverted  in  its  aim,  the  first  two  movements  eventually  becoming  the 
basis  of  his  piano  concerto  No.  1,  in  D  minor.  He  sketched  another 
first  movement  at  about  the  same  time  (1854),  but  it  lay  in  his  desk  for 
years  before  he  felt  ready  to  take  the  momentous  plunge.  "For  about 
fourteen  years  before  the  work  appeared,"  writes  D.  Millar  Craig,* 
"it  was  an  open  secret  among  Brahms'  best  friends  that  his  first  sym- 
phony was  practically  complete.  Professor  Lipsius  of  Leipzig  Univer- 
sity, who  knew  Brahms  well  and  had  often  entertained  him,  told  me 
that  from  1862  onwards,  Brahms  almost  literally  carried  the  manu- 
script score  about  with  him  in  his  pocket,  hesitating  to  have  it  made 
public.  Joachim  and  Frau  Schumann,  among  others,  knew  that  the 
symphony  was  finished,  or  at  all  events  practically  finished,  and  urged 
Brahms  over  and  over  again  to  let  it  be  heard.  But  not  until  1876  could 
his  diffidence  about  it  be  overcome." 

It  would  be  interesting  to  follow  the  progress  of  the  sketches.  We 
know  from  Madame  Schumann  that  she  found  the  opening,  as  origi- 
nally submitted  to  her,  a  little  bold  and  harsh,  and  that  Brahms  ac- 
cordingly put  in  some  softening  touches.  "It  was  at  Miinster  am  Stein," 
(1862)  says  Albert  Dietrich,  "that  Brahms  showed  me  the  first  move- 
ment of  his  symphony  in  C  minor,  which,  however,  only  appeared 
much  later,  and  with  considerable  alterations." 

At  length  (November  4,  1876),  Brahms  yielded  his  manuscript  to 
Otto  Dessoff  for  performance  at  Carlsruhe.  He  himself  conducted  it  at 
Mannheim,  a  few  days  later,  and  shortly  afterward  at  Vienna,  Leipzig, 
and  Breslau.  Brahms  may  have  chosen  Carlsruhe  in  order  that  so  cru- 
cial an  event  as  the  first  performance  of  his  first  symphony  might  have 

*  British  Broadcasting  Corporation  Orchestra  program  notes. 


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[12] 


asked  the  brahmin  of  the  brewer . . . 


'Pray  tell,  good  fellow,  why  not  a  beverage 
Brewed  in  a  fashion  a  bit  above  the  average? 
A  light-hearted  ale,  dry  refreshing  beer 
Worthy  of  a  connoisseur,  worthy  of  a  Peer?" 


"Matey,  you're  in  luck",  said  the  Brewer  to  the  Brahmin, 
"You  and  the  missus  and  the  Beacon  Hill  barman, 
For  Carling's  now  in  Natick,  brewing  ale  and  beer 
Worthy  of  a  connoisseur,  worthy  of  a  Peer." 


CARLING    BREWING    CO. 


[13] 


the  favorable  setting  of  a  small  community,  well  sprinkled  with  friends, 
and  long  nurtured  in  the  Brahms  cause.  "A  little  town,"  he  called  it, 
"that  holds  a  good  friend,  a  good  conductor,  and  a  good  orchestra." 
Brahms'  private  opinion  of  Dessoff,  as  we  now  know,  was  none  too  high. 
But  Dessoff  was  valuable  as  a  propagandist.  He  had  sworn  allegiance 
to  the  Brahms  colors  by  resigning  from  his  post  as  conductor  of  the 
Vienna  Philharmonic  because  Brahms'  Serenade  in  A  major  was  re- 
fused. A  few  years  before  Dessoff  at  Carlsruhe,  there  had  been  Hermann 
Levi,  who  had  dutifully  implanted  Brahms  in  the  public  consciousness. 

Carlsruhe  very  likely  felt  honored  by  the  distinction  conferred  upon 
them  —  and  in  equal  degree  puzzled  by  the  symphony  itself.  There  was 
no  abundance  of  enthusiasm  at  these  early  performances,  although 
Carlsruhe,  Mannheim  and  Breslau  were  markedly  friendly.  The  sym- 
phony seemed  formidable  at  the  first  hearing,  and  incomprehensible 
—  even  to  those  favored  friends  who  had  been  allowed  an  advance  ac- 
quaintance with  the  manuscript  score,  or  a  private  reading  as  piano 
duet,  such  as  Brahms  and  Ignatz  Brull  gave  at  the  home  of  Friedrich 
Ehrbar  in  Vienna.  Even  Florence  May  wrote  of  the  "clashing  disso- 
nances of  the  first  introduction."  Respect  and  admiration  the  symphony 
won  everywhere.  It  was  apprehended  in  advance  that  when  the  com- 
poser of  the  Deutsches  Requiem  at  last  fulfilled  the  prophecies  of  Schu- 
mann and  gave  forth  a  symphony,  it  would  be  a  score  to  be  reckoned 
with.  No  doubt  the  true  grandeur  of  the  music,  now  so  patent  to  every- 
one as  by  no  means  formidable,  would  have  been  generally  grasped  far 
sooner,  had  not  the  Brahmsians  and  the  neo-Germans  immediately 
raised  a  cloud  of  dust  and  kept  their  futile  controversy  raging  for  years. 

The  First  Symphony  soon  made  the  rounds  of  Germany,  enjoying 
a  particular  success  in  Berlin,  under  Joachim  (November  11,  1877).  In 
March  of  the  succeeding  year  it  was  also  heard  in  Switzerland  and  Hol- 
land. The  manuscript  was  carried  to  England  by  Joachim  for  a  per- 
formance in  Cambridge,  and  another  in  London  in  April,  each  much 
applauded.  The  first  performance  in  Boston  took  place  January  3, 
1878,  under  Carl  Zerrahn  and  the  Harvard  Musical  Association.  When 
the  critics  catted  it  "morbid,"  "strained,"  "unnatural,"  "coldly  elabo- 
rated," "depressing  and  unedifying,"  Zerrahn,  who  like  others  of  his 
time  knew  the  spirit  of  battle,  at  once  announced  a  second  perform- 


EDNA  NITKIN,  M.Mus. 

PIANIST 

ACCOMPANIST        TEACHER 

Studio :   500  Boylston  St.,  Copley  Sq. 

Boston  KE  6-4062 


h4] 


ance  for  January  31.  Sir  George  Henschel,  an  intrepid  friend  of 
Brahms,  performed  the  C  minor  Symphony,  with  other  works  of  the 
composer,  in  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra's  first  year. 

Still  more  ink  has  been  expended  on  a  similarity  admitted  even  by 
Florence  May  between  the  expansive  and  joyous  C  major  melody  sung 
by  the  strings  in  the  Finale,  and  the  theme  of  the  Hymn  to  Joy  in 
Beethoven's  Ninth.  The  enemy  of  course  raised  the  cry  of  "plagiarism." 
But  a  close  comparison  of  the  two  themes  shows  them  quite  different 
in  contour.  Each  has  a  diatonic,  Volkslied  character,  and  each  is  in- 
troduced with  a  sudden  radiant  emergence.  The  true  resemblance 
between  the  two  composers  might  rather  lie  in  this,  that  here,  as  pat- 
ently as  anywhere,  Brahms  has  caught  Beethoven's  faculty  of  soaring 
to  great  heights  upon  a  theme  so  naively  simple  that,  shorn  of  its 
associations,  it  would  be  about  as  significant  as  a  subject  for  a  musical 
primer.  Beethoven  often,  and  Brahms  at  his  occasional  best,  could  lift 
such  a  theme,  by  some  strange  power  which  entirely  eludes  analysis, 
to  a  degree  of  nobility  and  melodic  beauty  which  gives  it  the  unmis- 
takable aspect  of  immortality. 

[copyrighted] 


Academy  of  Music,  Brooklyn 


Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 


FIFTH    CONCERT 
Friday  Evening,  March  22 


[15] 


RCA    VICTOR    RECORDS 

BOSTON  SYMPHONY  ORCHESTRA 


Recorded  under  the  leadership  of  CHARLES  MUNCH 
Beethoven  Overtures  Leonore  Nos.  1,  2,  3 ;  "Fidelio"  ;  "Coriolan" 
Symphonies  Nos.  5,  6,  7 
Violin  Concerto  (Heifetz) 
Berlioz  "Fantastic     Symphony" ;     Overture    to    "Beatrice    and    Benedick" ; 
"Romeo  and  Juliet"  (complete)  ;  "Summer  Nights"  (De  Los  Angeles): 
"The  Damnation  of  Faust"  (complete) 
Brahms  Piano  Concerto  No.  2  (Rubinstein) 

Symphonies  Nos.  2,  4 ;  "Tragic  Overture" 
Bruch  Violin  Concerto  No.  1  (Menuhin) 
Chausson  "Poeme"  for  Violin  and  Orchestra  (Oisteakh) 
Chopin  Piano  Concerto  No.  2  (Brailowsky) 
Debussy  "The  Martyrdom  of  St.  Sebastian" ;  "Prelude  to  the  Afternoon  of  a 

Faun" ;  "The  Blessed  Damozel"  (  De  Los  Angeles  ) 
Handel  "Water  Music"  Suite  (arr.  Harty) 
Haydn  Symphony  No.  104 
Honegger  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  5 
halo  Overture  to  "Le  Roi  d'Ys" 
Menotti  Violin  Concerto  (Spivakovsky) 
Mozart  Overture  to  "The  Marriage  of  Figaro" 
Ravel  "Daphnis  and  Chloe"  (complete)  ;  "Pa vane" 

Newly  Recorded :   "Bolero"  ;  "La  Valse" ;  "Rapsodie  Espagnole" 
Roussel  "Bacchus  and  Ariane,"  Suite  No.  2 

Saint-Saens  "Introduction  and  Rondo  Capriccioso"  (Oistrakh) 
Overture  to  "La  Princesse  Jaune" 
Piano  Concerto  No.  4  (Brailowsky) 
Schubert  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  8  ("Unfinished"  Symphony) 
Schumann  Overture  to  "Genoveva"         Symphony  No.  1 
Strauss  "Don  Quixote"  (Soloist,  Piatigorsky) 

Tchaikovsky  Violin  Concerto    (Milstein)  ;  "Francesca  da  Rimini";  "Romeo 
and  Juliet" ;  Symphony  No.  4 

Among  the  recordings  under  the  leadership  of  SERGE  KOUSSEVITZKY 


Bach  Brandenburg  Concertos  Nos.  1,  6 ; 

Suites  Nos.  1,  4 
Beethoven  Symphonies  Nos.  3,  5,  9 
Berlioz  "Harold  in  Italy"  (Primrose) 
Brahms   Symphony   No.   3 ;   Violin   Con- 
certo (Heifetz) 

Copland  "A  Lincoln  Portrait" ;  "Appala- 
chian Spring" ;  "El  Salon  Mexico" 
Hanson  Symphony  No.  3 
Harris  Symphony  No.  3 

Haydn  Symphonies  Nos.  92,   "Oxford"  ; 
94,  "Surprise" 

fLhatchaturian  Piano  Concerto  (Kapell) 

Mendelssohn  Symphony  No.  4,  "Italian" 


Mozart  "Eine  kleine  Nachtmusik"  ;  Sere- 
nade No.  10,  for  Woodwinds;  Sym- 
phonies Nos.  36,  "Linz" ;  39 

Prokofieff  "Classical"  Symphony;  "Lt. 
Kije"  Suite  ;  "Romeo  and  Juliet,"  Suite 
No.  2 ;  Symphony  No.  5 ;  Violin  Con- 
certo No.  2  (Heifetz) 

Rachmaninoff  "Isle  of  the  Dead" 

Ravel  "Bolero" ;  "Ma  Mere  L'Oye"  Suite 

Schubert  Symphony  in  B  Minor,  "Un- 
finished" 

Sibelius  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  5 

Strauss,  R.  "Don  Juan" 

Tchaikovsky  Serenade  in  C ;  Symphonie* 
Nos.  4,  5 

Wagner  Siegfried  Idyll 


Recorded  under  the  leadership  of  PIERRE  MONTEUX 

Debussy  "La  Mer"  ;  "Nocturnes"  Tchaikovsky   Symphony   No.  6,   "Path6- 

Liszt  "Les  Preludes"  tique" 
Mozart  Piano  Concertos  Nos.  12,  18  (  Lili 

Kraus)  Delibes  Ballets  "Sylvia,"  "Coppelia"  by 

Scriabin  "The  Poem  of  Ecstasy"  Members    of    the    Boston    Symphony 

Stravinsky  "Le  Sacre  du  Printemps"  Orchestra 

Recorded  :mder  the  leadership  of  Leonard  Bernstein 
Stravinsky  "L'Histoire  du  Soldat" ;  Octet  for  Wind  Instruments 

The  above  recordings  are  available  on  Long  Play  (33%  r.p.m.)  and  (in  some  cases) 
45  r.p.m. 
[16] 


"I  find  in  the  Baldwin  superior 
qualities.  ...  It  gives  me  great 
joy  and  inspiration  to  play  the 
Baldwin." 

NICOLE  HENRIOT 


***&*>$*' 


V!v*\$.,. 


THE  BALDWIN  PIANO  COMPANY 

20  EAST  54th  STREET 

NEW  YORK  CITY 


BALDWIN    GRAND    PIANOS 
HAMILTON    STUDIO    PIANOS 


ACROSONIC    SPINET    AND    CONSOLE    PIANOS 
BALDWIN    AND    ORGA-SONIC    ELECTRONIC    ORGANS 


BOSTON 

SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 


FOUNDED  IN  1881  BY 
HENRY  LEE  HIGG 


SEVENTY-SIXTH   SEASON 
1956-1957 

Academy   of  Music,  Brooklyn 

Under  the  auspices  of  the  Brooklyn  Institute  of  Arts  and  Sciences 
and  the  Philharmonic  Society  of  Brooklyn 


i956-1957 
THE  WOMEN'S  COMMITTEE 

FOR 

The  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra  Concerts 

IN  BROOKLYN 


Mrs.  Carroll  J.  Dickson,  Chairman 


Mrs.  Edward  C.  Blum 
Vice-Chairman 


Mrs.  Edwin  P.  Maynard,  Jr. 

Vice-Chairman 


Mrs.  H.  Haughton  Bell 
Vice-Chairman 


Mrs.  Irving  G.  Idler 
Chairman  of  Boxes 


Mrs.  Miles  M.  Kastendieck 
Chairman  of  Membership 


Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Miss 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 


Alexander  Aldrich 
Elias  J.  Audi 
Charles  L.  Babcock,  Jr. 
C.  Rankin  Barnes 
Bernard  S.  Barr 
John  R.  Bartels 
George  M.  Billings 
John  R.  H.  Blum 
Robert  E.  Blum 
Lawrence  J.  Bolvig 
Otis  Swan  Carroll 
Francis  T.  Christy 
Edith  U.  Conard 
Benjamin  S.  Conroy 
Donald  M.  Crawford 
Russell  V.  Cruikshank 
William  T.  Daily 
Frederick  I.  Daniels 
Berton  J.  Delmhorst 
Anthony  Di  Giovanna 
James  B.  Donovan 
Remick  C.  Eckardt 
Alfred  H.  Everson 
James  F.  Fairman 
John  W.  Faison 
Merrill  N.  Foote 
Lewis  W.  Francis 
Laurance  E.  Frost 
Edwin  L.  Garvin 


Mrs.  Andrew  L.  Gomory 
Mrs.  R.  Whitney  Gosnell 
Mrs.  Morgan  Grossman 
Mrs.  Arthur  C.  Hallan 
Mrs.  J.  Victor  Herd 
Mrs.  James  M.  Hills 
Mrs.  Francis  H.  Horn 
Mrs.  David  S.  Hunter 
Mrs.  Raymond  V.  Ingersoll 
Mrs.  Henry  A.  Ingraham 
Mrs.  Darwin  R.  James  III 
Mrs.  Walter  M.  Jeffords,  Jr. 
Mrs.  James  Vincent  Keogh 
Mrs.  John  Bailey  King 
Mrs.  Warner  King 
Mrs.  Almet  R.  Latson,  Jr. 
Mrs.  Abbott  Lippmann 
Mrs.  Everett  J.  Livesey 
Mrs.  John  B.  Madden 
Mrs.  Albert  C.  Magee 
Mrs.  Eugene  R.  Marzullo 
Mrs.  Carleton  D.  Mason 
Mrs.  Richard  S.  Maynard 
Miss  Helen  M.  McWilliams 
Mrs.  Alfred  L.  Megill 
Miss  Emma  Jessie  Ogg 
Mrs.  Harold  Ostergren 
Mrs.  William  M.  Parke 
Mrs.  William  B.  Parker 


Mrs.  Frank  H.  Parsons 
Mrs.  Raymond  King  Pendleton 
Mrs.  Franklyn  H.  Peper 
Mrs.  Valentine  K.  Raymond 
Mrs.  Frederick  H.  Rohlfs 
Mrs.  Donald  Ross 
Mrs.  Abraham  M.  Sands 
Mrs.  Irving  J.  Sands 
Mrs.  Martin  Segal 
Mrs.  Eliot  H.  Sharp 
Mrs.  Frank  E.  Simmons 
Mrs.  Donald  G.  C.  Sinclair 
Mrs.  Ainsworth  L.  Smith 
Mrs.  Sidney  L.  Solomon 
Mrs.  Harry  H.  Spencer 
Mrs.  Donald  Edgar  Swift 
Mrs.  Hollis  K.  Thayer 
Mrs.  Gilbert  H.  Thirkield 
Mrs.  John  F.  Thompson,  Jr. 
Mrs.  Theodore  N.  Trynin 
Mrs.  Franklin  B.  Tuttle 
Mrs.  Adrian  Van  Sinderen 
Mrs.  Thomas  K.  Ware 
Mrs.  Robert  F.  Warren 
Mrs.  Harold  E.  Weeks 
Mrs.  Frederick  Weisbrod 
Mrs.  Travis  H.  Whitney 
Miss  Elizabeth  T.  Wright 


Academy  of  Music,  Brooklyn 


SEVENTY-SIXTH  SEASON,  1956-1957 

Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 
Richard  Burgin,  Associate  Conductor 


Concert  Bulletin  of  the 
Fifth  Concert 

FRIDAY  EVENING,  March  22 

with  historical  and  descriptive  notes  by 
John  N.  Burk 

The  TRUSTEES  of  the 
BOSTON  SYMPHONY  ORCHESTRA,  Inc. 

Henry  B.  Cabot  .         President 

Jacob  J.  Kaplan  .         Vice-President 

Richard  C.  Paine  .         Treasurer 

Talcott  M.  Banks,  Jr.  E.  Morton  Jennings,  Jr. 

Theodore  P.  Ferris  Michael  T.  Kelleher 

Alvan  T.  Fuller  Palfrey  Perkins 

Francis  W.  Hatch  Charles  H.  Stockton 

Harold  D.  Hodgkinson  Edward  A.  Taft 

C.  D.  Jackson  Raymond  S.  Wilkins 

Oliver  Wolcott 

TRUSTEES  EMERITUS 
Philip  R.  Allen  M.  A.  De Wolfe  Howe 

N.  Penrose  Hallo  well  Lewis  Perry 

Thomas  D.  Perry,  Jr.,  Manager 
G.  W.  Rector  )   Assistant  J.  J.  Brosnahan,  Assistant  Treasurer 

N.  S.  Shirk        )   Managers         Rosario  Mazzeo,  Personnel  Manager 


M 


Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

(Seventy-sixth  Season,  1956-1957) 
CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 

RICHARD   BURGIN,  Associate   Conductor 


Violins 
Richard  Burgin 
Concert-master 

Alfred  Krips 

George   Zazofsky 
Rolland  Tapley 

Norbert  Lauga 
Vladimir  Resnikoff 
Harry  Dickson 
Gottfried  Wilfinger 
Einar   Hansen 
Joseph  Leibovici 
Emil  Kornsand 
Roger  Shermont 

Minot  Beale 
Herman  Silberman 
Stanley  Benson 
Leo    Panasevich 
Sheldon  Rotenberg 
Fredy  Ostrovsky 

Clarence  Knudson 
Pierre  Mayer 

Manuel  Zung 
Samuel  Diamond 

Victor  Manusevitch 
James   Nagy 

Melvin  Bryant 
Lloyd  Stonestreet 
Saverio  Messina 
William  Waterhouse 
William   Marshall 
Leonard  Moss 
Jesse  Ceci 
Noah  Bielski 
Alfred  Schneider 
Joseph  Silverstein 

Basses 

Georges  Moleux 
Gaston  Dufresne 

Henry  Freeman 
Henry  Portnoi 
Henri  Girard 
John  Barwickl 


PERSONNEL 

Violas 
Joseph  de  Pasquale 
Jean  Cauhape 

Eugen  Lehner 
Albert  Bernard 

George  Humphrey 
Jerome  Lipson 
Robert  Karol 
Reuben  Green 

Bernard   Kadinoff 
Vincent  Mauricci 

John  Fiasca 
Earl  Hedberg 

Violoncellos 
Samuel  Mayes 
Alfred  Zighera 

Jacobus   Langendoen 
Mischa  Nieland 
Karl  Zeise 
Josef  Zimbler 

Bernard  Parronchi 
Martin  Hoherman 
Louis   Berger 
Richard   Kapuscinski 
Robert  Ripley 

Flutes 
Doriot  Anthony  Dwyer 
James  Pappoutsakis 
Phillip  Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George  Madsen 

Oboes 
Ralph  Gomberg 
Jean   Devergie 
John   Holmes 

English  Horn 
Louis  Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino  Cioffi 
Manuel  Valerio 
Pasquale  Cardillo 

E\)   Clarinet 

Bass  Clarinet 
Rosario  Mazzeo 


Bassoons 
Sherman  Walt 
Ernst  Panenka 
Theodore  Brewster 

Contra-Bassoon 
Richard  Plaster 

Horns 

James  Stagliano 
Charles  Yancich 

Harry  Shapiro 
Harold  Meek 
Paul  Keaney 
Osbourne  McConath) 

Trumpets 

Roger  Voisin 
Marcel  Lafosse 
Armando  Ghitalla 
Gerard  Goguen 

Trombones 

William  Gibson 
William  Moyer 
Kauko  Kahila 
Josef  Orosz 

Tuba 
K.  Vinal  Smith 

Harps 

Bernard  Zighera 
Olivia  Luetcke 

Timpani 

Everett  Firth 
Harold  Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles  Smith 
Harold  Thompson 
Arthur  Press 

Piano 
Bernard  Zighera 

Library 
Victor  Alpert 


[*] 


SEVENTY-SIXTH  SEASON   •   NINETEEN   HUNDRED   FIFTY-SIX    AND   FIFTY-SEVEN 


ffifth   Concert 


FRIDAY  EVENING,  March  22,  at  8:30  o'clock 


Program 


Walton Johannesburg  Festival  Overture 

Walton Concerto  for  Viola  and  Orchestra 

I.     Andante  comodo:  Cantabile  espressivo 
II.     Vivo,  con  molto  preciso 
III.    Allegro  moderato 

INTERMISSION 

Strauss "Ein  Heldenleben,"  Tone  Poem,  Op.  40 


SOLOIST 

JOSEPH  de  PASQUALE 


Performances  by  this  orchestra  are  broadcast  each  week  on  Monday 
evenings  from  8:05  to  9:00  P.M.  on  the  NBC  Radio  Network. 

BALDWIN  PIANO  RCA  VICTOR  RECORDS 


(3) 


TANGLEWOOD     1957 

The 
Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 


The  Berkshire  Festival 

Twentieth  Season 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Conductor 


The   Berkshire  Music  Center 

Fifteenth  Season 
CHARLES  MUNCH,   Director 


To  receive  further  announcements,  write  to 
Festival  Office,  Symphony  Hall,  Boston 


[4] 


JOHANNESBURG  FESTIVAL  OVERTURE* 
By  William  Walton 

Born  in  Oldham,  Lancashire,  March  29,  1902 


This  Overture,  completed  last  spring,  had  its  first  performance  in  Johannesburg, 
South  Africa,  September  15,  1956,  when  Malcolm  Sargent  conducted  the  Symphony 
Orchestra  of  the  South  African  Broadcasting  Corporation  (SABC). 

The  required  instruments  are  3  flutes,  2  oboes  and  English  horn,  3  clarinets,  3 
bassoons,  4  horns,  3  trumpets,  3  trombones  and  tuba,  timpani,  harp,  percussion, 
and  strings. 

Qir  William  Walton  completed  the  score  in  his  villa  on  the  Island 
^  of  Ischia  in  the  Bay  of  Naples,  May  16,  1956.  Its  performance  in 
Johannesburg  was  part  of  a  festival  celebrating  the  70th  anniversary 
of  that  city.  The  prevailing  tempo  is  "presto  capriccioso."  The  con- 
siderable array  of  percussion  instruments  contributes  to  the  appropri- 
ateness of  the  locale.  They  consist  of  maracas,  rumba  sticks,  xylophone, 
glockenspiel,  castanets,  tambourine,  bass  drum,  cymbals,  triangle,  side 
drum,  tenor  drum. 

[copyrighted] 


CONCERTO  FOR  VIOLA  AND  ORCHESTRA 
By  William  Walton 

Born  in  Oldham,  Lancashire,  March  29,  1902 


Composed  in  the  years  1928  and  1929,  this  Concerto  had  its  first  performance  at 
the  Promenade  Concerts  in  London,  under  the  direction  of  Sir  Henry  Wood,  October 
3,  1929,  when  Paul  Hindemith  was  the  soloist.  Lionel  Tertis  played  it  at  Liege  in 
the  following  year  at  the  I.S.C.M.  Festival. 

The  orchestra  consists  of  2  flutes  and  piccolo,  2  oboes  and  English  horn,  2  clarinets 
and  bass  clarinet,  2  bassoons  and  contra-bassoon,  4  horns,  3  trumpets,  3  trombones 
and  tuba,  timpani,  strings.    The  score  bears  the  dedication  "To  Christabel." 

tn  a  plan  which  he  was  later  to  repeat  in  his  Cello  Concerto,  Sir 
■*■  William  Walton  has  not  chosen  a  slow  movement  for  the  middle 
part  of  his  Viola  Concerto,  but  a  brief  and  sparkling  scherzo  in  that 
position.  The  opening  movement  serves  in  both  cases  for  the  slow 
movement,  while  in  the  Viola  Concerto  there  is  a  contrasting  section 
of  animation  and  vigor  achieved  by  an  elaboration  of  notes  in  shorter 
value  within  the  continuing  broader  scheme.    The   finale  in   both 


*  This  Overture  as  well  as  Walton's  Viola  Concerto  are  performed  by  arrangement  with  the 
Oxford  University  Press. 

[5] 


concertos  is  the  longest  and  most  developed  movement,  orchestrally 
speaking.  The  Viola  Concerto  is  without  a  cadenza. 

The  soloist  gives  us  at  once  this  principal  subject,  a  cantabile  theme 
which  is  to  recur  at  the  close  of  the  Concerto: 


Donald  Francis  Tovey  in  his  detailed  analysis  of  this  Concerto* 
shows  how  the  accompanying  chords  with  their  C-sharp  against  the 
C  of  the  soloist  are  to  become  a  significant  motto  in  this  movement. 
An  elaborate  solo  passage,  broadening  into  sixths,  introduces  a  second 
theme  which  is  equally  "espressivo": 


^-rf-f-c-^v-  cr  zr  cjrrJLggPfflgj 


The  second  movement  with  its  syncopated  accents  has  reminded 
Professor  Tovey  of  "ragtime."  Whether  the  composer  was  familiar 
with  this  Americanism,  defunct  when  he  wrote  the  Concerto,  or 
whether  he  consciously  took  a  hint  from  that  phenomenon  of  the  early 
century  would  be  debatable.  The  rhythmic  treatment,  which  is  jaunty 
and  gay  but  varied  and  subtle  of  beat,  is  less  obviously  an  imitation  of 
ragtime  than  the  earlier  essays  of  Debussy  or  Stravinsky.  This  "rondo" 
(it  approximates  the  form  by  the  recurrence  of  the  main  theme)  is 
pointed  and  brilliant  without  undue  weight. 

The  finale  opens  pianissimo  with  a  grotesque  theme  first  heard  from 
the  bassoons  and  soon  taken  up  by  the  soloist: 


fei,*  a  r   J 


4jj..   Jjg 


^ 


^U5 


^^  r    '    r    ■     rrf        r 

An  element  of  grotesquerie  this  movement  has  throughout,  but  the 
mood  is  not  light.  Tovey  goes  so  far  as  to  say  that  when  this  theme 
"reveals  itself  as  a  purely  majestic  subject  for  a  fugal  stretto  .  .  .  the 
listener  will  soon  become  convinced  that  the  total  import  of  the  work 
is  that  of  high  tragedy."  "High  tragedy"  may  be  a  strong  characteriza- 
tion for  this  Concerto,  but  there  can  be  no  mistaking  the  composer's 
serious  intent  as  he  fulfills  his  fugato  in  the  orchestra  alone.  The 
orchestra  reaches  an  intense  climax,  fortissimo,  dies  away,  and  gives 
the  final  center  of  attention  to  the  soloist  as  he  concludes  the  Concerto 
with  the  theme  which  opened  it.  The  melancholy  voice  inherent  in 
the  instrument  is  delicately  and  colorfully  supported  to  the  last 
cadence. 


*  Essays  in  Musical  Analysis,  Volume  III. 
[6] 


Walton  is  singularly  successful  in  matching  the  special  timbre  of  the 
viola  with  what  is  often  a  considerable  orchestra.  He  does  not  turn 
to  arpeggios  as  Berlioz  did.  In  the  first  and  last  movements  (partic- 
ularly in  the  second  theme  of  the  last)  he  finds  strength  and  beauty 
by  the  use  of  sixths.  "There  are  so  few  concertos  for  viola  that  (even 
if  I  happen  to  know  any  others),"  so  concludes  Professor  Tovey,  "it 
would  be  a  poor  compliment  to  say  this  was  the  finest.  Any  concerto 
for  viola  must  be  a  tour  de  force;  but  this  seems  to  me  to  be  one  of 
the  most  important  modern  concertos  for  any  instrument,  and  I  can 
see  no  limits  to  what  may  be  expected  of  the  tone-poet  who  could 
create  it." 

[copyrighted] 


JOSEPH  de  PASQUALE 

Joseph  de  Pasquale  was  born  in  Philadelphia,  October  14,  1919. 
He  attended  the  Curtis  Institute  of  Music,  studying  viola  with  Louis 
Bailly.  He  has  also  studied  with  Max  Aranoff  and  William  Primrose. 
For  the  duration  of  the  war  he  played  in  the  Marine  Band  of  Washing- 
ton, D.  C,  subsequently  joining  the  viola  section  of  the  American 
Broadcasting  Company  Orchestra  in  New  York.  Mr.  de  Pasquale 
became  first  viola  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra  in  1947.  He  has 
been  soloist  in  performances  of  Berlioz"  Harold  in  Italy,  Strauss'  Don 
Quixote,  Viola  Concerto  in  B  minor  by  Handel  (?). 

In  the  present  performances  he  plays  a  Gasparo  da  Salo  instrument. 


WILLIAM  WALTON 

tttalton  could  not  be  called  a  radical,  a  pioneering  composer, 
*  *  although  such  early  works  as  his  first  string  quartet  show  a 
certain  amount  of  experimental  daring.  His  life  as  well  as  his  work 
bespeak  an  independent,  a  self-sufficient  artist.  He  has  never  become 
allied  with  any  school  or  aesthetic  cult,  nor  come  under  the  domination 
of  a  master.  This  does  not  mean  that  he  was  free  of  the  "influences" 
which  any  likely  young  artist  is  expected  to  undergo.  Bernard  Shore, 
in  Sixteen  Symphonies,  writes:  "Like  all  the  lads  of  the  i92o's,  he 
was  much  impressed  by  Stravinsky  —  Stravinsky,  that  embodiment  of 
the  fashions  of  the  time,  with  his  quasi-scientific  experimentalism,  his 

[7] 


super-  (or  sub-)  human  dryness,  his  withering  pessimism.  But  Walton 
had  it  not  in  him  —  had  too  much  humane  feeling  in  him  and  too 
little  of  a  purely  intellectual  ferocity  —  to  be  an  English  Stravinsky. 
At  the  same  time  he  was  antipathetic  to  Vaughan  Williams  —  anti- 
pathetic to  what  may  be  called  Vaughan  Williams's  humility  in  the 
presence  of  nature,  the  masses  of  his  fellowmen  and  divine  Providence. 
He  has  himself  said  that  —  little  though  there  is  of  Elgar  in  him  — 
he  would  rather  be  thought  of  as  Elgarian.  Walton  is  now  a  middle- 
aged  man,  and  it  is  possible  that  —  contrary  to  what  was  expected 
fifteen  years  or  so  ago  —  he  is  not  destined  to  be  one  of  those  composers 
whose  very  names  stand  in  certain  men's  minds  as  representative  of  a 
certain  position  in  life,  an  attitude,  a  belief,  a  complex  of  ideas  which 
make  up  a  national  or  a  supra-national  character;  but  rather  as  the 
author  of  a  rather  small  number  of  finely  distinguished  compositions, 
each  rather  partially  representing  a  mind  that  has  not,  as  a  whole, 
realized  itself  in  art." 

Born  in  Oldham,  the  cotton-spinning  town  of  industrial  Lancashire, 
in  a  musical  family  (his  parents  were  both  teachers  of  singing),  he 
found  his  first  outside  acquaintance  with  his  art  in  Oxford,  where  at 
the  age  of  ten  he  entered  the  Christ  Church  Cathedral  Choir  School. 
There  his  evident  talents  came  under  the  attention  of  the  organists 
H.  G.  Ley  and  Basil  Allchin  at  Oxford  and  Sir  Hugh  Allen,  active  in 
the  musical  life  of  the  University  town,  and  likewise  in  the  Royal 
Academy  of  Music.  Through  the  interest  of  T.  B.  Strong,  Dean  of 
Christ  Church,  Walton  entered  the  University  as  an  undergraduate 
at  the  age  of  sixteen. 

The  assistance  of  these  friendly  instructors  and  of  Ernest  Ansermet 
and  Ferruccio  Busoni  later  was  mostly  advisory.  Walton  has  always 
been  a  self-taught  musician.  He  has  also  been  a  painstaking  and  self- 
critical  composer.  He  wrote  a  number  of  works  in  these  his  growing 
years,  and  destroyed  most  of  them.  A  piano  quartet,  composed  in 
1918  when  he  was  sixteen,  survived  and  took  a  Carnegie  prize  in 

1924.  The  first  score  which  brought  general  attention  was  a  String 
Quartet,  composed  in  1922.  The  Overture  Portsmouth  Point,  trans- 
lating into  music  the  spirit  of  a  print  by  Rowlandson,  appeared  in 

1925.  At  Oxford  in  the  early  twenties  he  formed  a  close  friendship 
with  the  Sitwells.  He  lived  with  them  for  a  time.  The  productive 
influence  which  came  from  this  association  was  mainly  literary, 
although  Sacheverell  more  specifically  than  his  brother  and  sister  was 
musically  inclined.  It  was  in  1922  that  Walton  wrote  the  first  version 
of  Fagade,  a  close  collaboration  with  Edith  Sitwell,  resulting  in  a  set 
of  whimsical,  satirical,  even  nonsensical  poems  to  be  recited  by  her 
to  the  music  of  six  instruments.    At  first  privately  performed,  Edith 

[8] 


munch  in  person 

on  rca  Victor  records 


To  Charles  Munch,  conducting  is  not  a  profession  but  a 
sacred  calling.  And  this  dedication,  combined  with  the 
magnificence  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra,  brings 
you  performances  of  unmatched  power  and  beauty.  You 
feel  and  hear  this  devotion  whether  he  conducts  Ravel, 
Berlioz  or  Beethoven  .  . .  whether  the  performance  is  in 
Symphony  Hall  or ...  on  RCA  Victor  Records,  of  course! 


THE 
WORLDS 
GREATEST 
ARTISTS 

ARE 
ON 


rca  Victor 


Nationally  Adrertued  Price*— Optional  ! 


*«*""Hl»  OnbophoaJc"  Hi**  Fidelity  iUeonUap  b«H  <m  u>  RCA  Vtetw  "Nnr  Orthophony"    HI**  Fldtilty  "VietroU." 


[9] 


speaking  her  lines  through  a  megaphone,  this  novel  bit  of  cleverly 
pointed  fun  made  its  way  into  an  enlarged  version,  a  ballet  version, 
and  finally  a  suite  for  full  orchestra  without  benefit  of  voice  (1926). 
In  1927,  Walton  made  his  first  symphonic  venture  with  his  Sinfonia 
Concertante  for  piano  and  orchestra,  its  three  movements  dedicated 
to  Osbert,  Edith  and  Sacheverell  respectively.  There  followed  the 
Viola  Concerto  (1928-29),  which  was  more  widely  performed,  notably 
by  Paul  Hindemith  and  Lionel  Tertis.  The  composer  next  turned  to 
the  oratorio  form  and  produced  in  1931  Belshazzafs  Feast  to  a  text 
chosen  by  Osbert  Sitwell  from  the  Psalms  and  the  Book  of  Daniel. 

Only  then  did  Walton  contemplate  a  symphony  as  such.  When  the 
promised  date  arrived  for  its  performance  under  Sir  Hamilton  Harty 
(December,  1934),  the  composer  had  not  been  able  to  satisfy  himself 
with  the  fourth  and  final  movement.  The  first  three  were  nevertheless 
played  and  received  in  England  with  much  interest  and  approval.  The 
symphony  was  completed  and  so  performed  about  a  year  later.  Walton 
composed  the  march  Crown  Imperial  for  the  Coronation  in  1937,  a 
Concerto  for  Jascha  Heifetz  in  1939,  a  ballet  on  music  of  Bach,  The 
Wise  Virgins,  in  1940,  an  Overture  on  the  Commedia  dell'  Arte  figure 
Scapino  for  the  Chicago  Orchestra  in  1941,  the  Ballet  The  Quest  for 
the  Sadler's  Wells  company  in  1943,  a  second  String  Quartet  in  A 
minor  in  1947.  Walton's  music  for  the  British  films  has  by  its  salient 
character  escaped  the  humiliation  of  "background"  subservience.  Con- 
spicuous in  this  respect  are  the  films  on  Shaw's  Major  Barbara,  Olivier's 
productions  of  Henry  V,  Hamlet,  and  Richard  HI.  He  wrote  inci- 
dental music  for  Gielgud's  production  of  Macbeth.  His  first  venture 
in  opera,  Troilus  and  Cressida,  based  on  Chaucer,  had  its  initial  per- 
formance at  Covent  Garden,  December  3,  1954. 

The  new  'Cello  Concerto  follows  the  over-all  scheme  of  the  concertos 
for  viola  and  for  violin:  a  substantial  first  movement,  a  scherzo-like 
middle  movement,  and  a  long  finale. 

Kennerii  Avery,  to  whose  article  in  the  New  Grove's  Dictionary 
these  notes  are  partly  indebted,  described  the  matured  Walton  of  the 
Second  Quartet  which  he  heard  in  1947:  "Walton  had  progressed  from 
the  harsh  music  of  the  1920's  (when  he  was  known  as  the  'English 
Hindemith'),  through  the  glory  of  the  three  works  of  1928-35  (he  was 
then  called  'the  white  hope  of  English  music')  to  the  unashamed 
romanticism  of  the  Violin  Concerto  (when  he  was  already  accepted  as 
a  very  important  composer). 

"Walton  has  established  himself  in  the  front  rank  of  English  com- 
posers outstanding  in  his  generation;  and  his  music,  which  has  never 
followed  any  school  of  musical  thought  and  has  been  more  concerned 

(Continued  on  page  18) 
[10] 


asked  the  brahmin  of  the  brewer. . . 


"Pray  tell,  good  fellow,  why  not  a  beverage 
Brewed  in  a  fashion  a  bit  above  the  average? 
A  light-hearted  ale,  dry  refreshing  beer 
Worthy  of  a  connoisseur,  worthy  of  a  Peer?" 


"Matey,  you're  in  luck",  said  the  Brewer  to  the  Brahmin, 
"You  and  the  missus  and  the  Beacon  Hill  barman, 
For  Carling's  now  in  Natick,  brewing  ale  and  beer 
Worthy  of  a  connoisseur,  worthy  of  a  Peer." 

CARLING    BREWING    CO. 


<yVattm,  ^diaMttmaAetfo 


[»] 


The  Friends  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

List  of  Non-Resident  Members  for  Season  1956-1957 

The  Trustees  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra  acknowledge  with  deep 
appreciation  their  gratitude  to  all  who  have  enrolled  as  Friends  of  the 
Orchestra  this  Season  and  desire  at  this  time  to  extend  their  thanks  in  par- 
ticular to  those  members  outside  the  Boston  area  whose  names  appear  on 
the  following  pages: 


Mrs.  H.  L.  Achilles— Connecticut 

Mrs.  William  Ackerman— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Eugene  E.  Adams— New  York 

Miss  Hannah  M.  Adams— New  York 

Mr.  Joseph  Dana  Allen— New  York 

Mrs.  Philip  K.  Allen— Washington,  D.C. 

Mrs.  Robert  J.  Allen— Maryland 

Dr.  Harold  L.  Ailing— New  York 

Mr.  Lloyd  V.  Almirall— New  York 

Mrs.  Robert  R.  Ames— Maine 

Miss  Elizabeth  B.  Andrews— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ernest  Angell— New  York 

Mrs.  E.  B.  Armstrong— New  Hampshire 

Miss  Louise  H.  Armstrong— Maine 

Mr.  Robert  K.  Armstrong— Minnesota 

Dr.  I.  Arons— New  York 

Mr.  George  C.  Arvedson— Michigan 

Mrs.  Arthur  O.  Asher— New  York 

Mr.  Gifford  W.  Asher— Washington 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Randolph  Ashton— Pennsylvania 

Mrs.  Richard  A.  Atkins— New  York 

Mrs.  Grace  D.  Bahr— Illinois 

Mrs.  Edward  L.  Ballard— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Frederick  C.  Balz— New  Jersey 

Miss  Isabella  Fraser  Barnes— New  York 

Miss  Laura  Barney— New  York 

Mr.  Arthur  Baron— Missouri 

Mrs.  Richard  A.  Bartlett— New  Jersey 

Miss  Helen  L.  Bass— New  Jersey 

Mr.  Emil  J.  Baumann— New  York 

Mrs.  G.  C.  Beach— New  York 

Mr.  Gerald  F.  Beal-New  York 

Mrs.  Norwin  S.  Bean— New  Hampshire 

Miss  Mazie  Becker— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Jean  Bedetti— Florida 

Mrs.  Frank  Begr^ch— New  York 

Beinecke  Foundation— New  York 

Mrs.  Haughton  Bell— New  York 

Mr.  Elliot  S.  Benedict— New  York 

Mrs.  Edward  Herbert  Bennett,  Jr.— Illinois 

Miss  Georgina  Bennett— New  Jersey 

Mrs.  Samuel  C.  Bennett— Vermont 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Oscar  F.  Berg— New  York 

Mrs.  Henri  L.  Berger— Connecticut 

Mr.  John  H.  Bergmann— New  York 

Miss  Anna  Berley— New  York 

Mr.  Louis  K.  Berman— New  York 

Mr.  Myer  Berman— New  Hampshire 

Mrs.  Edwin  E.  Bernheimer— New  York 

Miss  Mary  Bernstein— New  York 

Dr.  Frank  B.  Berry— Washington,  D.C. 

Miss  Dorothy  L.  Betts— New  York 

[12] 


Mr.  Rene  Bickart— New  York 
Mr.  Georges  Bigar— New  York 
Miss  Gladys  M.  Bigelow— Maine 
Mrs.  A.  W.  Bingham— New  York 
Miss  Mary  Piatt  Birdseye— New  York 
Mrs.  Louis  G.  Bissell— New  York 
Miss  Edith  C.  Black— New  York 
Mrs.  George  Blagden— New  York 
Mrs.  Robert  Woods  Bliss— Washington,  D.C. 
Mr.  Samuel  J.  Bloomingdale— New   York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  E.  Blum— New  York 
Mr.  Edward  C.  Boettcher— Wisconsin 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Benjamin  Bogin— Connecticut 
Mr.  Herbert  L.  Borgzinner— New  York 
Mr.  Douglass  C.  Boshkoff— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Burnham  Bowden— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  W.  Bowden— New  York 
Mrs.  R.  M.  Bozorth— New  Jersey 
Mrs.  Louis  J.  Brecker— New  York 
Mr.  Thomas  W.  Bresnahan— New  York 
Mr.  E.  T.  Brewster— New  York 
Mrs.  William  H.  Briggs— New  York 
Mrs.  Richard  deW.  Brixey— New  York 
Mrs.  Fred  Brodkey— Nebraska 
Miss  Ethel  M.  Brown— Canada 
Mrs.  Mabel  Wolcott  Brown— Connecticut 
Miss  Mary  Loomis  Brown— New  York 
Miss  Virginia  F.  Browne— Connecticut 
Mrs.  W.  S.  Browne— New  Jersey 
Dr.  Howard  C.  Bruenn— New  York 
Miss  Lucie  M.  Bryant— New  Jersey 
In  memory  of  Mrs.  George  S.  Buck- 
New  Hampshire 
Mrs.  Arthur  M.  Bullowa— New  York 
Mr.  J.  Campbell  Burton— New  York 
Mrs.  Clarence  Buttenwieser— New  York 
Miss  Alice  D.  Butterfield— New  York 

Mrs.  George  A.  Campbell— New  Jersey 

Mrs.  William  H.  Campbell,  Jr.— New  Jersey 

Mrs.  H.  Bissell  Carey— Connecticut 

Mrs.  Otis  Swan  Carroll— New  York 

Mrs.  A.  Hartwell  Carter— Hawaii 

Mr.  Frederic  D.  Carter— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  F.  Caskey— Connecticut 

Mrs.  Charles  A.  Cass— New  York 

Mrs.  W.  R.  Castle— Washington,  D.C. 

Mrs.  B.  Duvall  Chambers— South  Carolina 

Mr.  Jackson  Chambers— New  York 

Miss  Rosepha  P.  Chisholm— New  York 

Miss  Mabel  Choate— New  York 

Mrs.  Henry  Cannon  Clark— New  York 

Miss  Elizabeth  Clever— New  York 


FRIENDS   OF  THE   BOSTON   SYMPHONY   ORCHESTRA     (Continued) 


Mr.  Chalmers  D.  Clifton— New  York 
Mrs.  McGarvey  Cline— Florida 
Mr.  William  A.  Coffin— New  Jersey 
Mrs.  Isadore  M.  Cohen— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Sylvan  Cole— New  York 
Miss  Constance  Coleman— New  York 
Mrs.  Dayton  Colie— New  Jersey 
Mr.  Martin  F.  Comeau— New  York 
Mrs.  Arthur  C.  Comey— Maine 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  James  B.  Conant— Germany 
Mrs.  Rae  H.  Conklin— Illinois 
Miss  Shirley  Conklin— Illinois 
Mrs.  W.  P.  Conklin— Connecticut 
Miss  Lucy  B.  Conner— New  Hampshire 
Miss  Charlotte  D.  Conover— New  Hampshire 
Miss  Luna  B.  Converse— Vermont 
Mrs.  Francis  R.  Cooley— Connecticut 
Mrs.  James  E.  Cooper— Connecticut 
Mrs.  Stanley  M.  Cooper— Connecticut 
Mrs.  Adelaide  T.  Corbett— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  J.  Cox- 
New  Hampshire 
Miss  Margaret  Cranford— Connecticut 
Miss  Constance  Crawford— New  Jersey 
Mr.  Swasey  Crocker— New  York 
Mrs.  F.  S.  Crofts— Connecticut 
Mrs.  Alan  J.  Cummins— New  York 
Mrs.  Edward  L.  Cutter— New  Hampshire 

Mrs.  Charles  WThitney  Dall— New  York 

Miss  Rachell  E.  Daltry— New  York 

Miss  Dorothy  Dalzell— New  Hampshire 

Mrs.  Robert  E.  Darling— Connecticut 

Mrs.  Franck  Darte— Pennsylvania 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ismer  David— New  York 

Mr.  Aaron  W.  Davis— New  York 

Mrs.  J.  V.  Davison— Maine 

Miss  Mildred  L.  B.  deBarritt— New  York 

Mr.  Vincent  Dempsey— Missouri 

Mrs.  Leopold  Demuth— New  York 

Mr.  Clement  S.  Despard,  Jr.— New  York 

Mr.  John  Deveny— California 

Mr.  Harvey  Dickerman— New  York 

Mrs.  William  R.  Dickinson,  Jr.— Illinois 

Miss  Margaret  Dieckerhoff— New  York 

Mrs.  Monroe  L.  Dinell— Connecticut 

Mr.  R.  J.  Dionne— Maine 

Mrs.  Clarence  C.  Dittmer— New  York 

Mrs.  L.  K.  Doelling— New  York 

Mr.  Max  Doft— New  York 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  George  B.  Dorff— New  York 

Miss  Marian  Drury— Connecticut 

Mrs.  A.  H.  Duerschner— New  York 

Miss  Annie  H.  Duncan— New  Hampshire 

Miss  Beatrice  Dunn— New  York 

Mr.  John  K.  Dupress— Connecticut 

Mrs.  Jack  Dworin— Pennsylvania 

Mrs.  Henry  C.  Eaton— New  Hampshire 

Miss  Florence  L.  Eccles— Connecticut 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Nathan  D.  Eckstein— New  York 

Miss  Cornelia  Ann  Eddy— Louisiana 

Mr.  Harold  N.  Ehrlich— Michigan 


Mr.  Louis  H.  Ehrlich— New  York 
Mrs.  A.  Benbow  Elliman— New  York 
Mr.  German  H.  H.  Emory— New  York 
Mrs.  A.  W.  Erickson— New  York 
Mrs.  Arthur  O.  Ernst— New  York 
Mrs.  William  A.  Evans,  Jr.— Michigan 

Mrs.  Joseph  Faroll— New  York 
Miss  Jocelyn  Farr— Maine 
Miss  Helen  M.  Farwell— Maine 
Mr.  Peter  W.  Fay— California 
Mrs.  W.  Rodman  Fay— New  York 
Mrs.  S.  L.  Feiber— New  York 
Mrs.  Cornelius  C.  Felton— New  York 
Mr.  Robert  J.  Fenderson— Maine 
Dr.  J.  Lewis  Fenner— New  York 
Mr.  Luis  A.  Ferr^— Puerto  Rico 
Mrs.  Dana  H.  Ferrin— New  York 
Mrs.  Winthrop  B.  Field— Connecticut 
Mr.  Samuel  Fischman— New  York 
Mr.  L.  Antony  Fisher— Pennsylvania 
Miss  Margaret  Fisher— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Edward  P.  Fitch- 
New  Hampshire 
Miss  Mary  R.  Fitzpatrick— New  York 
Mrs.  Howell  Forbes— New  York 
Mr.  Sumner  Ford— New  York 
Miss  Helen  Foster— New  York 
Miss  Edith  M.  Fox— New  Hampshire 
Miss  Flora  Fox— New  York 
Mr.  Irving  Fox— New  York 
Mrs.  Lewis  Francis— New  York 
Miss  Faustina  Freeman— New  Jersey 
Miss  Elizabeth  S.  French— Vermont 
Miss  Helen  C.  French— Vermont 
Mr.  Arthur  L.  Friedman— New  York 
Mrs.  Evelyn  Friedman— New  Jersey 
Mr.  Stanleigh  P.  Friedman— New  York 
Miss  Helen  Frisbie— Connecticut 
Miss  Edna  B.  Fry— New  Jersey 

Mrs.  Charles  T.  Gallagher— New  Hampshire 

Mrs.  B.  Gardner— New  York 

Miss  Marion  A.  Gardner— New  York 

Mrs.  Stanton  Garfield— Washington,  D.C. 

Mr.  Charles  Garside— New  York 

Miss  Regina  A.  Garvey— New  Jersey 

Mrs.  Louis  R.  Geissenhainer— New  Hampshire 

Mrs.  Herman  S.  Gelbin— New  York 

Mr.  Edwin  Gibbs— New  York 

Miss  Helen  L.  Gibson— New  Jersey 

Miss  Irene  M.  Gilbert— New  York 

Miss  Selma  Gilbert— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  M.  Ginsburg— 

New  York 
Mrs.  Bessie  Ginsburgh— New  York 
Mr.  John  J.  Giriunas— Maryland 
Miss  Mary  J.  Glann— New  York 
Miss  Elizabeth  S.  Glenn— Georgia 
Mrs.  Norman  S.  Goetz— New  York 
Mr.  A.  J.  Goldfarb-New  York 
Mr.  Emanuel  Goldman— New  York 
Miss  H.  Goldman— New  Jersey 

h3] 


FRIENDS   OF  THE   BOSTON    SYMPHONY    ORCHESTRA     (Continued) 


Miss  June  L.  Goldthwait— New  York 
Mr.  I.  Edwin  Goldwasser— New  York 
Jacob  &  Libby  Goodman  Foundation,  Inc.— 

New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  D.  Gordan— New  York 
Mrs.  William  S.  Gordon— New  York 
D.  S.  and  R.  H.  Gottesman  Foundation- 
New  York 
Mrs.  Irving  Graef— New  York 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  Roland  I.  Grausman— New  York 
Mr.  Hamilton  Gray— Ohio 
Mrs.  Marion  Thompson  Greene— New  York 
Mr.  William  C.  Greene— New  Hampshire 
Mr.  Henry  Greenfield— New  York 
Mrs.  Isador  Greenwald— New  York 
Mrs.  Harry  A.  Gregg— New  Hampshire 
Dr.  Albert  W.  Grokoest— New  York 
Mr.  Harold  Grossman— New  York 
Mrs.  James  A.  Grover— New  Hampshire 
Mr.  Mortimer  Grunauer— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Luther  Gulick— New  York 
Miss  Bertha  L.  Gunterman— New  York 
Mrs.  DeWitt  Gutman— New  York 
Mrs.  John  T.  Gyger— Maine 


Miss  Elizabeth  M.  Hirt— New  York 

Dr.  John  N.  Hobstetter— New  Jersey 

Mr.  Harold  K.  Hochschild— New  York 

Mrs.  H.  Hoermann— New  Jersey 

Mrs.  Robert  S.  Hoffman— New  Hampshire 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Henry  Hofheimer— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Joseph  Hofheimer— New  York 

Mrs.  Lester  Hofheimer— New  York 

Mrs.  Arthur  J.  Holden— Vermont 

Mrs.  Regina  Holzwasser— New  York 

Mr.  Henry  Homes— New  York 

Mrs.  F.  E.  Hoover— New  York 

Miss  Edna  P.  Hopkins— New  York 

Miss  Myra  H.  Hopson— Connecticut 

Mrs.  Edith  G.  Home— Florida 

Miss  Gertrude  R.  Hoyt— New  York 

Mr.  Whitney  F.  Hoyt— New  York 

Miss  Alice  M.  Hudson— New  Jersey 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  B.  W.  Huebsch— New  York 

Mr.  Frederick  G.  L.  Huetwell— Michigan 

Miss  Carolyn  F.  Hummel— New  York 

Mrs.  Chester  B.  Humphrey— New  Hampshire 

Mrs.  M.  C.  Humstone— Connecticut 

Miss  Libbie  H.  Hyman— New  York 


Mrs.  Harold  H.  Hackett— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Morris  Hadley— New  York 
Mr.  Paul  D.  Haigh— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Howard  P.  Hall— Turkey 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  N.  Penrose  Hallowell— 

New  York 
Dr.  Edmund  H.  Hamann— Connecticut 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  M.  Gordon  Hammer— New  York 
Mr.  Frank  R.  Hancock— New  York 
In  Memory  of  Ilmari  Hannikainen— Maine 
Miss  Ruth  Gillette  Hardy— New  York 
Mrs.  Benjamin  Hartstein— New  York 
Miss  Marjorie  E.  Harvey— Connecticut 
Mrs.  Samuel  C.  Harvey— Connecticut 
Miss  Margaret  M.  Hasson— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Norman  L.  Hatch- 
New  Hampshire 
Miss  Elizabeth  Hatchett— New  York 
Mrs.  Victor  M.  Haughton— New  Hampshire 
Mrs.  Harold  B.  Hayden— New  York 
Professor  and  Mrs.  Albert  I.  Heckbert— 

New  York 
Mrs.  Irving  Heidell— New  York 
Mr.  Gustav  P.  Heller— New  Jersey 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Louis  L.  Hemingway- 
Connecticut 
Miss  Amy  M.  Hemsing— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Donald  A.  Henderson- 
New  York 
Mr.  Robert  Henrickson— New  York 
Miss  Joanna  A.  Henry— Michigan 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ralph  T.  Heymsfeld— New  York 
Mrs.  Percy  V.  Hill— Maine 
Mrs.  Frederick  Whiley  Hilles— Connecticut 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Samuel  M.  Himmelblau— 

Connecticut 
Mr.  Philip  E.  Hinkley— Maine 
Mr.  Eliot  P.  Hirshberg— New  York 

[14] 


Mrs.  F.  N.  Iglehart— Maryland 
Miss  Louise  M.  Iselin— New  York 

Mr.  C.  D.  Jackson— New  York 

Miss  Lilian  Jackson— New  York 

Mrs.  William  K.  Jacobs— New  York 

Mrs.  Marion  H.  Jacobson— Colorado 

Dr.  Moritz  Jagendorf— New  York 

Mr.  Halsted  James— New  York 

Mrs.  Henry  James— New  York 

Mr.  Sidney  Jarcho— New  York 

Miss  Edith  L.  Jarvis— New  York 

Miss  Edith  Jertson— New  York 

Mrs.  Theodore  C.  Jessup— Connecticut 

Mrs.  Kenneth  E.  Jewett— New  Hampshire 

Mr.  Charles  Jockwig— New  York 

Miss  Dorothy  E.  Joline— New  York 

Mrs.  T.  Catesby  Jones— New  York 

Mr.  Wallace  S.  Jones— New  Jersey 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  George  E.  Judd— New  York 

Mr.  Arthur  Judell— New  York 

Mr.  Irving  H.  Jurow— New  Jersey 

Mr.  Leo  B.  Kagan— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  John  H.  Kaim— New  York 
Mr.  Arthur  Kallman— New  York 
Mrs.  F.  Karelson— New  York 
Mr.  A.  S.  Karol— Pennsylvania 
Mrs.  Alexander  Karp— New  York 
Mrs.  Irving  D.  Karpas— New  York 
Mrs.  Gerald  L.  Kaufman— New  York 
Miss  Irene  J.  Kaufmann— New  York 
Mrs.  Leonard  Kebler— New  York 
Mrs.  George  A.  Keeney— New  York 
Miss  Florence  B.  Kelly— New  York 
Mr.  W.  Houston  Kenyon,  Jr.— New  York 
Mr.  Alfred  K.  Kestenbaum— New  York 


FRIENDS    OF   THE    BOSTON    SYMPHONY    ORCHESTRA     (Continued) 


Mrs.  Frances  Parkinson  Keyes— 

New  Hampshire 
Mrs.  Warner  King— New  York 
Mrs.  Lucian  S.  Kirtland— New  York 
Mr.  Benjamin  R.  Kittredge— New  York 
Miss  Elena  H.  Klasky— New  York 
Dr.  Lester  Klein— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Victor  W.  Knauth— 

Connecticut 
Miss  Edith  Kneeland— New  York 
Mr.  Ferdinand  F.  E.  Kopecky— Tennessee 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Otto  L.  Kramer— New  York 
Miss  Sarah  Kreutzenauer— New  York 
Mr.  R.  H.  Kruse— New  York 

Mr.  Arthur  Landers— New  Hampshire 

Mrs.  Jesse  E.  Langsdorf— New  York 

Mr.  Charles  C.  Lawrence— New  York 

Mrs.  James  F.  Lawrence— New  Jersey 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Jeffrey  L.  Lazarus— Ohio 

Mrs.  Benjamin  Lazrus— New  York 

Mr.  Elliott  H.  Lee— New  York 

Mrs.  Allan  S.  Lehman— New  York 

Mrs.  Arthur  Lehman— New  York 

Mrs.  George  S.  Leiner— New  York 

Mr.  William  Lepson— New  York 

Mrs.  A.  N.  Leventhal— New  York 

Mr.  Harry  Levine— New  York 

Mr.  Milton  J.  Levitt— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Hiram  S.  Lewine— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Richard  Lewinsohn— New  York 

Mr.  Herbert  Greenleaf  Lewis— New  York 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Richard  Lewisohn— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Albert  Lewi tt— New  Hampshire 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Alfred  J.  Liebmann— New  York 

Miss  Helen  B.  Lincoln— New  York 

Mr.  Louis  Livant— New  York 

Mrs.  Frank  L.  Locke— New  Hampshire 

Miss  Edith  M.  Loew— New  York 

Dr.  Marion  C.  Loizeaux— New  York 

Mrs.  Natalie  L.  Longstreth— New  York 

Mr.  Henry  G.  Lord— New  York 

Mr.  Charles  R.  Lounsbury— New  York 

Mrs.  Walter  Lowell— New  York 

Mrs.  Isador  Lubin— New  York 

Mr.  Irving  B.  Lueth— Illinois 

Mrs.  Edward  M.  Mackey— New  Hampshire 

Dr.  Norman  W.  MacLeod— New  York 

Dr.  M.  C.  Mangle— New  York 

Mr.  Otto  Manley— New  York 

Mrs.  John  F.  Manning— Vermont 

Mrs.  William  Ellis  Mansfield— Georgia 

Mrs.  John  Manuel— New  York 

Miss  Ellen  W.  Marciante— New  Jersey 

Marcus  &  Co.— New  York 

Mrs.  Parker  E.  Marean— Maine 

Mr.  M.  N.  Margulies— New  York 

Miss  Augusta  Markowitz— New  York 

Mr.  Everett  Martine— New  York 

Mrs.  Edwin  R.  Masback— New  York 

Miss  Priscilla  Mason— Washington,  D.  C. 

Mrs.  Richard  E.  Mason— New  York 


Miss  Katharine  Matthies— Connecticut 

Mrs.  Harold  A.  Mattice— New  York 

Mrs.  Jeanne  Maurin— New  York 

Mrs.  Charles  H.  May— New  York 

Mrs.  Edgar  Mayer— New  York 

Mrs.  John  C.  Mayer— New  York 

Mrs.  Joseph  L.  B.  Mayer— New  York 

Mrs.  W.  M.  Mayes— California 

Mrs.  John  V.  McAvoy— New  York 

Mr.  John  McChesney— Connecticut 

Mrs.  James  A.  McCutcheon— New  Hampshire 

Mrs.  Robert  McKelvy— New  York 

Miss  Mary  K.  McKnight— Illinois 

Mrs.  John  R.  McLane— New  Hampshire 

Dr.  Christie  E.  McLeod— Connecticut 

Miss  Helen  M.  McWilliams— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  George  Melcher— 

New  Hampshire 
Mrs.  Chase  Mellen— New  York 
Mr.  Mark  C.  Meltzer,  Jr.— New  York 
Mrs.  S.  Peter  Melville— New  Hampshire 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ralph  J.  Mendel— New  York 
Mr.  Walter  Mendelsohn— New  York 
Mr.  Nilo  Menendez— California 
Mrs.  William  R.  Mercer— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  C.  H.  S.  Merrill- 
New  Hampshire 
Mr.  Henry  F.  Merrill— New  Hampshire 
Mrs.  Houghton  P.  Metcalf— Virginia 
Mrs.  K.  G.  Meyer— New  York 
Miss  Mary  Jane  Meyer— New  York 
Mrs.  Lester  C.  Migdal— New  York 
Mr.  Edmund  G.  Miller— New  Hampshire 
Mr.  Gavin  Miller— New  York 
Miss  Grace  E.  Miller— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Louis  Miller— New  Hampshire 
Mrs.  M.  J.  Miller— New  Jersey 
Mrs.  Norman  F.  Milne— New  Hampshire 
Miss  Anna  E.  Mohn— New  York 
Mrs.  G.  Gardner  Monks— Washington,  D.C. 
Mrs.  Charles  E.  Monroe— New  York 
Colonel  John  C.  Moore— Virginia 
Mr.  William  Osgood  Morgan— New  Jersey 
The  Honorable  William  H.  Mortensen— 

Connecticut 
Dr.  Eli  Moschcowitz— New  York 
Mrs.  Roger  G.  Mosscrop— New  Hampshire 
Mr.  Jasper  R.  Moulton— Connecticut 
Mr.  Vernon  Munroe— New  York 
Mrs.  C.  Randolph  Myer— New  Hampshire 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  David  G.  Nathan— Maryland 
Miss  Emily  S.  Nathan— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  George  W.  Naumburg— 

New  York 
Mr.  Walter  W.  Naumburg— New  York 
Miss  M.  Louise  Neill— Connecticut 
Miss  Katharine  B.  Neilson— Connecticut 
Mrs.  Roy  Neuberger— New  York 
Mr.  John  S.  Newberry,  Jr.— Michigan 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Alfred  H.  Newburger— 

New  York 
Mrs.  Laure  Nichols— Washington 
Mr.  John  W.  Nickerson— Connecticut 


[15] 


FRIENDS   OF   THE   BOSTON    SYMPHONY   ORCHESTRA     (Continued) 


Mrs.  William  R.  Nonnenmacher— Connecticut 
Mr.  Gustav  A.  Nyden— New  York 

Mr.  William  J.  Ober— New  York 
Miss  Dorette  W.  Oettinger— New  York 
Mr.  Leslie  P.  Ogden— New  York 
Miss  Emma  Jessie  Ogg— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Wilfred  A.  Openhym— 

New  York 
Miss  Ida  Oppenheimer— New  York 
Mr.  Edwin  M.  Otterbourg— New  York 

Miss  Bertha  Pagenstecher— New  York 

Mrs.  Peter  S.  Paine— New  York 

Miss  Eleanor  Gilbert  Parker— California 

Mr.  Franklin  E.  Parker,  3rd— New  York 

Miss  Hilda  M.  Peck— Connecticut 

Miss  Mary  M.  L.  Peck— Connecticut 

Mrs.  W.  H.  Peckham— New  York 

Mrs.  Everett  S.  Pennell— New  York 

Mrs.  Charles  E.  Perkins— New  York 

Mrs.  Grafton  B.  Perkins— New  Hampshire 

Mrs.  Robert  S.  Perkins— New  Hampshire 

Mrs.  Russell  Perkins— New  York 

Miss  Lillian  Phelps— Texas 

Mrs.  H.  R.  Pierce— Vermont 

Miss  E.  Marion  Pilpel— New  York 

Mrs.  W.  R.  J.  Planten— Vermont 

Miss  Alice  B.  Plumb— New  York 

Miss  Lilly  Popper— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  W.  Potter— New  York 

In  memory  of  Mr.  Charles  E.  Potts— New  York 

Mrs.  George  Eustis  Potts— Florida 

Mrs.  Alvin  L.  Powell— New  Jersey 

Mrs.  Horace  M.  Poynter— New  Hampshire 

Mrs.  H.  Irving  Pratt,  Jr.— New  York 

Miss  Priscilla  Presbrey— New  Jersey 

Mrs.  Joseph  K.  Priest— New  Hampshire 

Dr.  Sara  S.  Prince— New  York 

Mr.  Edwin  Higbee  Pullman— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Hale  Pulsifer— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Thomas  B.  S.  Quarles— 

New  Jersey 
Miss  Marian  Quell— New  York 

Dr.  Hyman  Rachlin— New  York 

Miss  Marion  Ransier— Iowa 

Mrs.  Endicott  Rantoul— New  Hampshire 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Louis  H.  Rappaport— New  York 

Mrs.  Alice  K.  Ratner— California 

Mrs.  H.  Maynard  Rees— New  Hampshire 

Miss  Marie  Reimer— New  York 

Mrs.  Clara  B.  Relyea— New  York 

Miss  Katharine  N.  Rhoades— New  York 

Miss  Rose  Riccobono— New  York 

Mrs.  Benjamin  M.  Rice— New  Hampshire 

Mrs.  Carolyn-Rita  Rice— Maine 

Mrs.  Ralph  Richards— Maryland 

Mrs.  Anna  S.  Richmond— New  York 

Mrs.  Maximilian  Richter— New  York 

[16] 


Mrs.  S.  Herbert  Riesner— New  York 

Mrs.  Oscar  Riess— New  York 

Mrs.  G.  Gates  Ripley— Missouri 

Mrs.  Leonard  J.  Robbins— New  York 

Miss  Mary  H.  Roberts— New  York 

Mr.  Walter  G.  Roberts— Indiana 

Miss  Gertrude  L.  Robinson— Maine 

Mrs.  John  D.  Rockefeller,  Jr.— New  York 

Mr.  Edgar  Roedelheimer— New  York 

Miss  Bertha  F.  Rogers— New  Hampshire 

Miss  Elizabeth  Rogers— New  York 

Mrs.  C.  V.  Romney— New  Jersey 

Miss  Hilda  M.  Rosecrans— New  York 

Miss  Lillian  Rosen— New  York 

Mr.  Leonard  J.  Rosenfeld— New  York 

Mr.  David  Rosengarten— New  York 

Miss  Bertha  Rosenthal— New  York 

Mr.  Laurence  B.  Rossbach— New  York 

Mrs.  Aaron  H.  Rubenfeld— New  York 

Dr.  I.  C.  Rubin-New  York 

Misses  Leonora  B.  and  Charlotte  M.  Rubinow 

—New  Jersey 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  Joseph  E.  Rubinstein- 
New  York 
Mrs.  Ralph  C.  Runyon— New  York 
Mrs.  Percy  P.  Russ— New  Hampshire 
Mrs.  Gerald  S.  Russell— New  York 
Mr.  Thomas  W.  Russell— Connecticut 

Mr.  William  S.  Saevitz— New  York 
St.  Paul's  School— New  Hampshire 
Mrs.  Aaron  B.  Salant— New  York 
Mrs.  Freda  Salomon— New  York 
Mr.  George  Salter— New  York 
Mrs.  Hiram  P.  Salter,  Jr.— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  C.  Sal tmarsh— Florida 
Mrs.  Robert  Saltonstall— New  Hampshire 
Mr.  Charles  F.  Samson— New  York 
Mrs.  Morris  Samuel— New  York 
Mrs.  Alvin  T.  Sapinsley— New  York 
Mrs.  Morris  Sayre— New  Jersey 
Mrs.  Otto  E.  Schaefer— New  York 
Miss  Sadie  Scherr— New  York 
Mr.  Henry  G.  Schiff— New  York 
Mrs.  Cyrus  T.  Schirmer— Maine 
Mrs.  Helen  E.  Schradieck— New  Jersey 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Floyd  Schultz— Indiana 
Miss  Edith  Scoville— New  York 
Miss  May  Seeley— New  York 
Mrs.  Carl  Seeman— New  York 
Mrs.  Isaac  W.  Seeman— New  York 
Mr.  Melvin  R.  Seiden— California 
Mrs.  S.  Seidenbond— New  York 
Miss  Dorothy  Sellers— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  I.  Shatzkin— New  York 
Mr.  Abraham  L.  Sherwin— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Lawrence  W.  Shirley- 
New  Hampshire 
Mrs.  Henry  M.  Shreve— New  Hampshire 
Mrs.  Sidney  E.  Shuman— New  York 
Miss  Nancy  K.  Siff— New  York 
Mrs.  Robert  E.  Simon— New  York 
Dr.  Olga  Sitchevska— New  York 


FRIENDS  OF   THE   BOSTON   SYMPHONY   ORCHESTRA     (Continued) 


Mrs.  M.  N.  Slater— New  York 

Miss  A.  Marguerite  Smith— New  York 

Mrs.  Ernest  Walker  Smith— Connecticut 

Miss  Gertrude  Robinson  Smith— New  York 

Mrs.  Helene  Corey  Smith— New  Jersey 

Mrs.  Henry  Oliver  Smith— New  York 

Mrs.  J.  F.  Smith— New  Jersey 

Mrs.  William  Smith— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  Mason  Smith,  Jr.— 

New  York 
Mr.  Samuel  S.  Solender— New  York 
Miss  Marion  E.  Solodar— New  York 
Mrs.  Irwin  L.  Solomon— New  York 
Mr.  Sidney  L.  Solomon— New  York 
Miss  Honora  Spalding— New  York 
In  Memory  of  William  P.  Sparrell— 

North  Carolina 
Mrs.  Ernest  H.  Sparrow— New  York 
Miss  Frieda  S.  Spatz— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Girard  L.  Spencer— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  J.  E.  Sproul— New  Jersey 
Miss  Elsie  M.  A.  Stanley— New  Hampshire 
Mrs.  Philip  B.  Stanley— Connecticut 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Harold  R.  Starkman— New  York 
Mrs.  Ellsworth  M.  Statler— New  York 
Miss  Anna  Stearns— New  Hampshire 
Miss  Elisabeth  Stearns— New  Hampshire 
Miss  Sophie  B.  Steel— New  York 
Mr.  Meyer  Stein— New  Jersey 
Mrs.  Samuel  Stein— New  York 
Mr.  Julius  Steiner— New  York 
Dr.  Karl  Steiner— New  York 
Mrs.  Albert  M.  Steinert— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Arthur  L.  Stern— New  Jersey 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Edgar  B.  Stern— Louisiana 
Miss  Helene  Stern— New  York 
Mr.  Ernest  N.  Stevens— Maine 
Mrs.  Rudy  C.  Stiefel-New  York 
Mr.  Jacob  C.  Stone— New  York 
Miss  Marion  Stott— New  Hampshire 
Miss  Aline  C.  Stratford— New  York 
Mrs.  Herbert  N.  Straus— New  York 
Mrs.  Charles  H.  Street— New  York 
Mrs.  B.  W.  Streifler-New  York 
Miss  Hattie  M.  Strelitz— New  York 
Mrs.  M.  E.  Strieby— New  Jersey 
Dr.  George  T.  Strodl-New  York 
Mrs.  James  R.  Strong— New  Jersey 
Miss  Jeanette  D.  Studley— Connecticut 
Mrs.  Edwin  A.  Stumpp— New  York 
Mrs.  J.  H.  Stutesman— New  Jersey 
Mrs.  Peggy  Sugar— New  York 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Alvah  W.  Sulloway— 

Connecticut 
Mrs.  Pauline  S.  Surrey— New  York 
Miss  Mildred  Sussman— New  York 
Mr.  William  R.  Swart— New  Hampshire 

Miss  Elizabeth  D.  Tallman— New  Hampshire 

Miss  Lucy  O.  Teague— New  Jersey 

Mrs.  Charles  H.  Thieriot— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  William  B.  Thomas— New  York 

Mrs.  R.  C.  Thomson— New  Jersey 


Mrs.  Edward  L.  Thorndike— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  R.  A.  Thorndike— Maine 

Miss  Bessie  H.  Thrall— California 

Mrs.  Charles  F.  Tillinghast— New  Hampshire 

Mr.  S.  H.  Tolles,  Jr.— Connecticut 

Mr.  Stirling  Tomkins— New  York 

Dr.  Anne  Topper— New  York 

Mr.  Benjamin  H.  Trask— New  York 

Mrs.  Arthur  A.  Traum— New  York 

Miss  G.  W.  Treadwell— Maine 

Mr.  Howard  M.  Trueblood  -New  York 

Mrs.  Gregory  Tuchapsky— New  York 

Miss  Alice  Tully— New  York 

Mrs.  Gardner  C.  Turner— New  Hampshire 

Mrs.  Seymour  C.  Ullman— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Byron  E.  Van  Raalte— New  York 

Miss  Anna  Veder— New  York 

Mrs.  Russell  C.  Veit— New  York 

Miss  Maria  B.  Velasquez— New  York 

Mr.  Simon  J.  Vogel— New  York 

Mrs.  Tracy  S.  Voorhees— New  York 

Mr.  Charles  M.  Walton,  Jr.— New  York 

Miss  Anne  S.  Wanag— New  York 

Mr.  Ethelbert  Warfield— New  York 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Alexander  Warga— New  York 

Mrs.  W.  Seaver  Warland— Maine 

Mrs.  Milton  J.  Warner— Connecticut 

Mr.  Eugene  Warren— New  York 

Miss  Marian  Way— Vermont 

Miss  Grace  C.  Waymouth— New  Hampshire 

Miss  Mathilde  E.  Weber— New  York 

Miss  Mabel  Foote  Weeks— New  York 

Mrs.  Percy  S.  Weeks— New  York 

Mr.  Leon  J.  Weil— New  York 

Miss  Ruth  E.  Weill— California 

Mr.  Nathan  Weinberg— New  York 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  J.  J.  Weksler— New  York 

Mrs.  Austin  H.  Welch— New  Hampshire 

Mrs.  H.  K.  W.  Welch— Connecticut 

Mrs.  Thomas  B.  Wells— New  York 

Mrs.  Edward  T.  Wendell— New  Hampshire 

Miss  Jeanne  Wertheimer— New  Hampshire 

Mrs.  Lawrence  H.  Wetherell— 

New  Hampshire 
Mr.  Robert  W.  Whipple— Washington,  D.C. 
Mr.  Victor  E.  Whitlock— New  York 
Miss  Edith  A.  Whitney— New  Jersey 
Miss  Ruth  H.  Whitney— New  Jersey 
Dr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  T.  Whittaker— 

New  Hampshire 
Mrs.  E.  B.  Whittemore— New  Hampshire 
Miss  Agnes  L.  Wiley— California 
Miss  Viola  B.  Williamson— New  York 
Mrs.  Alfred  Willstatter— New  York 
Mrs.  Willis  K.  Wing— Connecticut 
Dr.  Asher  Winkelstein— New  York 
Miss  Ellen  Winsor— Pennsylvania 
Mrs.  Thomas  Winston— New  York 
Mrs.  Keyes  Winter— New  York 
Miss  Mary  Withington— Connecticut 


'71 


FRIENDS   OF  THE   BOSTON   SYMPHONY   ORCHESTRA     (Concluded) 

Miss  Anna  J.  Wolff— New  York  Mrs.  John  L.  Young— Maine 

Mrs.  Peter  Woodbury— New  Hampshire 

Miss  Janet  K.  Woolever— Ohio 

Dr.  and  Mrs.  Arthur  W.  Wright-New  York  Mrs.  L.  E.  Zacher-Connecticut 

Mr.  Carroll  M.  Wright-New  York  Mrs.  Edmund  Ziman-New  York 

Miss  Mary  E.  Wright— Connecticut 

Mr.  Lucien  Wulsin— Ohio 

(Continued  from  page  10) 

with  the  evolution  of  expression,  shows  an  unusual  and  consistently 
high  standard  of  work  maintained  by  his  severe  self-criticism  and  slow 
output." 

Walton  was  knighted  in  1951. 

His  principal  symphonic  works    (excepting  the  violin   and  viola 
concertos)  have  been  performed  at  the  Boston  Symphony  concerts: 

1926     (Nov.  19)     Overture,  "Portsmouth  Point" 

(First  performance  in  America) 
1928     (Mar.  2)     Sinfonia  Concertante,  for  Orchestra  with  Piano 

(Soloist:  Bernard  Zighera) 
1930     (Jan.  3)     Overture,  "Portsmouth  Point" 
1933      (Mar.  31)     "Belshazzar's  Feast" 

(Cecilia  Society  Chorus,  Baritone:  David  Blair  McClosky) 

(First  performance  in  the  United  States) 
1941      (Dec.  19)     Overture,  "Portsmouth  Point" 
1946      (Jan.  25)     Overture,  "Scapino" 

(Conducted  by  Sir  Adrian  Boult) 
1950     (Feb.  3)     Symphony  No.  1 

(First  performance  in  Boston) 
1957      (Jan.  25)     Violoncello  Concerto 

(First  performance;  Soloist:  Gregor  Piatigorsky) 

J.  N.  B. 


"EIN  HELDENLEBEN"    ("A  HERO'S  LIFE")  Tone  Poem,  Op.  40 

By  Richard  Strauss 
Born  in  Munich,  June  11,  1864;  died  in  Garmisch,  September  8,  1949 


From  the  beginning  of  August  until  the  end  of  December,  1898,  in  Charlotten- 
burg,  Strauss  began  and  completed  this  Tone  Poem.  The  dedication  was  to  "Willem 
Mengelberg  and  the  Concertgebouw  Orchestra  in  Amsterdam."  The  first  performance 
was  at  Frankfort-on-the-Main,  March  3,  1899,  when  Strauss  conducted  from  the 
manuscript.  The  music  was  published  in  the  same  month. 

The  orchestration  is  lavish:  3  flutes  and  piccolo,  3  or  4  oboes,  and  English  horn, 
clarinet  in  E-flat,  2  clarinets  in  B-flat,  bass  clarinet,  3  bassoons  and  double-bassoon, 
8  horns,  5  trumpets,  3  trombones,  tenor  tuba,  bass  tuba,  kettledrums,  bass  drum, 
snare  drum,  side  drum,  cymbals,  2  harps,  and  strings    (much  divided). 

The  first  performance  in  America  was  by  the  Chicago  Orchestra,  Theodore 
Thomas  conducting,  March  9,  1900.  The  first  performance  by  this  orchestra  was  on 
December  6,  1901. 

[IS] 


The  score  divides  into  six  parts: 

The  Hero  —  The  Hero's  Adversaries  —  The  Hero's  Helpmate  —  The  Hero's  Battle- 
field —  The  Hero's  Works  of  Peace  —  The  Hero's  Release  from  the  World,  and  the 
Fulfillment  of  his  Life. 

As  Don  Quixote  is  an  extension  of  the  variation  form,  and  Till 
maintains  the  skeleton  of  a  rondo,  Ein  Heldenleben  has  been  described 
by  analysts  as  a  vast  symphonic  movement.  The  first  two  parts  may 
be  called  the  first  subject  elaborately  laid  out  with  many  subsidiary 
themes:  the  "Hero's  Helpmate"  provides  the  contrasting  second  sub- 
ject; the  "Battlefield"  is  the  working  out  of  these  themes,  culminating 
in  a  sort  of  recapitulation;  the  last  two  sections  are  as  a  coda  of 
extreme  length. 

I.  The  Hero.  —  The  Hero's  principal  theme  is  stated  at  once  by 
the  horns  and  strings  —  broad  and  sweeping  with  wide  skips  —  full  of 
energy  and  assurance.  If  this  particular  Tone  Poem  is  a  character  study 
rather  than  a  narration,  it  cannot  be  expected  that  the  composer  draw 
his  hero  complete  in  the  first  outline.  As  the  complex  of  the  score  is 
built  up  with  numerous  derivative  phrases  and  secondary  themes,  the 
character  gains  appreciably  in  stature  and  dignity  (the  picture  becomes 
still  more  full-rounded  as  the  hero  is  presented  in  relation  to  life, 
ennobled  by  love,  hardened  by  attack,  exalted  by  achievement,  ulti- 
mately mellowed  and  reconciled  to  his  environment  by  the  finer 
qualities  which  his  soul's  growth  has  attained).  The  section  ends  with 
a  thunderous  assertion  of  power,  after  which  the  ensuing  complaints 
of  his  antagonists,  mean  and  carping,  sound  petty  indeed. 

II.  The  Hero's  Adversaries.  —  This  picture  was  drawn  too  sharply 
in  the  judgment  of  the  early  hearers  of  Ein  Heldenleben.  Strauss  went 
so  far  in  depicting  their  whining  stupidities  that  the  composer's 
unshakable  enthusiasts  felt  called  upon  to  draw  a  new  definition  for 
"beauty,"  a  new  boundary  for  permissible  liberties  in  descriptive  sug- 
gestion. The  themes  of  the  hero's  critics  are  awkward  and  sidling;  in 


KNEISEL  HALL,  BLUE  HILL,  MAINE 

Summer  School 
July  8th  to  September  ist,  1957 

INTENSIVE  ENSEMBLE  and  INDIVIDUAL  TRAINING 

Distinguished  Faculty  includes: 

ARTUR  BALSAM 
JOSEPH  FUCHS  -  LOUIS  PERSINGER 
CARL  STERN  -  EDOUARD  DETHIER 


MARIANNE  KNEISEL,  Director 
190  RIVERSIDE  DRIVE,  NEW  YORK  24,  N.  Y. 


[i9l 


FRIENDS  OF  THE  BOSTON 
SYMPHONY  ORCHESTRA 
—  ANNUAL  MEETING  — 

The  twenty-third  Annual  Meeting  of  the  Friends 
will  be  held  in  Symphony  Hall  on  Wednesday, 
March  27,  1957,  at  four  o'clock  for  the  transaction 
of  appropriate  business.  Dr.  Munch  and  the 
Orchestra  will  play  a  short  program.  After  the 
music  tea  will  be  served. 


PALFREY  PERKINS 

Chairman,  Friends  of  the 
Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 


I  wish  to  be  enrolled  as  a  member  of  the 

Friends  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

for  the  1956-57  season  and  contribute  the  sum  of  % 

enclosed  within  or  pledge  the  sum  of  $ payable 


on 


Name 


Address 


Checks  are  payable  to  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra,  Inc. 
Gifts  to  the  Orchestra  are  deductible  under  the  Federal  Income  Tax  laws. 


[to] 


SEVENTY-SEVENTH  SEASON,   1957-1958 

Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 


FIVE  CONCERTS  IN  THE 

Academy  of  Music,   Brooklyn 


On  Five  FRIDAY  Evenings 
at  8:30 

NOVEMBER  15 

DECEMBER   13 

JANUARY  17 

FEBRUARY  14 

MARCH  21 

AUSPICES 

The  Brooklyn  Institute  of  Arts  and  Sciences 

The  Philharmonic  Society  of  Brooklyn  and  a  Brooklyn  Committee 

Renewals  of  subscription  for  the  1957-1958  series  by  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 
may  now  be  made.  New  subscriptions  will  be  accepted  in  order  of  receipt  of 
application. 

Mail  Orders  Given  Prompt  Attention.  A  seating  plan  and  order  blank  will  be  sent 
on  application. 

Telephone:  STerling  3-6700 

Address:  Academy  of  Music,  30  Lafayette  Avenue,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y. 


[21] 


the  wood  wind  "scharf,"  "spitzig,"  "schnarrend,"  in  the  bass  grubby 
and  sodden.  The  hero's  answering  comment  is  disillusioned,  saddened, 
but  at  last  he  is  goaded  to  an  emphatic  and  strong  retort. 

There  seems  to  be  only  one  other  case  in  history  where  a  composer 
openly  mocks  his  critics  in  his  music  —  the  case  of  Wagner  and  his 
Beckmesser. 

III.  The  Hero's  Helpmate.  —  As  with  his  hero,  Strauss  unfolds 
his  heroine  gradually,  in  the  course  of  his  development.    Her  voice 

(which  is  that  of  the  violin  solo  in  increasingly  ornate  cadenzas)  is  at 
first  capricious  and  wilful  —  refuses  to  blend  and  become  one  with  the 
music  the  orchestra  is  playing.  But  gradually  the  pair  reach  a  har- 
monious understanding.  Their  two  voices  become  one  as  the  score 
grows  richer  in  texture  and  develops  a  love  song  in  which  the  orchestra 
builds  up  a  lyric  opulence  and  tonal  splendor  such  as  none  but  Strauss 
could  achieve.  At  a  point  where  the  music  rests  upon  a  soft  chord 
long  held,  the  theme  of  the  adversaries  is  heard,  as  if  in  the  distance. 

IV.  The  Hero's  Battlefield.  —  A  trumpet  fanfare  (off  stage  at 
first)  breaks  the  glamorous  spell  with  a  challenge  to  battle,  which 
is  soon  raging  with  every  ounce  of  Strauss's  technique  of  color,  his 
prodigious  contrapuntal  resource  called  into  play.  The  hero  is  assailed 
with  drums  and  brass  in  assembled  array;  but  his  theme  retorts  with 
proud  assurance  of  strength,  further  fortified  in  a  repetition  of  the 


•  THE    BOSTON    SYMPHONY    CONCERT    BULLETIN 

•  THE    BERKSHIRE    FESTIVAL    PROGRAM 

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The  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

PUBLICATIONS 

offer  to  advertisers  wide  coverage  of  a  special  group 

of  discriminating  people.  For  both  merchandising  and 

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Total  Circulation  More  Than  500,000 


For  Information  and  Rates  Call     : :    Mrs.  Dana  Somes,  Advertising  Manager 
Tel.  CO  6-1492,  or  write:  Symphony  Hall,  Boston  IS,  Mass. 


[22] 


LIST    OF    WORKS 

Performed  in  the  Brooklyn  Series 
DURING  THE  SEASON,   1956-1957 


Barber Medea's  Meditation  and  Dance  of  Vengeance,  Op.  23-A 

II    December  14 

Beethoven Symphony  No.  3,  in  D-flat  major,  "Eroica,"  Op.  55 

I  November  16 

Symphony  No.  6,  in  F  major,  "Pastoral,"  Op.  68 

II  December  14 

Brahms Symphony  No.  1,  in  C  minor,  Op.  68 

IV    February  8 

Britten Variations  for  String  Orchestra,  on  a  Theme  by 

Frank  Bridge,  Op.  10 

IV    February  8 

Bruch Violin  Concerto  in  G  minor,  No.  1,  Op.  26 

Soloist:  Ruth  Posselt 

III    January  11 

Debussy "Iberia"    ("Images"  for  Orchestra,  No.  2) 

I  November  16 

"Rondes  de  printemps  (Image  No.  3) 

III    January  11 

Mahler Symphony  No.  4,  in  G  major  (with  Soprano  Voice) 

Soloist:  Nancy  Carr 

III  January  11 

Prokofieff Piano  Concerto  No.  2,  in  G  minor,  Op.  16 

Soloist:  Nicole  Henriot 

IV  February  8 

Strauss "Ein  Heldenleben,"  Tone  Poem,  Op.  40 

V  March  22 

Stravinsky "Jeu  de  Cartes,"  Ballet  in  Three  Deals 

II  December  14 

Walton Johannesburg  Festival  Overture 

V  March  22 

Concerto  for  Viola  and  Orchestra 
Soloist:  Joseph  de  Pasquale 

V  March  22 

Weber Overture  to  "Euryanthe" 

I    November  16 

Richard  Burgin  conducted  the  concert  of  January  1 1 

[*3] 


love  music  which  has  gone  before.   Again  the  orchestra  rises  to  a  full 
and  impressive  climax  —  a  song  of  triumph. 

V.  The  Hero's  Works  of  Peace.  —  But  triumph  of  this  sort  is 
without  lasting  satisfaction.  The  music  from  this  point  grows  less 
exultant,  becomes  more  reflective  and  "inward,"  seeking  deeper  cur- 
rents. The  hero's  "works  of  peace"  are  recalled  in  themes  from  Strauss's 
earlier  works:  phrases  are  heard  from  Don  Juan,  Zarathustra,  Tod 
und  Verklarung,  Don  Quixote,  Macbeth,  Guntram,  Till  Eulenspiegel, 
and  the  song  Traum  durch  die  Dammerung.  The  beloved  consort  is 
also  remembered.  The  cunning  skill  of  the  composer  in  weaving  a 
string  of  unrelated  subjects  into  a  continuous  and  plausible  musical 
narrative  is  a  passing  Straussian  wonder. 

VI.  The  Hero's  Release  from  the  World,  and  the  Fulfillment 
of  His  Life.  —  There  is  a  final  conflict  with  the  forces  of  hate,  but  this 
time  it  is  soon  resolved.  The  protagonist  has  as  last  found  peace  with 
himself.  There  are  flitting  recollections  of  his  past  life,  but  placid 
resignation  now  possesses  him.  The  music  at  last  sublimates  on  themes 
of  the  hero,  through  which  the  violin  solo  is  intertwined. 

Strauss's  audiences  and  critics  have  too  long  been  bothered  by  the 
evidence  of  the  allusion  listed  above  that  the  composer  was  describing 
himself  all  along,  erecting  in  this  score  a  monument  to  his  own  conceit. 
All  introspective  fiction  is  autobiographical,  and  Strauss  could  not 
have  immersed  himself  so  completely  into  his  epic  without  portraying 
his  own  character.  His  real  offense  was  in  openly  admitting  and  vaunt- 
ing the  fact.  Shocking  audacities  have  a  way  of  losing  their  edge  and 
interest  as  the  next  generation,  and  the  next,  come  along.  All  that  is 
finally  asked  is  the  worth  of  the  music  —  as  music. 

[copyrighted] 


43EBELON' 

■SltV.KBSHVTH- 


Workshop  of  the  Craft 
at  the  Teapot  Sign 

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BOSTON  8 

Foot  of  Beacon  Hill 
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CEBELEIN. 


EDNA  NITKIN,  M.Mus. 

PIANIST 

ACCOMPANIST        TEACHER 

Studio:   500  Boylston  St.,  Copley  Sq. 

Boston  KE  6-4062 


RCA   VICTOR   RECORDS 

BOSTON  SYMPHONY  ORCHESTRA 

Recorded  under  the  leadership  of  CHARLES  MUNCH 
Beethoven  Overtures  Leonore  Nos.  1,  2,  3 ;  "Fidelio" ;  "Coriolan" 
Symphonies  Nos.  5,  G,  7 
Violin  Concerto  (Heifetz) 
Berlioz  "Fantastic     Symphony";     Overture     to     "Beatrice    and    Benedick"; 
"Romeo  and  Juliet"  (complete)  ;  "Summer  Nights"  (Ue  Los  Angeles)  ; 
"The  Damnation  of  Faust"  (complete) 
Brahms  Piano  Concerto  No.  2  (Rubinstein) 

Symphonies  Nos.  2,  4 ;  "Tragic  Overture" 
Bruch  Violin  Concerto  No.  1  (Menuhin) 
Chausson  "Poeme"  for  Violin  and  Orchestra  (Oistrakh) 
Chopin  Piano  Concerto  No.  2  (Brailowsky) 
Debussy  "The  Martyrdom  of  St.  Sebastian"  ;  "Prelude  to  the  Afternoon  of  a 

Faun"  ;  "The  Blessed  Damozel"  (De  Los  Angeles) 
Handel  "Water  Music"  Suite  (air.  Harty) 
Haydn  Symphony  No.  104 
Honegyer  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  5 
Lalo  Overture  to  "Le  Roi  d'Ys" 
Menotti  Violin  Concerto  (Spivakovsky) 
Mozart  Overture  to  "The  Marriage  of  Figaro" 
Ravel  "Daphnis  and  Chloe"   (complete)  ;  "Pavane" 

Newly  Recorded :    "Bolero"  ;  "La  Valse"  ;  "Rapsodie  Espagnole" 
Roussel  "Bacchus  and  Ariane,"  Suite  No.  2 
Saint-Saens  "Introduction  and  Rondo  Capriccioso"  (Oistrakh) 
Overture  to  "La  Princesse  Jaune" 
Piano  Concerto  No.  4  (Brailowsky) 
Schubert  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  8  ("Unfinished"  Symphony) 
Schumann  Overture  to  "Genoveva"      Symphony  No.  4 
Strauss  "Don  Quixote"  (Soloist,  Piatigorsky) 

Tchaikovsky  Violin  Concerto    (Milstein)  ;   "Francesca  da  Rimini";  "Romeo 
and  Juliet" ;  Symphony  No.  4 

Among  the  recordings  under  the  leadership  of  SERGE  KOUSSEVITZKY 


Bach  Brandenburg  Concertos  Nos.  1,  6 ; 

Suites  Nos.  1,  4 
Beethoven  Symphonies  Nos.  3,  5,  9 
Berlioz  "Harold  in  Italy"  (Primrose) 
Brahms   Symphony  No.  3;   Violin  Con- 
certo (Heifetz) 
Copland  "A  Lincoln  Portrait" ;  "Appala- 
chian Spring"  ;  "El  Salon  Mexico" 

Hanson  Symphony  No.  3 

Harris  Symphony  No.  3 

Haydn  Symphonies  Nos.  92,  "Oxford" ; 

94,  "Surprise" 
Khatchaturian  Piano  Concerto  (Kapell) 
Mendelssohn  Symphony  No.  4,  "Italian" 


Mozart  "Eine  kleine  Nachtmusik"  ;  Sere- 
nade No.  10,  for  Woodwinds ;  Sym- 
phonies Nos.  36,  "Linz"  ;  39 

Prokofieff  "Classical"  Symphony;  "Lt. 
Kije"  Suite ;  "Romeo  and  Juliet,"  Suite 
No.  2 ;  Symphony  No.  5 ;  Violin  Con- 
certo No.  2  (  Heifetz  ) 

Rachmaninoff  "Isle  of  the  Dead" 

Ravel  "Bolero" ;  "Ma  Mere  L'Oye"  Suite 

Schubert  Symphony  in  B  Minor,  "Un- 
finished" 

Sibelius  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  5 

Strauss,  R.  "Don  Juan" 

Tchaikovsky  Serenade  in  C  ;  Symphonies 
Nos.  4,  5 

Wagner  Siegfried  Idyll 


Recorded  under  the  leadership  of  PIERRE  MONTEUX 

Debussy  "La  Mer"  ;  "Nocturnes"  Tchaikovsky   Symphony  No.  6,   "Pathe- 

Liszt  "Les  Preludes"  tique" 

^FrIusT110  C°nCert0S  N0S'  12' 18  (LlLI  Delibes  Ballets  "Sylvia,"  "Coppelia"  by 
Scriabin  "The  Poem  of  Ecstasy"  Members  of  the  Boston  Symphony 
Stravinsky  "Le  Sacre  du  Printemps" orcnestra 

Recorded  under  the  leadership  of  Leonard  Bernstein 
Stravinsky  "L'Histoire  du  Soldat" ;  Octet  for  Wind  Instruments 

The  above  recordings  are  available  on  Long  Play  (33%  r.p.m.)  and  (in  some  cases) 
45  r.p.m. 


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'fc 


FOUNDED  IN  1881  BY 
HENRY  LEE  HIGGINSON 

•  1  • 


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SEVENTY-SIXTH   SEASON 
1956-1957 


Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

(Seventy-sixth  Season,  1956-1957) 
CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 

RICHARD   BURGIN,  Associate  Conductor 


Violins 
Richard  Burgin 
Concert-master 

Alfred  Krips 
George   Zazofsky 
Rolland  Tapley 
Norbert  Lauga 
Vladimir  Resnikoff 

Harry  Dickson 
Gottfried  Wilfinger 
Einar  Hansen 
Joseph  Leibovici 
Emil  Kornsand 
Roger  Shermont 

Minot  Beale 
Herman  Silberman 

Stanley  Benson 
Leo    Panasevich 
Sheldon  Rotenberg 
Fredy  Ostrovsky 

Clarence  Knudson 
Pierre  Mayer 

Manuel  Zung 
Samuel  Diamond 

Victor  Manusevitch 
James   Nagy 

Melvin  Bryant 
Lloyd  Stonestreet 
Saverio  Messina 
William  Waterhouse 
William  Marshall 
Leonard  Moss 
Jesse  Ceci 
Noah  Bielski 
Alfred  Schneider 
Joseph  Silverstein 

Basses 

Georges  Moleux 
Gaston  Dufresne 
Ludwig  Juht 
Irving  Frankel 

Henry  Freeman 
Henry  Portnoi 

Henri  Girard 
John  Barwicki 


PERSONNEL 

Violas 
Joseph  de  Pasquale 
Jean  Cauhap£ 

Eugen  Lehner 
Albert  Bernard 

George  Humphrey 
Jerome  Lipson 
Robert  Karol 
Reuben  Green 

Bernard   Kadinoff 
Vincent  Mauricci 

John  Fiasca 
Earl  Hedberg 

Violoncellos 
Samuel  Mayes 
Alfred  Zighera 

Jacobus  Langendoen 
Mischa  Nieland 
Karl  Zeise 
Josef  Zimbler 
Bernard  Parronchi 
Martin  Hoherman 
Louis  Berger 
Richard  Kapuscinski 
Robert  Ripley 

Flutes 
Doriot  Anthony  Dwyer 
James  Pappoutsakis 
Phillip  Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George  Madsen 

Oboes 
Ralph  Gomberg 
Jean  Devergie 
John  Holmes 

English  Horn 
Louis  Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino  Cioffi 
Manuel  Valerio 
Pasquale  Cardillo 

E\)  Clarinet 

Bass  Clarinet 
Rosario  Mazzeo 


Bassoons 

Sherman  Walt 
Ernst  Panenka 
Theodore  Brewster 

Contra-Bassoon 
Richard  Plaster 

Horns 

James  Stagliano 
Charles  Yancich 

Harry  Shapiro 
Harold  Meek 
Paul  Keaney 
Osbourne  McConathy 

Trumpets 
Roger  Voisin 
Marcel  Lafosse 
Armando  Ghitalla 
Gerard  Goguen 

Trombones 

William  Gibson 
William  Mover 
Kauko  Kahila 
Josef  Orosz 

Tuba 
K.  Vinal  Smith 

Harps 
Bernard  Zighera 
Olivia  Luetcke 

Timpani 

Everett  Firth 
Harold  Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles  Smith 
Harold  Thompson 
Arthur  Press 

Piano 
Bernard  Zighera 


Sanders  Theatre,  Cambridge  [3/arvard  University] 

(The  first  concert  will  be  given  in  the  Kresge  Auditorium,  Cambridge) 


SEVENTY-SIXTH  SEASON,  1956-1957 

Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 
Richard  Burgin,  Associate  Conductor 


Concert  Bulletin  of  the 
First  Concert 

TUESDAY  EVENING,  October  30 

with  historical  and  descriptive  notes  by 

John  N.  Burk 

The  TRUSTEES  of  the 
BOSTON  SYMPHONY  ORCHESTRA,  Inc. 

Henry  B.  Cabot  .        President 

Jacob  J.  Kaplan  .         Vice-President 

Richard  C.  Paine  .         Treasurer 

Talcott  M.  Banks,  Jr.  Michael  T.  Kelleher 

Theodore  P.  Ferris  Palfrey  Perkins 

Alvan  T.  Fuller  Charles  H.  Stockton 

Francis  W.  Hatch  Edward  A.  Taft 

Harold  D.  Hodgkinson  Raymond  S.  Wilkins 

C  D.  Jackson  Oliver  Wolcott 

TRUSTEES  EMERITUS 
Philip  R.  Allen  M.  A.  DeWolfe  Howe 

N.  Penrose  Hallo  well  Lewis  Perry 

Thomas  D.  Perry,  Jr.,  Manager 
G.  W.  Rector  )  Assistant  J.  J.  Brosnahan,  Assistant  Treasurer 

N.  S.  Shirk        )   Managers         Rosario  Mazzeo,  Personnel  Manager 

[1] 


THE  WHITE   HOUSE 

WASHINGTON 


September  28,   1956 


Dear  Mr.   Cabot: 

The  reports  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 
during  its  recent  tour  of  Europe  have  given  me 
great  satisfaction.     Whenever  outstanding  Ameri- 
cans like  the  men  and  women  of  the  Boston  Symphony 
display  their  talents  to  the  people  of  other  countries, 
the  cause  of  international  understanding  is  advanced. 

Since  all  people  want  peace,   it  is  necessary  for  the 
people  of  all  nations  to  correspond  at  all  levels  and 
work  out  methods  by  which  we  can  gradually  learn 
more  of  each  other.     The  exchange  of  artists  is  one 
of  the  most  effective  methods  of  strengthening  world 
friendship.     Your  orchestra  has  demonstrated  this 
truth. 

I  should  add  that  it  is  gratifying  to  observe  that  the 
Boston  Symphony  Orchestra  has  developed,   in  typical 
American  fashion,  with  the  sponsorship  and  devoted 
support  of  private  citizens. 

Please  welcome  home  your  musicians  and  distinguished 
conductors,   Charles  Munch  and  Pierre  Monteux,   and 
accept  my  congratulations  on  a  job  well  done. 

Sincerely, 


sincerely,  *~-* 


Mr.   Henry  B.   Cabot 

President 

The,  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra,  Inc. 

Symphony  Hall 

Boston,   Massachusetts 

[2] 


SEVENTY-SIXTH  SEASON  •   NINETEEN  HUNDRED  FIFTY-SIX  AND  FIFTY-SEVEN 

ffirst  Concert 

TUESDAY  EVENING,  October  30 


Program 

Bach Suite  No.  2,  in  B  minor,  for  Flute  and  Strings 

Overture 

Rondo 

Bounce  I;  Bounce  II 

Polonaise  and  Double 

Minuet 

Badinerie 

Flute  Solo:    Doriot  Anthony  Dwyer 

Debussy "Iberia"   ("Images"  for  Orchestra,  No.  2) 

I.    Par  les  rues  et  par  les  chemins  (In  the  streets  and  byways) 
II.    Les  parfums  de  la  nuit  (The  fragrance  of  the  night) 
III.     Le  matin  d'un  jour  de  fete  (The  morning  of  a  festival  day) 

INTERMISSION 

Tchaikovsky Symphony  No.  6,  in  B  minor,  "Pathetique,"  Op.  74 

I.  Adagio;  Allegro  non  troppo 

II.  Allegro  con  grazia 

III.  Allegro  molto  vivace 

IV.  Finale:   Adagio  lamentoso 


Performances  by  the  orchestra  are  broadcast  each  week  on  Monday 
evenings  from  8:15  to  9:00  P.M.  on  the  NBC  Radio  Network.  The 
Friday  afternoon  concerts  at  2:15  o'clock  and  Saturday  evening 
concerts  at  8:30  o'clock  are  broadcast  direct  each  week  from  Station 

WGBH-FM. 


BALDWIN  PIANO  RCA  VICTOR  RECORDS 


[3] 


OVERTURE   (SUITE)  NO.  2  in  B  minor  for  Flute  and 

String  Orchestra 

By  Johann  Sebastian  Bach 
Born  at  Eisenach,  March  21,  1685;  died  at  Leipzig,  July  28,  1750 


This  Suite  was  first  performed  by  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra  (the  continuo 
edited  by  Robert  Franz)  February  13,  1886.  The  edition  of  Hans  von  Bulow  was 
performed  October  20,  1906,  November  2,  1912,  February  13,  1915,  April  26,  1919, 
December  24,  1931,  and  October  17,  1952. 

Bach's  orchestral  suites,  of  which  there  are  four,  have  generally  been 
attributed  to  the  five-year  period  (1717-23)  in  which  he  was 
Kapellmeister  to  the  young  Prince  Leopold  of  Anhalt-Cothen.  Albert 
Schweitzer  conjectures  that  they  may  belong  to  the  subsequent  Leipzig 
years,  for  Bach  included  them  in  the  performances  of  the  Telemann 
Musical  Society,  which  he  conducted  from  the  years  1729  to  1736.  But 
the  larger  part  of  his  instrumental  music  belongs  to  the  years  at  Cothen 
where  the  Prince  not  only  patronized  but  practised  this  department  of 
the  art  —  it  is  said  that  he  could  acquit  himself  more  than  acceptably 
upon  the  violin,  the  viola  da  gamba,  and  the  clavier.  It  was  for  the 
pleasure  of  his  Prince  that  Bach  composed  most  of  his  chamber  music, 
half  of  the  Well-tempered  Clavichord,  the  Inventions.  Composing  the 
six  concertos  for  the  Markgraf  of  Brandenburg  at  this  time,  he  very 
likely  made  copies  of  his  manuscripts  and  performed  them  at  Cothen. 
Bach's  own  title  upon  the  score  was  "H  moll  Ouverture  al  flauto, 
2  violini,  viola  e  basso,  di  J.  S.  Bach."  The  flute  part  is  marked  "tra- 
versiere,"  or  transverse-flute,  to  distinguish  it  from  the  now  obsolete 
flute  a  bee.  The  bass  is  marked  "continuo/* 


The  suites,  partitas,  and  "overtures,"  so  titled,  by  Bach  were  no  more 
than  variants  upon  the  suite  form.  When  Bach  labeled  each  of  his 
orchestral  suites  as  an  "ouverture/*  there  is  no  doubt  that  the  French 
ouverture  of  Lulli  was  in  his  mind.  This  composer,  whom  Bach  closely 
regarded,  had  developed  the  operatic  overture  into  a  larger  form  with 
a  slow  introduction  followed  by  a  lively  allegro  of  fugal  character  and 
a  reprise.  To  this  "overture"  were  sometimes  added,  even  at  operatic 
performances,  a  stately  dance  or  two,  such  as  were  a  customary  and 
integral  part  of  the  operas  of  the  period.  These  overtures,  with  several 
dance  movements,  were  often  performed  at  concerts,  retaining  the  title 
of  the  more  extended  and  impressive  "opening"  movement.  Georg 
Muffat  introduced  the  custom  into  Germany,  and  Bach  followed  him. 
Bach  held  to  the  formal  outline  of  the  French  ouverture,  but  extended 

[4] 


and  elaborated  it  to  his  own  purposes.  In  the  dance  melodies  of  these 
suites,  Albert  Schweitzer  has  said  "a  fragment  of  a  vanished  world  of 
grace  and  eloquence  has  been  preserved  for  us.  They  are  the  ideal 
musical  picture  of  the  rococo  period.  Their  charm  resides  in  the  per- 
fection of  their  blending  of  strength  and  grace." 

The  grave  introductory  measures  of  the  first  movement,  given  to  the 
combined  group,  are  followed  by  a  lively  fugue,  the  development  of 
which  is  occasionally  interrupted  by  florid  passages  for  the  flute  which 
here  first  emerges  as  a  solo  instrument.  In  the  Rondo,  which  is  an 
unusual  form  with  Bach,  the  voice  of  the  flute  is  matched  with  the 
strings.  In  the  Sarabande,  the  cellos  follow  the  flute  theme  in  canonic 
imitation.  The  second  of  the  two  Bourrees  again  projects  the  flute  in 
the  recurring  ornamental  figuration  which  gives  the  suite  so  much  of 
its  charm.  The  flute  is  again  so  treated  in  the  Double  (or  variant)  of 
the  Polonaise.  The  Minuet  has  the  usual  two  sections,  but  no  trio. 
The  Badinerie,  a  lively  presto  movement,  is  characteristic  of  its  com- 
poser. (The  first  suite  ends  with  two  "passepieds"  the  third  with  a 
gigue,  the  fourth  with  a  vivo  entitled  "Rejouissance") 

[copyrighted] 


"IBfLRIA,"  "IMAGES,"  for  Orchestra,  No.  2 
By  Claude  Debussy 

Born  at  St.  Germain  (Seine-et-Oise),  France,  August  22,  1862;  died  at  Paris, 

March  25,  1918 


Debussy  completed  the  "Rondes  de  Printemps"  in  1909,  "Iberia"  in  1910,  and 
"Gigues"  in  1912.  The  three  "Images"  as  published  bore  numbers  in  reverse  order. 

"Iberia"  was  first  performed  by  Gabriel  Pierne  at  a  Colonne  concert  in  Paris, 
February  20,  1910.  It  had  its  first  performance  in  America,  January  3,  1911,  under 
Gustav  Mahler,  at  a  concert  of  the  New  York  Philharmonic  Society.  The  first 
performance  in  Boston  was  on  April  21,  1911,  by  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra, 
Max  Fiedler,  conductor. 

The  orchestration  requires  3  flutes  and  piccolo,  2  oboes  and  English  horn,  3 
clarinets,  3  bassoons  and  contra-bassoon,  4  horns,  3  trumpets,  3  trombones  and  tuba, 
timpani,  tambourine,  castanets,  military  drum,  cymbals,  xylophone,  celesta,  bells, 
two  harps  and  strings. 

T">v  ebussy  wrote  to  Durand,  his  publisher,  on  May  16,  1905,  of  his 
-L'  plan  to  compose  a  set  of  "Images"  (a  conveniently  noncommittal 
title)  for  two  pianos,  to  be  called  I.  "Gigues  Tristes"  II.  "Iberia" 
III.  "Valses  (?)"  Before  long  the  project  had  become  an  orchestral 
one,  and  the  questioned  "Valses"  had  been  dropped.  The  two  orches- 
tral pieces  were  expected  for  the  summer  of  1906.  They  were  not  forth- 
coming.  The  musician  who  could  once  linger  over  his  scores  at  will, 

[5] 


rewriting,  refining,  repolishing,  while  the  world  cared  little,  was  now 
the  famous  composer  of  "Pelleas"  Publishers,  orchestras,  were  at  his 
doorstep,  expectant,  insistent,  mentioning  dates.  Debussy  was  still 
unhurried,  reluctant  to  give  to  his  publisher  a  score  which  might  still 
be  bettered.  He  wrote  to  Durand  in  August  of  1906:  "I  have  before 
me  three  different  endings  for  'Iberia';  shall  I  toss  a  coin  —  or  seek  a 
fourth?"  To  Durand,  July  17,  1907:  "Don't  hold  it  against  me  that  I 
am  behind;  I  am  working  like  a  laborer  —  and  making  some  progress, 
in  spite  of  terrible  and  tiring  setbacks!"  Two  months  later  he  promises 
that  "Iberia"  will  be  ready  as  soon  as  the  "Rondes  de  Printemps,"  the 
third  of  the  "Images,"  is  "right  and  as  I  wish  it."  By  Christmas  of  1908, 
the  first  full  draft  of  "Iberia"  was  completed,  but  the  composer  was 
by  that  time  involved  in  a  project  for  an  opera  on  Poe's  "Fall  of  the 
House  of  Usher,"  immediately  followed  by  another  operatic  project 
which,  like  the  first,  came  to  nothing:   "The  Devil  in  the  Belfry." 

•    • 
The  movements  are  as  follows: 

I.  "Par  les  rues  et  par  les  chemins"   ("In  the  streets  and  byways").   Assez  anime 
{dans  un  rhythme  alerte  mais  precis). 

II.  "Les  parfums  de  la  nuit"  ("The  fragrance  of  the  night").  Lent  et  reveur. 

III.  "Le  matin  d'un  jour  de  fete"   ("The  morning  of  a  festival  day").    Dans  un 
rhythme  de  marche  lointaine,  alerte  et  joyeuse. 

There  was  a  considerable  expression  of  dissatisfaction  with  "Iberia" 
in  Paris,  when  it  was  first  heard.  "Half  the  house  applauded  furiously," 
reported  a  newspaper  correspondent,  "whereupon  hisses  and  cat  calls 
came  from  the  other  half.  I  think  the  audience  was  about  equally 
divided."  There  was  also  much  critical  disfavor,  while  certain  indi- 
viduals pronounced  roundly  in  favor  of  "Iberia" 

Manuel  de  Falla,  a  Spanish  purist  who  might  well  have  frowned 
upon  a  quasi  Spanish  product  of  France,  smiled  upon  this  piece  in  an 
article  printed  in  the  Chesterian: 

"The  echoes  from  the  villages,  a  kind  of  sevillana  —  the  generic 
theme  of  the  work  —  which  seems  to  float  in  a  clear  atmosphere  of 
scintillating  light;  the  intoxicating  spell  of  Andalusian  nights,  the 
festive  gaiety  of  a  people  dancing  to  the  joyous  strains  of  a  banda  of 
guitars  and  bandurrias  ...  all  this  whirls  in  the  air,  approaches  and 
recedes,  and  our  imagination  is  continually  kept  awake  and  dazzled 
by  the  power  of  an  intensely  expressive  and  richly  varied  music.  .  .  ."* 


*  Falla  further  states  that  Debussy  thus  pointed  the  way  to  Albeniz  towards  the  use  of  the 
fundamental  elements  of  popular  music,  rather  than  folk-tunes  as  such.  Vallas  points  out 
that  the  first  part  of  Albeniz's  "Iberia"  suite  appeared  as  early  as  1906,  and  was  well 
known  to  Debussy,  who  delighted  in  it  and  often  played  it.  The  last  part  of  the  "Iberia" 
of  Albeniz  appeared  in  1909,  at  which  time  its  composer  probably  knew  nothing  of  Debussy's 
score.  Debussy  was  thus  evidently  indebted  to  Albeniz,  for  he  never  made  the  visit  to  Spain 
which  could  have  given  him  material  at  first  hand.  The  "realism"  which  many  have  found  in 
Debussy's  "Ibe'ria"  was  not  of  this  sort. 

[copyrighted] 

[6] 


SYMPHONY  NO.  6,  IN  B  MINOR,  "PATHETIC/'  Op.  74 
By  Peter  Ilyitch  Tchaikovsky 

Born  at  Votkinsk  in  the  government  of  Viatka,  Russia,  May  7,   1840;  died  at 

St.  Petersburg,  November  6,  1893 


Completed  in  1893,  Tchaikovsky's  Sixth  Symphony  was  first  performed  at  St. 
Petersburg,  October  28  of  the  same  year. 

Following  the  composer's  death  Napravnik  conducted  the  symphony  with  great 
success  at  a  concert  of  Tchaikovsky's  music,  November  18,  1893.  The  piece  attained 
a  quick  popularity,  and  reached  America  the  following  spring,  when  it  was  produced 
by  the  New  York  Symphony  Society,  March  16,  1894.  It  was  performed  by  the 
Boston  Symphony  Orchestra  on  December  28  following,  Emil  Paur  conducting. 

The  orchestration  consists  of  2  flutes  and  piccolo,  2  oboes,  2  clarinets,  2  bassoons, 
4  horns,  2  trumpets,  3  trombones,  tuba,  timpani,  bass  drum,  cymbals,  tam-tam 
and  strings. 

Talking  with  his  brother  Modeste  on  the  day  after  the  first  per- 
formance of  the  Sixth  Symphony,  Tchaikovsky  discussed  the 
problem  of  a  title,  for  he  was  about  to  send  the  score  to  the  publisher. 
He  had  thought  of  calling  it  "A  Program  Symphony"  and  had  written 
to  his  nephew,  Vladimir  Davidoff,  of  this  intention,  adding,  "This 
program  is  penetrated  by  subjective  sentiment.  .  .  .  The  program  is  of 
a  kind  which  remains  an  enigma  to  all  —  let  them  guess  it  who  can." 
And  he  said  to  Modeste  when  the  question  of  a  title  was  under  dis- 
cussion, "What  does  'program  symphony'  mean  when  I  will  give  it  no 
program?"  In  other  words,  he  foresaw  that  to  give  it  such  a  name 
would  at  the  same  time  explain  nothing  and  invite  from  every  side  a 
question  which  he  could  not  answer.  He  accepted  Modeste's  suggestion 
of  "Pathetique"  but  thought  better  of  it  after  the  score  had  been 
shipped  to  Jurgenson,  and  wrote  his  preference  for  the  number  and 
nothing  else.  But  the  symphony  was  published  as  the  "Pathetique"; 
Jurgenson  had  evidently  insisted  upon  what  was  a  good  selling  title. 
We  can  only  conclude  from  these  circumstances  that  there  was  some 
sort  of  program  in  Tchaikovsky's  mind  but  that  the  "subjective"  senti- 
ment of  which  he  spoke  was  more  than  he  could  explain.  Plainly,  too, 
the  word  "Pathetique"  while  giving  the  general  character  of  the  music, 
fell  short  of  conveying  the  program. 

Modeste's  title  "Pathetique"  was  an  obvious  first  thought,  and  an 
apt  one,  because  the  symphony  has  all  the  habiliments  of  melancholy  — 
the  stressing  of  the  minor  mood,  the  sinking  chromatic  melodies,  the 
poignant  dissonances,  the  exploration  of  the  darkest  depths  and  color- 
ing of  the  orchestra,  the  upsweeping  attack  upon  a  theme,  the  outbursts 
of  defiance.  But  these  are  not  mere  devices  as  Tchaikovsky  used  them. 

[7] 


If  they  were,  the  symphony  would  be  no  better  than  a  mass  of  mediocre 
music  in  the  affecting  style  then  being  written.  They  were  externals 
useful  to  his  expressive  purpose,  but  no  more  basic  than  the  physical 
spasm  which  is  the  outward  sign  of  an  inward  impulse.  There  is  a 
deeper  motivation  to  the  symphony  —  a  motivation  which  is  eloquent 
and  unmistakable  in  the  music  itself  and  which  the  word  "Pathetique" 
serves  only  vaguely  to  indicate. 

There  have  always  been  those  who  assume  that  the  more  melancholy 
music  of  Tchaikovsky  is  a  sort  of  confession  of  his  personal  troubles, 
as  if  music  were  not  a  work  of  art,  and,  like  all  the  narrative  arts,  a 
structure  of  the  artist's  fantasy.  The  symphony,  of  course,  is  colored 
by  the  character  of  the  artist  himself,  but  it  does  not  mirror  the 
Tchaikovsky  one  meets  in  his  letters  and  diaries.  The  neurotic  fears, 
the  mental  and  physical  miseries  as  found  in  the  diaries  have  simply 
nothing  to  do  with  musical  matters.  Tones  to  Tchaikovsky  were  pure 
sensuous  delight,  his  salvation  when  life  threatened  to  become  insup- 
portable. And  he  was  neither  the  first  nor  the  last  to  resort  to  pathos 
for  the  release  of  music's  most  affecting  and  luxuriant  expression.  The 
fact  that  he  was  subject  to  periodical  depressions  and  elations  (he 
showed  every  sign  of  elation  while  at  work  upon  the  symphony)  may 
well  have  attuned  him  to  nostalgic  music  moods.  But  the  general 
romantic  trend  of  his  time  certainly  had  a  good  deal  more  to  do  with 
it.  His  generation  revelled  in  the  depiction  of  sorrow.  The  pathos  of 
the  jilted  Tatiana  of  Pushkin  actually  moved  Tchaikovsky  to  tears  and 
to  some  of  his  most  dramatic  music.  But  Tchaikovsky  enjoyed  nothing 
more  than  to  be  moved  to  tears  —  as  did  his  admirers,  from  Nadejda 
von  Meek  down.  "While  composing  the  [sixth]  symphony  in  my  mind," 
Tchaikovsky  had  written  to  his  nephew,  "I  frequently  shed  tears." 

There  can  be  no  denying  that  the  emotional  message  of  the 
"Pathetique"  must  have  in  some  way  emanated  from  the  inmost 
nature  of  its  composer.  But  the  subtle  alchemy  by  which  the  artist's 
emotional  nature,  conditioned  by  his  experience,  is  transformed  into 
the  realm  of  tone  patterns  is  a  process  too  deep-lying  to  be  perceived, 
and  it  will  be  understood  least  of  all  by  the  artist  himself.  Tchaikovsky, 
addicted  like  other  Russians  to  self-examination,  sometimes  tried  to 
explain  his  deeper  feelings,  especially  as  expressed  in  his  music,  but 
invariably  he  found  himself  groping  in  the  dark,  talking  in  high- 
sounding  but  inadequate  generalities.  At  such  times  he  accused  him- 
self of  "insincerity";  perhaps  we  could  better  call  it  attitudinizing 
to  cover  his  own  vague  understanding.  Only  his  music  was  "sincere" 
—  that  is,  when  he  was  at  his  best  and  satisfied  with  it,  as  in  the 
"Pathetique."  He  wrote  to  Davidoff,  to  whom  he  was  to  dedicate  the 
symphony,  "I  certainly  regard  it  as  quite  the  best  —  and  especially 

[8] 


munch  in  person 

on  rca  Victor  records 


To  Charles  Munch,  conducting  is  not  a  profession  but  a 

sacred  calling.  And  this  dedication,  combined  with  the  WORLD'S 

magnificence  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra,  brings  GREATEST 

ARTISTS 
you  performances  of  unmatched  power  and  beauty.  You 

feel  and  hear  this  devotion  whether  he  conducts  Ravel, 

Berlioz  or  Beethoven  .  . .  whether  the  performance  is  in 

Symphony  Hall  or ...  on  RCA  Victor  Records,  of  course! 


THE 


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[9] 


the  most  sincere  —  of  all  my  works.  I  love  it  as  I  never  loved  any  one 
of  my  musical  offspring  before."  Here  is  a  case  where  the  artist  can 
express  himself  as  the  non-artist  cannot;  more  clearly  even  than  he 
consciously  knows  himself. 

The  final  impression  of  the  "Pathetic"  Symphony  when  it  is  listened 
to  without  preconceptions  is  anything  but  pessimistic.  The  first  move- 
ment and  the  last,  which  are  the  key  movements  of  the  symphony, 
are  very  similar  in  plan.  The  duality  in  each  case  consists  of  a  spare 
and  desolate  theme  and  another  of  sorrowful  cast  which  is  nevertheless 
calm  and  assuaging.  Each  theme  is  developed  independently  in  sepa- 
rate alternating  sections,  each  working  up  into  an  agitated  form.  But 
the  second  theme  has  always  the  final  answer.  Each  movement  ends 
gently  with  a  gradual  and  peaceful  subsidence. 

The  bassoon  softly  sets  forth  the  first  theme,  Adagio,  in  rising 
sequences  accentuating  the  minor.  The  violas  carry  it  down  again 
into  the  depths,  and  after  a  suspensive  pause  the  theme  becomes 
vigorous  and  rhythmic  in  an  Allegro  non  troppo  as  it  is  developed 
stormily  over  a  constant  agitation  of  string  figures.*  The  figure 
melts  away  and  after  another  pause  the  second  theme,  tranquil  and 
singing  in  a  clear  D  major,  spreads  its  consolation.  "Teneramente, 
molto  cantabile,  con  espansione,"  reads  the  direction  over  it.  The 
theme  is  developed  over  a  springy  rhythm  in  the  strings  and  then,  in 
an  Andante  episode,  is  sung  without  mutes  and  passionately,  the  violins 
sweeping  up  to  attack  the  note  at  its  peak.  This  theme  dies  away  in 
another  long  descent  into  the  depths  of  the  bassoon.  And  now  the  first 
theme  returns  in  its  agitated  rhythmic  form  and  works  up  at  length 
to  violent  and  frenzied  utterance.  Another  tense  pause  (these  pauses 
are  very  characteristic  of  this  dramatic  symphony)  and  the  second  theme 
returns,  in  a  passionate  outpouring  from  the  violins.  Its  message  is 
conclusive,  and  at  last  passion  is  dispersed  as  the  strings  give  out  soft 
descending  pizzicato  scales  of  B  major.  The  strife  of  this  movement, 
with  its  questionings  and  its  outbreaks,  is  at  last  resolved. 


•As  the  string  figure  subsides  into  the  basses,  the  trombones  intone    (at  bar  201)    a  chant 
for  the  dead.    The  allusion  is  to  a  liturgy  of  the  Russian  church,  "May  he  rest  in  peace  with 

the  saints."    A  second  phrase  from  this  quotation  is  developed,  but  in  a  violent  and  purely 

symphonic  way. 


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asked  the  brahmin  of  the  brewer . . . 


"Pray  tell,  good  fellow,  why  not  a  beverage 
Brewed  in  a  fashion  a  bit  above  the  average? 
A  light-hearted  ale,  dry  refreshing  beer 
Worthy  of  a  connoisseur,  worthy  of  a  Peer?" 


"Matey,  you're  in  luck",  said  the  Brewer  to  the  Brahmin, 
"You  and  the  missus  and  the  Beacon  Hill  barman, 
For  Carling's  now  in  Natick,  brewing  ale  and  beer 
Worthy  of  a  connoisseur,  worthy  of  a  Peer." 


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The  second  movement,  an  Allegro  con  grazia  in  5/4  rhythm  through- 
out, has  relics  of  the  traditional  scherzo  in  its  repeats,  trio  and  da  capo, 
but  there  is  nothing  scherzo-like  in  its  mood.  It  moves  at  a  steady,  even 
pace,  gracefully  melodic,  a  foil  to  the  great  variety  of  tempo  and  the 
extreme  contrasts  of  the  movement  before.  The  main  section  offers  a 
relief  from  melancholy,  and  only  the  trio,  with  its  constant  descent  and 
its  reiteration  of  drumbeats,  throws  a  light  cloud  over  the  whole.  Here 
there  is  another  verbal  clue:  "Sweetly  and  plaintively"  ('Con  dolcezza 
e  flebile"). 

After  the  placidity  of  this  movement,  the  third  bursts  upon  the  scene 
with  shattering  effect.  It  seems  to  pick  up  the  fitful  storminess  of  the 
first  movement  and  gather  it  up  into  a  steady  frenzy.  Again  the  strings 
keep  up  a  constant  agitation  as  the  brass  strides  through  fragments  of 
a  martial  theme.  Pomp  is  here,  with  clashing  cymbals.  But  when  with 
a  final  abrupt  outburst  the  movement  has  ended,  the  frenzies  of  defiance 
(if  such  it  is)  are  completely  spent. 

Again  the  complete  contrast  of  a  dark  lamentation  in  the  strings, 
as  the  last  movement  begins.  With  its  melodic  descent,  its  dissonant 
chords,  the  symphony  here  reaches  its  darkest  moments.  Then  comes 
the  answering  theme  in  a  gentle  and  luminous  D  major.  "Con  lenezza 
e  devozione,"  the  composer  directs,  lest  we  miss  its  character  of  "gen- 
tleness and  devotion."  The  theme  is  sung  by  the  strings  over  soft  pul- 


Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 


A  few  desirable  seats  still  available  for  the 
subscription  series  of 

Six  Sunday  Afternoon  Concerts 

November  4  March  10 

December  2  March  31 

January  20  April  14 

Pierre  Monteux,  Jean  Martinon  —  Guest  Conductors 

Clara  Haskil,  Irmgard  Seefried  —  Soloists 

Prices:  $18,  $14.40,  $10.80 
Inquire  at  the  Subscription  Office,  Massachusetts  Avenue  entrance 

CO  6-1492 


[12] 


Jn  ifcttnriam 

In  Memory  of  Leslie  Judson  Rogers 
July  28,  1893  -  October  11,  1956 

In  the  death  of  Leslie  J.  Rogers,  its  librarian, 
the  Orchestra  has  suffered  the  loss  of  an  invaluable 
member.  His  association  with  the  Orchestra  began 
in  1912,  under  Dr.  Karl  Muck.  A  man  of  extraor- 
dinary knowledge  and  skill  in  his  profession  and 
complete  dedication  to  the  Orchestra,  Mr.  Rogers 
served,  as  only  he  could,  a  whole  generation  of  con- 
ductors and  composers  whose  works  were  per- 
formed at  these  concerts.  His  contribution  to  the 
musicians  and  the  musical  life  of  this  country  was 
truly  unique. 


Leon  Marjollet  died  in  Paris  on  September  20 
during  the  European  Tour,  whereby  the  cello  sec- 
tion has  been  deprived  of  one  of  its  most  valued 
players. 


Carlos  E.  Pinfield,  violinist  of  this  Orchestra 
from  1912  to  1955,  died  on  October  13.  After  his 
retirement  he  voluntarily,  and  successfully,  under- 
took to  increase  the  financial  support  for  the 
Orchestra. 


[13] 


sations  from  the  horns.  The  anguished  opening  theme  returns  in  more 
impassioned  voice  than  before.  But  when  this  voice  has  lapsed  into 
silence  in  the  dramatic  way  which  by  this  time  has  become  inevitable, 
there  comes  a  chain  of  soft  trombone  chords  that  might  well  have 
been  labelled  "con  devozione/'  and  once  more  there  is  heard  the  quiet 
descending  scale  theme  by  the  muted  strings.  Now  passion  is  gone  as 
well  as  violence,  as  the  melody  descends  into  the  deepest  register  of 
the  'cellos  and  melts  into  silence.  If  the  composer  ends  darkly,  he  is  at 
least  at  peace  with  himself.  Resignation  is  a  strange  word  to  use  for 
Tchaikovsky,  but  it  seems  to  fit  here. 

When  Tchaikovsky  conducted  the  first  performance  of  his  newly 
completed  Sixth  Symphony  in  1893,  one  might  reasonably  have 
expected  a  great  success  for  the  work.  The  composer  then  commanded 
favorable  attention,  having  attained  eminence  and  popularity  — 
though  nothing  remotely  approaching  the  immense  vogue  this  very 
symphony  was  destined  to  make  for  him  immediately  after  his  death, 
which  occurred  nine  days  after  the  first  performance.  The  composer 
believed  in  his  symphony  with  a  conviction  which  he  by  no  means 
always  felt  for  his  newest  scores  as  he  presented  them  to  the  world. 


Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 


6  OPEN  REHEARSALS 

on  THURSDAY  EVENINGS 
In  SYMPHONY  HALL  at  7:30  P.M. 

NOVEMBER  8  FEBRUARY  14 

NOVEMBER  29  MARCH  7 

DECEMBER  20  APRIL  4 


Season  tickets  for  the  six  rehearsals  will  be  distributed  through 
school  and  college  offices  and  at  Symphony  Hall  Box  Office  at 
$7.00  for  the  series.  Tickets,  if  any  remain,  will  be  sold  at  $2.00 
for  a  single  rehearsal.  NO  SEATS  ARE  RESERVED.  SERIES 
SALE  CLOSES  OCTOBER  31. 


[14] 


His  preliminary  doubts  about  the  melancholy  finale,  the  adagio  lamen- 
toso,  read  like  astonishment  at  his  own  temerity  in  having  followed 
his  own  artistic  dictates  with  so  sure  a  hand  against  all  symphonic 
tradition. 

He  had  good  reason  to  believe  that  the  broad  and  affecting  flood 
of  outpouring  emotion  would  sweep  the  first  audience  in  its  cur- 
rent. But  such  was  not  the  case.  The  performance,  according  to 
Tchaikovsky's  scrupulous  brother  Modeste,  "fell  rather  flat.  The  sym- 
phony was  applauded,  and  the  composer  recalled;  but  the  enthusiasm 
did  not  surpass  what  was  usually  shown  for  one  of  Tchaikovsky's  new 
compositions.  The  symphony  produced  nothing  approaching  that 
powerful  and  thrilling  impression  made  by  the  work  when  it  was 
conducted  by  Napravnik,  November  18,  and  .later,  wherever  it  was 
played."  The  critics,  too,  were  cool.  The  Viedemosti  found  "the 
thematic  material  not  very  original,  the  leading  subjects  neither  new 
nor  significant."  The  Syn  Otechestva  discovered  Gounod  in  the  first 
movement  and  Grieg  in  the  last,  and  the  Novoe  Vremja  drew  this 
astonishing  conclusion:  "As  far  as  inspiration  is  concerned  it  stands 
far  below  Tchaikovsky's  other  symphonies." 

Cases  such  as  this,  and  there  are  plenty  of  them,  where  a  subsequently 
acknowledged  masterpiece  first  meets  an  indifferent  reception,  invite 


Sanders    Theatre      •      Cambridge 


Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 


SECOND   CONCERT 

Tuesday  Evening,  January  22,  1957 

at  8.30  o'clock 


[15] 


speculation.  Was  the  tardy  general  acceptance  of  new  ideas  mostly  to 
blame,  or  was  the  first  audience  perhaps  beclouded  by  a  groping  and 
mediocre  performance,  intransigeance  on  the  part  of  the  players?  It 
would  seem  that  even  a  reasonably  straightforward  performance  of 
anything  quite  so  obvious  as  the  "Pathetic"  Symphony  should  have 
awakened  a  fair  degree  of  emotional  response. 

Mankind's  propensity  to  find  presentiments  of  death  in  the  sym- 
phony, which  Rimsky-Korsakov  had  plentiful  opportunity  to  observe, 
was  circumstantially  combated  by  Modeste  and  by  Kashkin,  who  were 
careful  to  account  for  each  of  Tchaikovsky's  actions  in  the  year  1893. 
There  are  quoted  a  number  of  letters  written  while  he  was  at  work 
upon  the  symphony;  he  speaks  about  the  progress  of  his  score,  always 
in  a  tone  of  buoyant  confidence  in  his  music.  Kashkin  last  saw  him 
shortly  before  the  performance  of  his  symphony;  Modeste  was  with 
him  until  the  end.  Both  say  that  he  was  in  unfailing  good  spirits. 
Death  was  mentioned  in  the  natural  course  of  conversation  at  the 
funeral  of  his  friend  Zvierev  in  October.  Zvierev,  as  it  happened,  was 
one  of  several  friends  who  had  died  in  close  succession.  Tchaikovsky 
talked  freely  with  Kashkin  at  this  time.  Friends  had  died;  who  would 
be  the  next  to  go?  "I  told  Peter,"  wrote  Kashkin,  "that  he  would  out- 
live us  all.  He  disputed  the  likelihood,  yet  added  that  he  had  never 
felt  so  well  and  happy."  And  from  Modeste:  "A  few  years  ago  one  such 
grief  would  have  affected  Tchaikovsky  more  keenly  than  all  of  them 
taken  together  seemed  to  do  at  this  juncture."  And  elsewhere:  "From 
the  time  of  his  return  from  England  (in  June)  until  the  end  of  his 
life,  Tchaikovsky  was  as  serene  and  cheerful  as  at  any  period  in  his 
existence." 

(copyrighted  I 


UNUSED  TICKETS 

In  the  present  completely  subscribed  season,  many  people  are  waiting 
for  an  opportunity  to  hear  a  Boston  Symphony  concert.  Subscribers  who 
at  any  time  are  unable  to  use  their  tickets  will  do  a  double  service  in  turn- 
ing them  in  for  resale. 

Please  telephone  the  Box  Office  at  Symphony  Hall  before  five  o'clock 
on  the  day  of  the  concert.   CO  6-1492. 


EDNA  NITKIN,  M.Mus. 

PIANIST 
ACCOMPANIST        TEACHER 

Studio :  500  Boylston  St.,  Copley  Sq. 
Boston  KE  6-4062 


[16] 


RCA    VICTOR    RECORDS 

BOSTON  SYMPHONY  ORCHESTRA 


Recorded  under  the  leadership  of  CHARLES  MUNCH 
Beethoven  Overtures  Leonore  Nos.  1,  2,  3 ;  "Fidelio" ;  "Coriolan" 
Symphonies  Nos.  5,  6,  7 
Violin  Concerto  (Heifetz) 
Berlioz  "Fantastic     Symphony";     Overture    to     "Beatrice    and     Benedick"; 
"Romeo  and  Juliet"  (complete)  ;  "Summer  Nights"  (De  Los  Angeles); 
"The  Damnation  of  Faust"  (complete) 
Brahms  Piano  Concerto  No.  2  (Rubinstein) 

Symphonies  Nos.  2,  4 ;  "Tragic  Overture" 
Bruch  Violin  Concerto  No.  1  (Menuhin) 
Chausson  "Poeme"  for  Violin  and  Orchestra  (Oistrakh) 
Chopin  Piano  Concerto  No.  2  (Brailowsky) 
Debussy  "The  Martyrdom  of  St.  Sebastian" ;  "Prelude  to  the  Afternoon  of  a 

Faun";  "The  Blessed  Damozel"  (De  Los  Angeles) 
Handel  "Water  Music"  Suite  (arr.  Harty) 
Haydn  Symphony  No.  104 
Honegger  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  5 
Lalo  Overture  to  "Le  Roi  d'Ys" 
Menotti  Violin  Concerto  (Spivakovsky) 
Mozart  Overture  to  "The  Marriage  of  Figaro" 
Ravel  "Daphnis  and  Chloe"  (complete)  ;  "Pavane" 

Newly  Recorded :   "Bolero"  ;  "La  Valse"  ;  "Rapsodie  Espagnole" 
Roussel  "Bacchus  and  Ariane,"  Suite  No.  2 

Saint-Saens  "Introduction  and  Rondo  Capriccioso"   (Oistrakh) 
Overture  to  "La  Princesse  Jaime" 
Piano  Concerto  No.  4  (Brailowsky) 
Schubert  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  8  ("Unfinished"  Symphony) 
Schumann  Overture  to  "Genoveva"         Symphony  No.  1 
Strauss  "Don  Quixote"  (Soloist,  Piatigorsky) 

Tchaikovsky  Violin  Concerto    (Milstein):  "Francesca  da  Rimini";  "Romeo 
and  Juliet"  ;  Symphony  No.  4 

Among  the  recordings  under  the  leadership  of  SERGE  KOUSSEVITZKY 


ach  Brandenburg  Concertos  Nos.  1,6; 
Suites  Nos.  1,  4 

eethoven  Symphonies  Nos.  3,  5,  9 
erlioz  "Harold  in  Italy"  (Primrose) 
rahms   Symphony   No.   3 ;   Violin   Con- 
certo (Heifetz) 

upland  "A  Lincoln  Portrait" ;  "Appala- 
chian Spring" ;  "El  Salon  Mexico" 

anson  Symphony  No.  3 

arris  Symphony  No.  3 

aydn  Symphonies  Nos.  92,  "Oxford" ; 
94,  "Surprise" 

hatchaturian  Piano  Concerto  (Kapell) 

endelssohn  Symphony  No.  4,  "Italian" 


Mozart  "Eine  kleine  Nachtmusik"  ;  Sere- 
nade No.  10,  for  Woodwinds;  Sym- 
phonies Nos.  30,  "Linz"  ;  39 

Prokofieff  "Classical"  Symphony;  "Lt. 
Kije"  Suite  ;  "Romeo  and  Juliet,"  Suite 
No.  2 ;  Symphony  No.  5 ;  Violin  Con- 
certo No.  2  (Heifetz) 

Rachmaninoff  "Isle  of  the  Dead" 

Ravel  "Bolero" ;  "Ma  Mere  L'Oye"  Suite 

Schubert  Symphony  in  B  Minor,  "Un- 
finished" 

Sibelius  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  5 

Strauss,  R.  "Don  Juan" 

Tchaikovsky  Serenade  in  C ;  Symphonies 
Nos.  4,  5 

Wagner  Siegfried  Idyll 


Recorded  under  the  leadership  of  PIERRE  MONTEUX 

ebussy  "La  Mer" ;  "Nocturnes"  Tchaikovsky   Symphony   No.  G,   "Pathe- 

iszt  "Les  Preludes"  tique" 
rozart  Piano  Concertos  Nos.  12,  18  (  Lili 

Kraus)  Delibes  Ballets  "Sylvia,"  "Coppelia"  by 

criabin  "The  Poem  of  Ecstasy"  Members    of    the    Boston    Symphony 

travinsky  "Le  Sacre  du  Printemps"  Orchestra 

Recorded  under  the  leadership  of  Leonard  Bernstein 
Stravinsky  "L'Histoire  du  Soldat"  ;  Octet  for  Wind  Instruments 


The  above  recordings  are  available  on  Long  Play  (33%  r.p.m.)  and  (in  some  cases  I 
5  r.p.m. 


Distinguished  Background 


"~  —'"        '*-ZJZ3       1 


Only  the  makers  of  the 
incomparable  Baldwin  Grand  could  produce  such  a  piano  as  the 
Acrosonic.  The  uncompromising  standards  of  piano  excellence 
that  have  been  an  integral  part  of  the  tradition  of  the  Baldwin 
Grand  Piano  constitute  a  distinguished  background  for  the 
creation  and  development  of  the  exquisite  Acrosonic  by  Baldwin. 


Sattttri 


in 


THE    BALDWIN    PIANO    COMPANY 

160  BOYLSTON  STREET 

BOSTON 


BALDWIN    GRAND    PIANOS    •    ACROSONIC    SPINET    PIANOS 
HAMILTON    VERTICAL    PIANOS    •    BALDWIN    and    ORGA-SONIC    ELECTRONIC    ORGANS 


BOSTON 

SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 


FOUNDED  IN  1881  BY 
HENRY  LEE  HIGGINSON 


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SEVENTY-SIXTH   SEASON 
1956-1957 

Sanders  Theatre,  Cambridge  \&farvard  University} 


Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

(Seventy-sixth  Season,  1956-1957) 
CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 

RICHARD   BURGIN,  Associate  Conductor 


Violins 
Richard  Burgin 
Concert-master 

Alfred  Krips 
George   Zazofsky 
Rolland  Tapley 
Norbert  Lauga 
Vladimir  Resnikoff 
Harry  Dickson 
Gottfried  Wilfinger 
Einar   Hansen 
Joseph  Leibovici 
Emil  Kornsand 
Roger  Shermont 

Minot  Beale 
Herman  Silberman 
Stanley  Benson 
Leo    Panasevich 

Sheldon  Rotenberg 
Fredy  Ostrovsky 

Clarence  Knudson 
Pierre  Mayer 

Manuel  Zung 
Samuel  Diamond 

Victor  Manusevitch 
James  Nagy 

Melvin  Bryant 
Lloyd  S  tones treet 
Saverio  Messina 
William  W#aterhouse 
William  Marshall 
Leonard  Moss 
Jesse  Ceci 
Noah  Bielski 
Alfred  Schneider 
Joseph  Silverstein 

Basses 

Georges  Moleux 
Gaston  Dufresne 
Ludwig  Juht 
Irving  Frankel 
Henry  Freeman 
Henry  Portnoi 
Henri  Girard 
John  Barwicki 


PERSONNEL 

Violas 
Joseph  de  Pasquale 
Jean  Cauhape 
Eugen  Lehner 
Albert  Bernard 

George  Humphrey 
Jerome  Lipson 

Robert  Karol 
Reuben  Green 

Bernard   Kadinoff 
Vincent  Mauricci 

John  Fiasca 
Earl  Hedberg 

Violoncellos 
Samuel  Mayes 
Alfred  Zighera 

Jacobus  Langendoen 
Mischa  Nieland 
Karl  Zeise 
Josef  Zimbler 

Bernard  Parronchi 
Martin  Hoherman 

Louis  Berger 
Richard  Kapuscinski 

Robert  Ripley 

Flutes 
Doriot  Anthony  Dwyer 
James  Pappoutsakis 
Phillip  Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George  Madsen 

Oboes 
Ralph  Gomberg 
Jean   Devergie 
John  Holmes 

English  Horn 
Louis  Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino  Cioffi 
Manuel  Valerio 
Pasquale  Cardillo 

Eb  Clarinet 

Bass  Clarinet 
Rosario  Mazzeo 


Bassoons 
Sherman  Walt 
Ernst  Panenka 
Theodore  Brewster 

Contra -Bassoon 
Richard  Plaster 

Horns 

James  Stagliano 
Charles  Yancich 

Harry  Shapiro 
Harold  Meek 
Paul  Keaney 
Osbourne  McConathy 

Trumpets 
Roger  Voisin 
Marcel  Lafosse 
Armando  Ghitalla 
Gerard  Goguen 

Trombones 

William  Gibson 
William  Moyer 
Kauko  Kahila 
Josef  Orosz 

Tuba 
K.  Vinal  Smith 

Harps 
Bernard  Zighera 
Olivia  Luetcke 

Timpani 

Everett  Firth 
Harold  Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles  Smith 
Harold  Thompson 
Arthur  Press 

Piano 
Bernard  Zighera 

Library 
Victor  Alpert 


Sanders  Theatre,  Cambridge  [Harvard  University] 


SEVENTY-SIXTH  SEASON,  1956-1957 

Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 
Richard  Burgin,  Associate  Conductor 


Concert  Bulletin  of  the 
Second  Concert 

TUESDAY  EVENING,  January  22 

with  historical  and  descriptive  notes  by 
John  N.  Burk 

The  TRUSTEES  of  the 
BOSTON  SYMPHONY  ORCHESTRA,  Inc. 

Henry  B.  Cabot  .         President 

Jacob  J.  Kaplan  .         Vice-President 

Richard  C.  Paine  .         Treasurer 

Talcott  M.  Banks,  Jr.  E.  Morton  Jennings,  Jr. 

Theodore  P.  Ferris  Michael  T.  Kelleher 

Alvan  T.  Fuller  Palfrey  Perkins 

Francis  W.  Hatch  Charles  H.  Stockton 

Harold  D.  Hodgkinson  Edward  A.  Taft 

C.  D.  Jackson  Raymond  S.  Wilkins 

Oliver  Wolcott 

TRUSTEES  EMERITUS 
Philip  R.  Allen  M.  A.  DeWolfe  Howe 

N.  Penrose  Hallo  well  Lewis  Perry 

Thomas  D.  Perry,  Jr.,  Manager 
G.  W.  Rector  )   Assistant  J.  J.  Brosnahan,  Assistant  Treasurer 

N.  S.  Shirk        j   Managers         Rosario  Mazzeo,  Personnel  Manager 

[1] 


THE  VIRTUOSO  MCHESTlUl^'V'™  \'-A.[ 

Borto*  Sraybny  OrdMtfn ..  .CM,  Ma*ek 


munch  in  person 

on  rca  Victor  records 


To  Charles  Munch,  conducting  is  not  a  profession  but  a 
sacred  calling.  And  this  dedication,  combined  with  the 
magnificence  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra,  brings 
you  performances  of  unmatched  power  and  beauty.  You 
feel  and  hear  this  devotion  whether  he  conducts  Ravel, 
Berlioz  or  Beethoven  . . .  whether  the  performance  is  in 
Symphony  Hail  or ...  on  RCA  Victor  Records,  of  course! 


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SEVENTY-SIXTH  SEASON  •   NINETEEN  HUNDRED  FIFTY-SIX  AND  FIFTY-SEVEN 


Second  Concert 

TUESDAY  EVENING,  January  22 


Program 


Britten Variations  for  String  Orchestra,  on  a  Theme  by 

Frank  Bridge,  Op.  10 
Introduction  and  Theme 

Variations:  Adagio  —  March  —  Romance  —  Aria  Italiana  —  Bourree  Classique 
—  Moto  perpetuo  —  Marcia  Funebre  —  Fugue  and  Finale. 

Ibert "Escales"  (Ports  of  Call) 

I.     Calme;  Assez  anime;  Calme 

II.     Modere,  tres  rythm£ 

(Solo  Oboe:  Ralph  Gomberg) 

III.     Anime;  modere 


INTERMISSION 


Brahms Symphony  No.  1,  in  C  minor,  Op.  68 

I.  Un  poco  sostenuto;  Allegro 

II.  Andante  sostenuto 

III.  Un  poco  allegretto  e  grazioso 

IV.  Adagio;  Allegro  non  troppo,  ma  con  brio 


Performances  by  this  orchestra  are  broadcast  each  week  on  Monday 
evenings  from  8:05  to  9:00  P.M.  on  the  NBC  Radio  Network.  (Nearest 
local  station  WJAR,  Providence.)  The  Friday  afternoon  concerts  at 
2:15  and  the  Saturday  evening  concerts  at  8:30  are  broadcast  direct 
each  week  by  Station  WGBH-FM. 

BALDWIN  PIANO  RCA  VICTOR  RECORDS 


[3] 


VARIATIONS  FOR  STRING  ORCHESTRA  ON  A  THEME  OF 

FRANK  BRIDGE,  Op.  10 

By  Benjamin  Britten 

Born  at  Lowestoft,  England,  November  22,  1913 


These  Variations  were  composed  in  1937  and  in  that  year  had  their  first  perform- 
ance, at  the  Salzburg  Festival.  They  were  performed  at  the  Boston  Symphony  Con- 
certs April  25-26,  1941,  and  February  3-4,  1950. 

The  brief  introduction  to  the  Variations  consists  of  broad  chords 
and  displayful  runs  and  trills.  The  theme  is  given  out  by  the  first 
violins  allegro  poco  lento.  It  is  to  be  varied  with  such  freedom  as  often 
to  be  scarcely  recognizable.  The  descending  interval  of  a  fifth  which 
begins  it  becomes  a  sort  of  earmark.  An  "Adagio"  follows,  consisting  of 
soft  chords  for  lower  strings  and  ornamental  passages  for  the  violins. 
There  is  a  lively  "March,"  light  and  staccato,  presto  alia  marcia.  An 
"Aria  Italiana"  follows,  allegro  brillante.  The  first  violins  with  orna- 
mental trills  suggest  the  operatic,  coloratura  style.  The  next  movement 
is  a  "Bourree  Classique,"  a  simple  but  strongly  rhythmed  movement 
with  a  pianissimo  middle  section.  A  Moto  Perpetuo  progresses  upon 
rapid  and  unremitting  sixteenth  notes  to  a  fortissimo  climax.  A  Marcia 
Funebre  follows.  The  final  Fugue  is  in  a  lively  12-8  rhythm,  sometimes 
suggestive,  as  it  gathers  impetus,  of  the  tarantella.  The  orchestra,  much 
divided,  attains  a  considerable  complexity  and  sets  forth  the  usual 
devices  of  augmentation  and  inversion.  At  last,  lento  e  solennet  the 
violins  revert  to  a  full-length  statement  of  the  theme.  The  orchestra 
ultimately  spreads  into  diaphanous  arpeggios,  punctuated  in  the  last 
measure  by  a  strong  chord.  A  "Wiener  Walz"  and  "Chant"  are  omitted 
in  this  performance. 

Benjamin  Britten  was  only  twelve  years  old  when  he  began  to  study 
with  Frank  Bridge,  his  fellow  English  composer,  who  remained  his 
life-long  friend.*  Mr.  Britten  attended  the  Royal  College  of  Music  of 
London,  where  John  Ireland  became  his  teacher  in  composition,  Arthur 
Benjamin  his  teacher  in  piano. 

It  was  in  1934,  when  the  composer  was  barely  of  age,  that  his  music, 
which  he  produced  with  considerable  regularity,  began  to  be  played. 
His  published  works  include  a  Sinfonietta  for  chamber  orchestra, 
1932;  Phantasy  for  oboe  and  strings,  1932;  Choral  Variations  A  Boy 
Was  Born,  1933;  Simple  Symphony  for  string  orchestra,  1934;  Holiday 
Tales  for  piano,  1934;   Te  Deum  for  chorus  and  organ,   1934;  Suite 

*  Frank  Bridge  conducted  his  own  orchestral  suite  "The  Sea"  at  the  concerts  of  the  Boston 
Symphony  Orchestra,  October  26,  1923.    He  died  in  1941. 

[4] 


for  Violin  and  Piano,  1935;  Friday  Afternoon,  School  Songs,  1935; 
Our  Hunting  Fathers,  symphonic  cycle  for  soprano  and  orchestra,  1936; 
Soirees  Musicales,  Suite  for  orchestra,  1936;  On  This  Island,  songs  by 
W.  H.  Auden,  1937;  Mont  Juic,  Catalan  Dance  Suite,  1937;  Piano 
Concerto,  1938;  Ballad  of  Heroes,  for  tenor,  chorus  and  orchestra, 
1939;  Violin  Concerto;  Les  Illuminations,  for  voice  and  string  orches- 
tra; Kermesse  Canadienne,  for  orchestra;  Sinfonia  da  Requiem  (in 
1940).  In  1940  also  he  composed  his  opera  Paul  Bunyan,  and  it  has 
been  in  the  following  years  that  he  has  established  himself  in  the  world 
of  opera.  Peter  Grimes  (introduced  to  this  country  by  the  Berkshire 
Music  Center  at  Tanglewood  in  1946)  has  been  followed  by  Albert 
Herring  (introduced  to  this  country  by  the  Berkshire  Music  Center  at 
Tanglewood,  1949),  The  Rape  of  Lucretia,  Billy  Budd,  The  Turn  of 
the  Screw,  Gloriana  (on  the  subject  of  his  Queen,  on  her  coronation). 
He  has  revised  The  Beggar's  Opera  and  recently  composed  a  children's 
opera  Let's  Make  an  Opera  in  which  the  audience  participates.  He  has 
written  a  cantata,  St.  Nicholas,  and  a  Spring  Symphony  with  chorus 
which  had  its  first  American  performance  at  the  Berkshire  Festival  in 
1949.  Mr.  Britten,  who  has  visited  this  country  several  times,  made  a 
tour  with  the  tenor  Peter  Pears,  accompanying  the  singer  and  conduct- 
ing his  own  music. 

[copyrighted] 


J2a 


CAMBRIDGE  TRUST  COMPANY 

Harvard  Square 

Our  Trust  Department  would 
welcome  your  inquiry. 

Member  Federal  Deposit  Insurance  Corporation 


[5] 


ESCALES    (PORTS  OF  CALL) 

By  Jacques  Ibert 

Born  in  Paris  on  August  15,  1890 


Escales,  composed  in  1922,  was  first  performed  at  a  Lamoureux  concert  in  Paris, 
January  6,  1924,  Paul  Paray  conducting.  Escales  had  its  first  American  performance 
at  the  concerts  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra  on  October  9-10,  1925,  the  open- 
ing concerts  of  Serge  Koussevitzky's  second  season.  It  was  performed  at  the  Berk- 
shire Festival  under  the  direction  of  Eleazar  de  Carvalho,  August  12,  1950,  when 
the  composer  was  present. 

The  score  requires  2  flutes  and  2  piccolos,  2  oboes  and  English  horn,  2  clarinets, 
3  bassoons,  4  horns,  3  trumpets,  3  trombones  and  tuba,  timpani,  side  drum,  tam- 
bourine, bass  drum,  cymbals,  triangle,  xylophone,  castanets,  tom-tom,  celesta,  2 
harps,  and  strings. 

Jacques  Ibert,  visiting  Tanglewood  in  1950  to  teach  in  the  Composi- 
tion Department  of  the  Berkshire  Music  Center,  was  questioned 
as  to  why  he  did  not  specify  any  ports  in  the  published  score  of 
Escales.  Mr.  Ibert  explained  that  he  was  reluctant  to  fasten  geographi- 
cal labels  upon  music  which,  growing  from  the  sights  and  sounds  he 
had  experienced,  was  nevertheless  his  own  and  intended  to  be  intel- 
ligible without  such  titles.  But  when  Escales  was  first  performed,  he 
admitted  to  the  French  publication  Courrier  Musical  that  he  had 
made  a  Mediterranean  cruise  and  touched  upon  the  ports  of  Palermo 
in  Sicily,  Tunis-Nefta  on  the  African  coast,  and  Valencia  in  Spain.  He 
explained  that,  using  no  theme  not  his  own,  he  willingly  subjected 
himself  to  the  tarantella  rhythms  of  Sicily  and  to  the  dance  music  he 
had  heard  in  the  Spanish  cabarets  (those  of  native  rather  than  tourist 
patronage).  In  Africa  too  he  has  borrowed  characteristic  musical  color, 
although  he  has  composed  his  second  movement  quite  in  his  own  way. 
The  second  movement,  identified  with  Tunis,  is  plainly  Oriental  in 
rhythm,  color,  and  percussive  resource.  It  is  conspicuous  for  the  use 
of  a  7-4  beat  and  for  extended  oboe  solo. 

When  Mr.  Ibert  was  a  guest  at  Tanglewood  his  opera  Le  Roi 
d'Yvetot  was  the  principal  production  of  the  Opera  Department.  In 
the  summer  of  1952,  his  farcical  one-act  opera  Angelique  was  per- 
formed there.  Other  operas  are  Per  see  et  Andromede,  Le  Jardinier  de 
Samos,  L'Aiglon  and  La  Famille  Cardinal  (the  last  two  in  collaboration 
with  Honegger),  Gonzague,  L'Uomo,  la  bestia,  e  la  virtu.  His  sym- 
phonic works  include,  besides  Escales,  Scherzo  feerique,  Ballade  de  la 
geole  de  Reading  (after  Oscar  Wilde,  originally  a  ballet),  Paris  Suite, 
Ouverture  de  fete,  Suite  elisabethaine.  Ballets  are:  Les  Rencontres, 
L'fiventail  de  Jeanne,  Diane  de  Poitiers,  Le  Chevalier  errant  (ballet 
opera);  choral  works:  Chant  de  folie,  Le  Poete  et  la  fee,  Berceuse  du 

[6] 


1925 

(Oct. 

9) 

1926 

(Apr. 

23) 

1926 

(Oct. 

22) 

1928 

(Oct. 

26) 

1939 

(Oct. 

20) 

Petit  Zebu  (a  cappella).  There  are  concertos  for  cello,  for  saxophone, 
and  for  flute,  a  Symphonie  concertante  for  two  oboes  and  strings;  the 
familiar  Divertissement  and  other  works  for  chamber  groups;  music 
for  piano  solo,  organ  solo,  the  song  suite  La  Verdure  doree. 


The  following  music  by  Ibert  has  been  performed  at  the  concerts 
of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra: 

Escales 

(First  performance  in  America) 

Chant  de  Folie  for  Chorus  and  Orchestra 
(First  performance)  , 

Les  Recontres,  Suite 
(First  performance  in  America) 

Feerique 

Concertino  da  Camera,  for  Alto  Saxophone  and  Orchestra 
Soloist  —  Sigurd  Rascher 

1954    (Jan-       8)     Concerto  for  Flute  and  Orchestra 
Soloist  —  Doriot  Anthony  Dwyer 

Attending  the  Conservatoire  in  Paris,  Ibert  studied  under  Andre 
Gedalge  and  Gabriel  Faure.  He  won  the  Prix  de  Rome  in  1919. 
Since  1937  he  has  been  Director  of  the  French  Academy  in  Rome.  In 
the  season  past  he  was  Director  of  the  Paris  Opera. 

The  following  characterization  by  Andre  George  in  the  Chesterian 
is  about  as  old  as  Escales,  but  may  be  considered  still  to  apply:  "There 
is  always  about  his  music,  as  about  his  person,  an  air  of  good-fellowship 
and  delicate  amiability  that  shows  the  artist  of  breeding.  He  pleases 
without  trifling.  Generously  gifted  as  he  is  in  many  directions,  his 
musical  temperament  expands  with  singular  felicity  in  the  orchestra, 
where  he  revels  in  the  subtlest  management  of  exquisite  sound  values. 
.  .  .  His  music  is  always  found  to  reflect  his  apt  sense  of  color  and 
his  gifts  of  contriving  those  iridescent  effects  which  are  so  striking  a 
feature  of  his  work." 

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[71 


ENTR'ACTE 

THE  MAN  WHO  MET  BRAHMS 
By  George  Marvill 

{Manchester  Guardian,  June  21,  1956) 


I  had  my  music  lessons  from  a  man  who  had  had  lessons  from  a  man 
who  had  had  lessons  from  a  man  who  had  been  a  pupil  of  Cipriani 
Potter,  who  was  a  pupil  of  Beethoven.  Furthermore,  I  used  to  know, 
and  to  speak  with  every  day,  a  man  to  whom  Brahms  had  given  a  cigar. 
For  these  reasons  I  like  to  think  that  the  virtues  inherent  in  the 
apostolic  laying-on  of  hands  are  operative  in  the  sphere  of  musical 
education;  that  some  dregs  of  divine  grace  linger,  however  imper- 
ceptibly, in  my  own  attempts  at  music-making. 

In  the  late  nineties  the  man  who  met  Brahms  came  to  England.  His 
two  elder  brothers  had  been  for  some  time  established  here  among  the 
band  of  German  industrialists  who  invaded  the  West  Riding  in  the 
latter  half  of  the  nineteenth  century.  Many  years  later,  when  he  was 
60  and  I  was  16,  when  the  trumpets  had  long  since  sounded  for 
Brahms  on  the  other  side,  the  man  who  met  Brahms  met  me.  I  entered 
his  employ  as  a  very  junior  clerk,  and  soon  learned  to  speak  of  him  as 
Mr.  Max,  to  distinguish  him  from  his  brothers,  Mr.  Fritz  and  Mr.  Her- 
mann. They  were  all  three  fussy  and  autocratic  little  men,  still  ad- 
dicted to  the  wearing  of  side-whiskers  and  silk  cravats  and  black 
frock-coats. 

For  a  long  time  I  never  associated  Mr.  Max  with  Brahms,  or  with 
anything  outside  the  realm  of  orders  and  quotations  and  red-lined 
accounts.  He  seemed  in  no  way  different  from  his  brothers  who, 
though  approaching  their  80s,  still  attended  the  office  every  day  from 
half-past  eight  to  at  least  half-past  six. 

Those  were  hard  days  in  the  office:  no  tea  break,  no  gossip  of  cricket 
or  football;  from  the  chief  clerk  downwards  we  perched  on  our  high 
office  stools,  speaking  only  of  business  and  engrossed,  apparently,  in 
our  tasks.  There  were,  of  course,  occasions  when  a  huge  calf-bound 
ledger  could  form  a  very  convenient  screen  for  a  newspaper  or  other 
extramural  reading  matter.  Had  it  not  been  so  I  should  probably 
never  have  made  the  discovery  that  Mr.  Max  was  a  man  who  had  met 
Brahms. 

He  approached  me  suddenly  one  day  round  a  corner.  I  closed  my 
ledger  with  a  snap  and  hastened  to  put  it  in  the  safe.  It  happened, 
however,  to  be  the  very  ledger  he  wished  to  consult. 

"Just  come  to  my  office,"  he  said,  trotting  away  with  the  book  under 
his  arm. 

I  followed  him  awkwardly  into  the  private  office.   Mr.  Fritz  and  Mr. 

[8] 


A  Concert  by 

THE  BOSTON  PERCUSSION  ENSEMBLE 

Assisted  by  30  Members 
of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

HAROLD  FARBERMAN,  Conductor- 

—  in  a  program  of  his  own  compositions  — 
JANUARY  31,  1957,  at  8:30  in  Jordan  Hall 

Theme  and  Three  Developments  for  Bassoon  and  Strings 
Bassoon:  Sherman  Walt 

Symphony  No.  1  for  Percussion  and  Strings 

Quartet  for  Flute,  Oboe,  Viola  and  Cello 

Flute:  Doriot  Anthony  Dwyer 
Oboe:  Ralph  Gomberg 
Viola:  Joseph  De  Pasquale 
Cello :  Samuel  Mayes 

"Evolution"  Music  for  Percussion,  with  Horn  and  Soprano 
Horn:   James  Stagliano        Soprano:   Dolores  Balbtga 


Rudolph  Elie  —  "The  Farberman  Percussion  Ensemble  made  an  important 
debut  and  it  is  hoped  its  concerts  will  become  an  annual  event." 

C,   W.   Durgin  —  "The   day   after  its    debut,   friends    gave    me   a   virtually 
speechless  account  of  this  remarkable  group." 

Harold   Rogers  —  "Harold  Farberman's   recording  of  his   own   'Evolution' 
on  Boston  Records  is  the  work  of  a  sensitive  composer." 

Jules   Wolff ers  —  "In  Boston  the  percussion   movement  had  its   principal 
protagonist  in  Harold  Farberman,  a  composer  of  acute  sensibility." 
J.  W.  Riley  —  "Farberman's  'Evolution'  is  a  work  that  probes  the  human 
consciousness  and  displays  some  rhythms  that  would  set  a  house  on  fire." 

Tickets  at  the  Jordan  Hall  Box  Office 
$3.30,  $2.75,  $2.20,  $1.65,  $1.10 

Management:  DEMETER  ZACHEREFF,  25  Huntington  Avenue  — 

Telephone  KEnmore  6-7993 


[9] 


Hermann  were  fortunately  both  out.  Mr.  Max  sat  down  before  his 
roll-top  desk  and  opened  the  ledger.  It  opened,  of  course,  at  the 
miniature  score. 

"What's  this?  What's  this?"  he  said.  It  was  Brahms's  Clarinet 
Quintet,  op.  115,  which  we  were  "taking"  just  then  at  the  musical 
appreciation  class,  though  I  did  not  like  to  say  so  and  maintained  an 
embarrassed  silence. 

Mr.  Max  was  silent,  too.  I  saw  to  my  amazement  that  he  was  reading 
the  score,  following  the  five  staves  with  his  eye  from  left  to  right  and 
turning  over  at  the  bottom  of  the  right-hand  page.  "So!"  he  said  when 
he  had  reached  the  end  of  the  first  section.   "You  are  a  musician?" 

"Not  really,  sir,"  I  replied.   "Just  a  —  a  student." 

He  looked  at  the  score  again.  "Quintet  for  Clarinet  and  Strings,  by 
Brahms.  . .  .  Did  you  know  I  was  myself  present  at  the  first  performance 
of  this?  I  also  was  a  student  then,  at  Munich  in  1891.  Young  Miihlfeld, 
about  my  age,  took  me  —  he  was  my  friend.  His  father  was  playing. 
Do  you  know  who  was  Miihlfeld?" 

"Yes,  sir,"  I  replied.  They  groomed  us  well  at  that  musical  appre- 
ciation class.  "Richard  Miihlfeld,  the  great  German  clarinettist,  a 
friend  of  Brahms." 

"So!  .  .  .  There  was  a  reception  afterwards;  young  Miihlfeld  took  me 
with  him.  Brahms  offered  us  all  cigars.  He  offered  one  to  me."  Sud- 
denly Mr.  Max  did  something  amazing;  nobody  in  the  office  had  ever 
known  him  do  it  before.   He  chuckled. 

"I  took  a  cigar  from  the  box  and  thought  to  myself,  'I  will  not  smoke 
this.  I  will  keep  it  always  and  sometimes  show  it  to  my  friends  and 
say:  "This  cigar  was  given  to  me  by  Johannes  Brahms  after  the  first 
performance  of  his  Clarinet  Quintet."  '  But  Brahms  saw  me  as  I  was 
putting  the  cigar  in  my  pocket.  'Do  you  not  smoke?'  he  asked.  'Yes, 
Herr  Doktor,'  I  said,  'but  I  should  like  to  keep  this  as  a  souvenir  of 
this  very  great  occasion.'  Brahms  was  very  angry.  'That  is  one  of  my 
best  cigars,'  he  said.  'They  are  much  too  good  not  to  be  smoked.  Give 
it  back  to  me.'  So  he  took  the  cigar  away  from  me  and  put  it  between 
his  own  lips.  I  felt  very  much  ashamed.  .  .  .  The  Herr  Doktor  was 
sorry  for  me,  I  think,  for  presently  he  brought  another  box  of  cigars. 
'These  are  very  bad  cigars,'  he  said.  'Take  one  for  your  souvenir.  It 
will  keep  well.  And  now  let  us  see  you  smoke.'  He  offered  me  another 
cigar  from  the  good  box.  I  smoked  it  and  was  afterwards  very  sick.  .  .  . 
I  have  the  bad  cigar  still." 

We  were  silent  for  a  little  while  on  a  peak  in  Munich,  in  1891, 
among  flutes,  violins,  bassoons,  and  double  basses,  tankards  of  German 
beer  and  the  odour  of  cigars.  Then  the  top-hatted  heads  of  Mr.  Fritz 
and  Mr.  Hermann,  returning  from  Bradford,  passed  the  window. 
Almost  crossly  Mr.  Max  thrust  the  score  of  the  quintet  at  me.  "Take  it 
away,  take  it  away!"  he  said.  "Put  it  in  your  pocket.  We  do  not  come 
here  to  play.  .  .  .  Where  is  Higginbottom's  account?" 

[10] 


asked  the  brahmin  of  the  brewer . . . 


"Pray  tell,  good  fellow,  why  not  a  beverage 
Brewed  in  a  fashion  a  bit  above  the  average? 
A  light-hearted  ale,  dry  refreshing  beer 
Worthy  of  a  connoisseur,  worthy  of  a  Peer?" 


"Matey,  you're  in  luck",  said  the  Brewer  to  the  Brahmin, 
"You  and  the  missus  and  the  Beacon  Hill  barman, 
For  Carling's  now  in  Natick,  brewing  ale  and  beer 
Worthy  of  a  connoisseur,  worthy  of  a  Peer." 


CARLING    BREWING    CO. 


[»] 


SYMPHONY  IN  C  MINOR,  NO.  1,  Op.  68 

By  Johannes  Brahms 

Born  in  Hamburg,  May  7,  1833;  died  in  Vienna,  April  3,  1897 


The  First  Symphony  of  Brahms  had  its  initial  performance  November  4,  1876, 
at  Carlsruhe,  Otto  Dessoff  conducting. 

The  symphony  is  scored  for  2  flutes,  2  oboes,  2  clarinets,  2  bassoons,  contra- 
bassoon,  4  horns,  2  trumpets,  3  trombones,  timpani  and  strings  The  trombones 
are  used  only  in  the  finale. 

Not  until  he  was  forty-three,  did  Brahms  present  his  First  Sym- 
phony to  the  world.  His  friends  had  long  looked  to  him  ex- 
pectantly to  carry  on  this  particular  glorious  German  tradition.  As 
early  as  1854  Schumann,  who  had  staked  his  strongest  prophecies  on 
Brahms'  future,  wrote  to  Joachim:  "But  where  is  Johannes?  Is  he  flying 
high,  or  only  under  the  flowers?  Is  he  not  yet  ready  to  let  drums  and 
trumpets  sound?  He  should  always  keep  in  mind  the  beginning  of  the 
Beethoven  symphonies:  he  should  try  to  make  something  like  them. 
The  beginning  is  the  main  thing;  if  only  one  makes  a  beginning,  then 
the  end  comes  of  itself."  Schumann,  that  shrewd  observer,  knew  that 
the  brief  beginnings  of  Brahms  were  apt  to  germinate,  to  expand,  to 
lead  him  to  great  ends.  Also,  that  Beethoven,  symphonically  speaking, 
would  be  his  point  of  departure. 

To  write  a  symphony  after  Beethoven  was  "no  laughing  matter," 
Brahms  once  wrote,  and  after  sketching  a  first  movement  he  admitted 
to  Hermann  Levi  —  "I  shall  never  compose  a  symphony  1  You  have  no 
conception  of  how  the  likes  of  us  feel  when  we  hear  the  tramp  of  a 
giant  like  him  behind  us." 

To  study  Brahms  is  to  know  that  this  hesitancy  was  not  prompted 
by  any  craven  fear  of  the  hostile  pens  which  were  surely  lying  in  wait 
for  such  an  event  as  a  symphony  from  the  newly  vaunted  apostle  of 
classicism.  Brahms  approached  the  symphony  (and  the  concerto  too) 
slowly  and  soberly;  no  composer  was  ever  more  scrupulous  in  the  com- 
mitment of  his  musical  thoughts  to  paper.  He  proceeded  with  elaborate 
examination  of  his  technical  equipment  —  with  spiritual  self-question- 
ing —  and  with  unbounded  ambition.  The  result  —  a  period  of  fourteen 
years  between  the  first  sketch  and  the  completed  manuscript;  and  a 
score  which,  in  proud  and  imposing  independence,  in  advance  upon  all 
precedent  —  has  absolutely  no  rival  among  the  first-born  symphonies, 
before  or  since. 

His  first  attempt  at  a  symphony,  made  at  the  age  of  twenty,  was 
diverted  in  its  aim,  the  first  two  movements  eventually  becoming  the 
basis  of  his  piano  concerto  No.  1,  in  D  minor.  He  sketched  another 

[12] 


first  movement  at  about  the  same  time  (1854),  but  it  lay  in  his  desk  for 
years  before  he  felt  ready  to  take  the  momentous  plunge.  "For  about 
fourteen  years  before  the  work  appeared,"  writes  D.  Millar  Craig,* 
"it  was  an  open  secret  among  Brahms'  best  friends  that  his  first  sym- 
phony was  practically  complete.  Professor  Lipsius  of  Leipzig  Univer- 
sity, who  knew  Brahms  well  and  had  often  entertained  him,  told  me 
that  from  1862  onwards,  Brahms  almost  literally  carried  the  manu- 
script score  about  with  him  in  his  pocket,  hesitating  to  have  it  made 
public.  Joachim  and  Frau  Schumann,  among  others,  knew  that  the 
symphony  was  finished,  or  at  all  events  practically  finished,  and  urged 
Brahms  over  and  over  again  to  let  it  be  heard.  But  not  until  1876  could 
his  diffidence  about  it  be  overcome." 

It  would  be  interesting  to  follow  the  progress  of  the  sketches.  We 
know  from  Madame  Schumann  that  she  found  the  opening,  as  origi- 
nally submitted  to  her,  a  little  bold  and  harsh,  and  that  Brahms  ac- 
cordingly put  in  some  softening  touches.  "It  was  at  Miinster  am  Stein," 
(1862)  says  Albert  Dietrich,  "that  Brahms  showed  me  the  first  move- 
ment of  his  symphony  in  C  minor,  which,  however,  only  appeared 
much  later,  and  with  considerable  alterations." 


*  British  Broadcasting  Corporation  Orchestra  program  notes. 


Sanders    Theatre      •      Cambridge 


Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 


THIRD   CONCERT 

Tuesday  Evening,   February  19,   1957 
at  8.30  o'clock 

A  few  tickets  still  available  for  this  concert  and  the  remaining  concerts 
of  the  series  at  Sanders  Theatre 

February  19  March  26 

March  12  April  9 

Call  Subscription  Office  -  SYMPHONY  HALL  -  CO  6-1492 

[13] 


At  length  (November  4,  1876),  Brahms  yielded  his  manuscript  to 
Otto  Dessoff  for  performance  at  Carlsruhe.  He  himself  conducted  it  at 
Mannheim,  a  few  days  later,  and  shortly  afterward  at  Vienna,  Leipzig, 
and  Breslau.  Brahms  may  have  chosen  Carlsruhe  in  order  that  so  cru- 
cial an  event  as  the  first  performance  of  his  first  symphony  might  have 
the  favorable  setting  of  a  small  community,  well  sprinkled  with  friends, 
and  long  nurtured  in  the  Brahms  cause.  "A  little  town,"  he  called  it, 
"that  holds  a  good  friend,  a  good  conductor,  and  a  good  orchestra." 
Brahms'  private  opinion  of  Dessoff,  as  we  now  know,  was  none  too  high. 
But  Dessoff  was  valuable  as  a  propagandist.  He  had  sworn  allegiance 
to  the  Brahms  colors  by  resigning  from  his  post  as  conductor  of  the 
Vienna  Philharmonic  because  Brahms'  Serenade  in  A  major  was  re- 
fused. A  few  years  before  Dessoff  at  Carlsruhe,  there  had  been  Hermann 
Levi,  who  had  dutifully  implanted  Brahms  in  the  public  consciousness. 

Carlsruhe  very  likely  felt  honored  by  the  distinction  conferred  upon 
them  —  and  in  equal  degree  puzzled  by  the  symphony  itself.  There  was 
no  abundance  of  enthusiasm  at  these  early  performances,  although 
Carlsruhe,  Mannheim  and  Breslau  were  markedly  friendly.  The  sym- 
phony seemed  formidable  at  the  first  hearing,  and  incomprehensible 
—  even  to  those  favored  friends  who  had  been  allowed  an  advance  ac- 


Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 


FOURTH   OPEN   REHEARSAL 

THURSDAY  EVENING 

FEBRUARY  14 

In  SYMPHONY  HALL  at  7:30 


TICKETS  AT  BOX  OFFICE,  $2.00 


[H] 


quaintance  with  the  manuscript  score,  or  a  private  reading  as  piano 
duet,  such  as  Brahms  and  Ignatz  Brull  gave  at  the  home  of  Friedrich 
Ehrbar  in  Vienna.  Even  Florence  May  wrote  of  the  "clashing  disso- 
nances of  the  first  introduction."  Respect  and  admiration  the  symphony 
won  everywhere.  It  was  apprehended  in  advance  that  when  the  com- 
poser of  the  Deutsches  Requiem  at  last  fulfilled  the  prophecies  of  Schu- 
mann and  gave  forth  a  symphony,  it  would  be  a  score  to  be  reckoned 
with.  No  doubt  the  true  grandeur  of  the  music,  now  so  patent  to  every- 
one as  by  no  means  formidable,  would  have  been  generally  grasped  far 
sooner,  had  not  the  Brahmsians  and  the  neo-Germans  immediately 
raised  a  cloud  of  dust  and  kept  their  futile  controversy  raging  for  years. 
The  First  Symphony  soon  made  the  rounds  of  Germany,  enjoying 
a  particular  success  in  Berlin,  under  Joachim  (November  11,  1877).  In 
March  of  the  succeeding  year  it  was  also  heard  in  Switzerland  and  Hol- 
land. The  manuscript  was  carried  to  England  by  Joachim  for  a  per- 
formance in  Cambridge,  and  another  in  London  in  April,  each  much 
applauded.  The  first  performance  in  Boston  took  place  January  3, 
1878,  under  Carl  Zerrahn  and  the  Harvard  Musical  Association.  When 
the  critics  called  it  "morbid,"  "strained,"  "unnatural,"  "coldly  elabo- 


Friends  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra — 
travel  with  yonr  Orchestra  in  Europe! 


A  special  meeting  of  the  Friends  will  take  place  on  Thurs- 
day afternoon,  February  14,  at  4  o'clock.  It  will  be  open  to 
Friends  only.  Mr.  J.  Edward  Fitzgerald  of  United  Press  News 
Pictures,  who  travelled  with  the  Orchestra  last  summer,  will 
show  colored  slides  of  the  European  tour. 

Each  Friend  enrolled  by  February  7,  will  receive  by  mail 

a  card  of  admission. 

Palfrey  Perkins 

Chairman 


[15] 


rated,"  "depressing  and  unedifying,"  Zerrahn,  who  like  others  of  his 
time  knew  the  spirit  of  battle,  at  once  announced  a  second  perform- 
ance for  January  31.  Sir  George  Henschel,  an  intrepid  friend  of 
Brahms,  performed  the  C  minor  Symphony,  with  other  works  of  the 
composer,  in  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra's  first  year. 

Still  more  ink  has  been  expended  on  a  similarity  admitted  even  by 
Florence  May  between  the  expansive  and  joyous  C  major  melody  sung 
by  the  strings  in  the  Finale,  and  the  theme  of  the  Hymn  to  Joy  in 
Beethoven's  Ninth.  The  enemy  of  course  raised  the  cry  of  "plagiarism." 
But  a  close  comparison  of  the  two  themes  shows  them  quite  different 
in  contour.  Each  has  a  diatonic,  Volkslied  character,  and  each  is  in- 
troduced with  a  sudden  radiant  emergence.  The  true  resemblance 
between  the  two  composers  might  rather  lie  in  this,  that  here,  as  pat- 
ently as  anywhere,  Brahms  has  caught  Beethoven's  faculty  of  soaring 
to  great  heights  upon  a  theme  so  naively  simple  that,  shorn  of  its 
associations,  it  would  be  about  as  significant  as  a  subject  for  a  musical 
primer.  Beethoven  often,  and  Brahms  at  his  occasional  best,  could  lift 
such  a  theme,  by  some  strange  power  which  entirely  eludes  analysis, 
to  a  degree  of  nobility  and  melodic  beauty  which  gives  it  the  unmis- 
takable aspect  of  immortality. 

[copyrighted] 


r^y 


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PIANIST 

ACCOMPANIST        TEACHER 

Studio :   500  Boylston  St.,  Copley  Sq. 

Boston  KE  6-4062 


[16] 


RCA    VICTOR    RECORDS 

BOSTON  SYMPHONY  ORCHESTRA 


Recorded  under  the  leadership  of  CHARLES  MUNCH 
Beethoven  Overtures  Leonore  Nos.  1,  2,  3 ;  "Fidelio" ;  "Coriolan" 
Symphonies  Nos.  5,  6,  7 
Violin  Concerto  (Heifetz) 
Berlioz  "Fantastic    Symphony";     Overture    to    "Beatrice    and    Benedick": 
"Romeo  and  Juliet"  (complete)  ;  "Summer  Nights"  (De  Los  Angeles): 
"The  Damnation  of  Faust"  (complete) 
Brahms  Piano  Concerto  No.  2  (Rubinstein) 

Symphonies  Nos.  2,  4 ;  "Tragic  Overture" 
Bruch  Violin  Concerto  No.  1  (Menuhin) 
Chausson  "Poeme"  for  Violin  and  Orchestra  (Oistrakh) 
Chopin  Piano  Concerto  No.  2  (Brailowsky) 
Debussy  "The  Martyrdom  of  St.  Sebastian" ;  "Prelude  to  the  Afternoon  of  a 

Faun";  "The  Blessed  Damozel"  (De  Los  Angeles) 
Handel  "Water  Music"  Suite  (arr.  Harty) 
Haydn  Symphony  No.  104 
Honegger  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  5 
Lalo  Overture  to  "Le  Roi  d'Ys" 
Menotti  Violin  Concerto  (  Spivakovsky  ) 
Mozart  Overture  to  "The  Marriage  of  Figaro" 
Ravel  "Daphnis  and  Chloe"  (complete)  ;  "Pa vane" 

Newly  Recorded :   "Bolero"  ;  "La  Valse" ;  "Rapsodie  Espagnole" 
Roussel  "Bacchus  and  Ariane,"  Suite  No.  2 

Saint-Saens  "Introduction  and  Rondo  Capriccioso"   (Oistrakh) 
Overture  to  "La  Princesse  Jaune" 
Piano  Concerto  No.  4  (Brailowsky) 
Schubert  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  8  ("Unfinished"  Symphony) 
Schumann  Overture  to  "Genoveva"        Symphony  No.  1 
Strauss  "Don  Quixote"  (Soloist,  Piatigorsky) 

Tchaikovsky  Violin  Concerto   (  Milstein  )  ;  "Francesca  da  Rimini" ;  "Romeo 
and  Juliet"  ;  Symphony  No.  4 

Among  the  recordings  under  the  leadership  of  SERGE  KOUSSEVITZKY 


Bach  Brandenburg  Concertos  Nos.  1,  6; 
Suites  Nos.  1,  4 

Beethoven  Symphonies  Nos.  3,  5,  9 

Berlioz  "Harold  in  Italy"  (Primrose) 

Brahms  Symphony  No.  3 ;  Violin  Con- 
certo (Heifetz) 

Copland  "A  Lincoln  Portrait";  "Appala- 
chian Spring" ;  "El  Salon  Mexico" 

Hanson  Symphony  No.  3 

Harris  Symphony  No.  3 

Haydn  Symphonies  Nos.  92,  "Oxford" : 
94,  "Surprise" 

Khatchaturian  Piano  Concerto  (Kapell) 

Mendelssohn  Symphony  No.  4,  "Italian" 


Mozart  "Eine  kleine  Nachtmusik" ;  Sere- 
nade No.  10,  for  Woodwinds;  Sym- 
phonies Nos.  36,  "Linz"  ;  39 

Prokofieff  "Classical"  Symphony;  "Lt. 
Kije"  Suite  ;  "Romeo  and  Juliet,"  Suite 
No.  2 ;  Symphony  No.  5 ;  Violin  Con- 
certo No.  2  (Heifetz) 

Rachmaninoff  "Isle  of  the  Dead" 

Ravel  "Bolero" ;  "Ma  Mere  L'Oye"  Suite 

ScJiubert  Symphony  in  B  Minor,  "Un- 
finished" 

Sibelius  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  5 

Strauss,  R.  "Don  Juan" 

Tchaikovsky  Serenade  in  C;  Symphonies 
Nos.  4,  5 

Wagner  Siegfried  Idyll 


Recorded  under  the  leadership  of  PIERRE  MONTEUX 

Debussy  "La  Mer" ;  "Nocturnes"  Tchaikovsky   Symphony   No.  6,   "Pathe- 

lAszt  "Les  Preludes"  tique" 
Mozart  Piano  Concertos  Nos.  12,  18  (  Lili 

Kraus)  Delibes  Ballets  "Sylvia,"  "Coppelia"  by 

Scriabin  "The  Poem  of  Ecstasy"  Members    of    the    Boston    Symphony 

Stravinsky  "Le  Sacre  du  Printemps"  Orchestra 

Recorded  imder  the  leadership  of  Leonard  Bernstein 
Stravinsky  "L'Histoire  du  Soldat" ;  Octet  for  Wind  Instruments 


The  above  recordings  are  available  on  Long  Play  (33%  r.p.m.)  and  (in  some  cases) 
45  r.n.m. 


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both  the  beautiful  Baldwin  Grand  Piano  and  the  wonderfully 
companionable  Orga-sonic  Spinet  Organ  by  Baldwin.  Truly, 
two  hearts  that  beat  as  one. 


THE  BALDWIN  PIANO  COMPANY 

160  BOYLSTON  STREET 

BOSTON 


BALDWIN    GRAND    PIANOS 
HAMILTON   STUDIO   PIANOS 


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BALDWIN   AND   ORGA-SONIC   ELECTRONIC   ORGANS 


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BOSTON 

SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 


FOUNDED  IN  1881  BY 
HENRY  LEE  HIGGINSON 


m 


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SEVENTY-SIXTH   SEASON 
1956-1957 

Sanders  Theatre,  Cambridge  [harvard  University] 


Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

(Seventy-sixth  Season,  1956-1957) 
CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 

RICHARD   B1JRGIN,  Associate   Conductor 


Violins 
Richard  Burgin 
Concert-master 

Alfred  Krips 

George   Zazofsky 
Rolland  Tapley 

Norbert  Lauga 
Vladimir  Resnikoff 
Harry  Dickson 
Gottfried  Wilfinger 
Einar   Hansen 
Joseph  Leibovici 
Emil  Kornsand 
Roger  Shermont 

Minot  Beale 
Herman  Silberman 
Stanley  Benson 
Leo    Panasevich 

Sheldon  Rotenberg 
Fredy  Ostrovsky 

Clarence  Knudson 
Pierre  Mayer 

Manuel  Zung 
Samuel  Diamond 

Victor  Manusevitch 
James  Nagy 

Melvin  Bryant 
Lloyd  S  tones  treet 
Saverio  Messina 
William  Waterhouse 
William  Marshall 
Leonard  Moss 
Jesse  Ceci 
Noah  Bielski 
Alfred  Schneider 
Joseph  Silverstein 

Basses 

Georges  Moleux 
Gaston  Dufresne 

Irving  Frankel 
Henry  Freeman 
Henry  Portnoi 
Henri  Girard 
John  Barwicki 


PERSONNEL 

Violas 
Joseph  de  Pasquale 
Jean  Cauhape 

Eugen  Lehner 
Albert  Bernard 

George  Humphrey 
Jerome  Lipson 
Robert  Karol 
Reuben  Green 

Bernard   Kadinoff 
Vincent  Mauricci 
John  Fiasca 
Earl  Hedberg 

Violoncellos 
Samuel  Mayes 
Alfred  Zighera 

Jacobus  Langendoen 
Mischa  Nieland 
Karl  Zeise 
Josef  Zimbler 

Bernard  Parronchi 
Martin  Hoherman 
Louis   Berger 
Richard  Kapuscinski 
Robert  Ripley 

Flutes 
Doriot  Anthony  Dwyer 
James  Pappoutsakis 
Phillip  Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George  Madsen 

Oboes 
Ralph  Gomberg 
Jean  Devergie 
John  Holmes 

English  Horn 
Louis  Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino  Cioffi 
Manuel  Valerio 
Pasquale  Cardillo 

E\>   Clarinet 

Bass  Clarinet 
Rosario  Mazzeo 


Bassoons 
Sherman  Walt 
Ernst  Panenka 
Theodore  Brewster 

Contra- Bassoon 
Richard  Plaster 

Horns 

James  Stagliano 
Charles  Yancich 

Harry  Shapiro 
Harold  Meek 
Paul  Keaney 
Osbourne  McConathy 

Trumpets 
Roger  Voisin 
Marcel  Lafosse 
Armando  Ghitalla 
Gerard  Goguen 

Trombones 

William  Gibson 
William  Moyer 
Kauko  Kabila 
Josef  Orosz 

Tuba 
K.  Vinal  Smith 

Harps 

Bernard  Zighera 
Olivia  Luetcke 

Timpani 

Everett  Firth 
Harold  Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles  Smith 
Harold  Thompson 
Arthur  Press 

Piano 
Bernard  Zighera 

Library 
Victor  Alpert 


Sanders  Theatre,  Cambridge  [Harvard  University] 


SEVENTY-SIXTH  SEASON,  1956-1957 

Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 
Richard  Burgin,  Associate  Conductor 


Concert  Bulletin  of  the 
Third  Concert 

TUESDAY  EVENING,  February  19 

with  historical  and  descriptive  notes  by 
John  N.  Burk 

The  TRUSTEES  of  the 
BOSTON  SYMPHONY  ORCHESTRA,  Inc. 

Henry  B.  Cabot  .         President 

Jacob  J.  Kaplan  .         Vice-President 

Richard  C.  Paine  .         Treasurer 

Talcott  M.  Banks,  Jr.  E.  Morton  Jennings,  Jr. 

Theodore  P.  Ferris  Michael  T.  Kelleher 

Alvan  T.  Fuller  Palfrey  Perkins 

Francis  W.  Hatch  Charles  H.  Stockton 

Harold  D.  Hodgkinson  Edward  A.  Taft 

C.  D.  Jackson  Raymond  S.  Wilkins 

Oliver  Wolcott 

TRUSTEES  EMERITUS 
Philip  R.  Allen  M.  A.  DeWolfe  Howe 

N.  Penrose  Hallo  well  Lewis  Perry 


Thomas  D.  Perry,  Jr.,  Manager 
G.  W.  Rector  )  Assistant  J.  J.  Brosnahan,  Assistant  Treasurer 

N.  S.  Shirk        J   Managers         Rosario  Mazzeo,  Personnel  Manager 

[1] 


Munch5 

conducts  Beethoven  V 

PASTORAL  SYMPHOKY 

Boston  Symphony     -,,'. 


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*LONG   PLAY    $3.98     45   EP    $3.98 


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munch  in  person 

on  rca  Victor  records 


To  Charles  Munch,  conducting  is  not  a  profession  but  a 
sacred  calling.  And  this  dedication,  combined  with  the 
magnificence  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra,  brings 
you  performances  of  unmatched  power  and  beauty.  You 
feel  and  hear  this  devotion  whether  he  conducts  Ravel, 
Berlioz  or  Beethoven  . . .  whether  the  performance  is  in 
Symphony  Hall  or ...  on  RCA  Victor  Records,  of  course! 


THE 
WORLD'S 
GREATEST 
ARTISTS 

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mmttm*"H»*  OrthopWc"  High  Fidelity  ReewUof.  ktnu  RCA  Victor  "New  OrtkophooW"   Hit*  Fidelity  "VktroU." 


[2] 


SEVENTY-SIXTH  SEASON  •  NINETEEN  HUNDRED  FIFTY-SIX  AND  FIFTY-SEVEN 


Third  Concert 


TUESDAY  EVENING,  February  19 


Program 

RICHARD  BURGIN,  Conductor 


Vaughan  Williams Fantasia  on  a  Theme  by  Thomas  Tallis, 

for  Double  String  Orchestra 

Beethoven Symphony  No.  5,  in  C  minor,  Op.  67 

I.  Allegro  con  brio 

II.  Andante  con  moto 

III.  J  Allegro;  Trio 

IV.  I  Allegro 

INTERMISSION 

Shostakovitch Symphony  No.  5,  Op.  47 

I.  Moderato 

II.  Allegretto 

III.  Largo 

IV.  Allegro  non  troppo 


Performances  by  this  orchestra  are  broadcast  each  week  on  Monday 
evenings  from  8:05  to  9:00  P.M.  on  the  NBC  Radio  Network.  (Nearest 
local  station  WJAR,  Providence.)  The  Friday  afternoon  concerts  at 
2:15  and  the  Saturday  evening  concerts  at  8:30  are  broadcast  direct 
each  week  by  Station  WGBH-FM. 

BALDWIN  PIANO  RCA  VICTOR  RECORDS 


[3] 


RICHARD  BURGIN 

"O  ichard  Burgin  studied  with  Lotto,  later  with  Joachim  in  Berlin, 
*^-  and  from  the  years  1908  to  1912  with  Leopold  Auer  in  Leningrad, 
where  he  was  a  fellow  pupil  with  Toscha  Seidel  and  a  boy  named 
Jascha  Heifetz.  His  first  public  appearance  was  at  the  age  of  eleven  as 
soloist  with  the  Warsaw  Philharmonic  Society  on  December  7,  1903. 
He  was  concertmaster  and  soloist  of  the  Leningrad  Symphony  Orches- 
tra, the  Helsinki  Symphony  Orchestra,  the  Christiania  (now  Oslo) 
Philharmonic  Society,  and  the  Stockholm  Concert  Society.  As  concert- 
master  he  had  served,  before  he  came  to  Boston,  under  two  former 
conductors  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra,  Messrs.  Max  Fiedler 
and  Arthur  Nikisch,  likewise  as  concertmaster  under  Richard  Strauss, 
Schneevoigt,  the  Finnish  conductor,  and  under  Sibelius  in  Helsinki. 
At  Stockholm  and  Christiania  he  was  assistant  teacher  with  Auer  in 
1916-17.  In  Christiania  he  led  a  string  quartet,  and  in  Stockholm 
formed  the  Burgin  Quartet.  In  the  fall  of  1920  he  came  to  America 
to  be  concertmaster  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra.  In  1921,  he 
organized  the  Burgin  String  Quartet.  Mr.  Burgin  is  the  Associate 
Conductor  of  the  Orchestra,  and  has  conducted  many  concerts.  On 
the  faculty  of  the  Berkshire  Music  Center  at  Tanglewood  he  is  in 
charge  of  the  chamber  music  and  has  often  conducted  amateur  or 
student  orchestras. 

France  made  him  Chevalier  of  the  Legion  of  Honor  in  1955. 


FANTASIA  ON  A  THEME  BY  THOMAS  TALLIS,  for  Double 

String  Orchestra 

By  Ralph  Vaughan  Williams 

Born  at  Down  Ampney,  between  Gloucestershire  and  Wiltshire,  England, 

October  12,  1872 


This  Fantasia  was  written  for  the  Gloucester  Festival  of  1910,  where  it  had  its 
first  performance  in  the  Cathedral  on  September  6.  It  was  published  in  1921.  The 
first  performance  in  this  country  was  by  the  Symphony  Society  of  New  York, 
March  9,  1922.  The  first  Boston  performance  was  by  the  Boston  Symphony  Or- 
chestra, October  27,  1922. 

The  Fantasia  is  scored  for  string  orchestra  divided  into  three  sec- 
tions," so  the  composer  explains.  "  (1)  Full  body  of  strings.  (2) 
Small  orchestra  of  nine  players.  (3)  Solo  quartet.  These  three  bodies 
of  players  are  used  in  various  ways,  sometimes  playing  as  one  body, 
sometimes  antiphonally,  and  sometimes  accompanying  each  other." 
Vaughan  Williams  in  the  score  specifies  the  second  orchestra  as  con- 

[41 


sisting  of  nine  players,  "two  first  violin  players,  two  second  violin 
players,  two  viola  players,  two  violoncello  players,  and  one  doublebass 
player. . . .  The  solo  parts  are  to  be  played  by  the  leader  of  each  group." 
In  1567,  Thomas  Tallis,  Gentleman  of  the  Chapel  Royal  in  the 
Court  of  Elizabeth  of  England,  wrote  eight  tunes,  each  in  a  different 
mode,  for  the  Metrical  Psalter  of  Archbishop  Parker.  The  Psalter, 
which  now  lies  in  the  British  Museum,  shows  the  tunes  in  four-part 
harmony,  each  part  printed  separately.  The  cantus  firmus,  according 
to  the  following  note,  is  in  the  tenor  part:  "The  Tenor  of  these  partes 
be  for  the  people  when  they  will  syng  alone,  the  other  parts,  put  for 
greater  queers  [choirs],  or  to  such  as  will  syng  or  play  priuatelye."  Of 
the  eight  tunes,  Vaughan  Williams  has  chosen  the  third  for  the  subject 
of  his  Fantasia.  Each  of  them,  and  its  corresponding  mode,  is  charac- 
terized in  the  following  eight  rhyming  lines: 

"The  first  is  meeke:  deuout  to  see, 
The  second  sad:  in  maiesty. 
The  third  doth  rage:  a  roughly  brayth, 
The  fourth  doth  fawne:  and  flattry  playth. 
The  fyfth  delight:  and  laugheth  the  more, 
The  sixth  bewayleth:  it  weepeth  full  sore. 
The  seuenth  tredeth  stoute:  in  froward  race, 
The  eyghte  goeth  milde:  in  modest  pace." 

Hearers  of  the  twentieth  century  may  look  in  vain  for  any  suggestion 
of  raging  or  rough  braying  in  the  tune  of  Vaughan  Williams'  choice. 

"Although  this  Fantasy  may  vividly  conjure  up  for  the  hearer  the 
England  of  Henry  VIII,  or  of  Elizabeth,"  writes  Eric  Blom,  in  his 
illuminating  notes  for  the  program  of  the  B.  B.  C.  Orchestra,  "it 
must  be  listened  to  as  a  modern  work  and,  but  for  the  theme  it  bor- 
rows, an  entirely  original  composition.  Its  form,  however,  approxi- 
mates one  that  was  current  in  Tallis's  own  time  —  the  fantasia  or 
fancy  for  a  consort  of  viols.  It  flourished  greatly  in  the  first  half  of 
the  seventeenth  century  and  was  revised  by  Purcell  near  its  end." 


CAMBRIDGE  TRUST  COMPANY 

Harvard  Square 

Our  Trust  Department  would 
welcome  your  inquiry. 

Member  Federal  Deposit  Insurance  Corporation 


[51 


Vaughan  Williams  gives  the  indication  largo  sostenuto,  and  opens 
his  Fantasia  softly  with  chords  for  the  full  orchestra,  followed  by  a 
foreshadowing  of  the  theme  in  the  lower  strings.  The  theme  is  then 
fully  stated  largamente  under  tremolo  chords  of  the  violins.  A  restate- 
ment with  an  ornamental  figure  in  the  second  violins  leads  to  a 
cadence  and  a  portion  where  the  first  orchestra  and  the  second,  its 
slighter  "echo,"  here  muted,  play  alternate  phrases  in  antiphonal 
fashion.  Then,  over  the  alternate  groups,  there  is  heard  a  portion  of 
the  tune  newly  developed  by  the  viola  solo  and  the  violin  solo  in 
turn.  The  solo  quartet  also  enters,  and  a  varied  fabric  is  woven  be- 
tween the  different  groups.  By  these  divisions  of  large  and  small 
groups  and  solos,  a  rich  variety  of  tone  color  is  obtained. 


Thomas  Tallis  is  conjectured  to  have  been  born  in  the  first  years 
of  the  sixteenth  century,  for  it  is  known  that  he  was  alive  just  before 
the  close  of  the  reign  of  Henry  VII.  A  vaguer  conjecture  gives  his 
birthplace  as  Leicestershire.  He  may  have  been  a  chorister  at  St.  Paul's 
Cathedral.  The  first  definite  record  of  his  career  finds  him  at  Waltham 
Abbey,  where  he  was  chosen  Gentleman  of  the  Chapel  Royal  in  the 
reign  of  Henry  VIII.  In  this  capacity  he  adorned  the  courts  in  turn 
of  Edward  VI,  Mary,  and  Elizabeth. 

He  was  married  in  1552  and,  according  to  the  inscription  upon  his 
tombstone,  lived  with  his  Joan  "in  Love  full  thre  and  thirty  Yeres." 
In  1557  he  received  from  Mary  Tudor  a  twenty-one  years'  lease  of 
the  manor  of  Minster,  which  he  later  designated  as  the  only  royal 
favor  shown  him  in  nearly  forty  years  of  service.  A  petition  to  Queen 
Elizabeth,  made  jointly  with  William  Byrd,  brought  the  grant  in  1575 
of  a  royal  patent  whereby  the  two  musicians  (Byrd  was  almost  forty 
years  younger)  were  entitled  to  the  monopoly  of  music  printing  and 
music  paper  in  England.  Tallis  and  Byrd,  as  joint  organists  of  the 
Chapel  Royal,  published  songs  of  their  own  composition.  Tallis  died 
at  his  house  in  Greenwich  November  23,  1589.  A  brass  plate  in  the 
parish  church  in  Greenwich  bore  this  legend:— 


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CEBELEIN. 

[6] 


Entered  here  doth  ly  a  worthy  Wyght 

Who  for  long  Tyme  in  Musick  bore  the  Bell: 

His  Name  to  shew,  was  Thomas  Tallys  hyght. 

In  honest  vertuous  Lyff  he  did  excell. 

He  serv'd  long  Tyme  in  Chappel  with  grete  prayse 

Fower  Soveregnes  Reygnes   (a  thing  not  often  seen) 

I  mean  Kyng  Henry  and  Prynce  Edward  Dayes, 

Quene  Mary,  and  Elizabeth  our  Quene. 

He  maryed  was,  though  Children  he  had  none 

And  lyv'd  in  Love  full  thre  and  thirty  Yeres, 

Wyth  loyal  Spowse,  whose  Name  yclipt  was  Jone. 

Who  here  entomb'd  him  Company  now  bears. 

As  he  did  lyve,  so  also  did  he  dy. 

In  myld  and  quyet  Sort   (O!  happy  Man) 

To  God  full  oft  for  Mercy  did  he  cry. 

Wherefore  he  lyves,  let  Death  do  what  he  can. 

[copyrighted] 


SYMPHONY  NO.  5,  IN  C  MINOR,  Op.  67 

By  Ludwig  van  Beethoven 

Born  at  Bonn,  December  16   (?),  1770;  died  at  Vienna,  March  26,  1827 


The  Fifth  Symphony  was  completed  near  the  end  of  the  year  1807,  and  first 
performed  at  the  Theater  an  der  Wien,  Vienna,  December  22,  1808,  Beethoven 
conducting.  The  parts  were  published  in  April,  1809,  and  the  score  in  March,  1826. 
The  dedication  is  to  Prince  von  Lobkowitz  and  Count  Rasumovsky. 

The  Symphony  is  scored  for  2  flutes  and  piccolo,  2  oboes,  2  clarinets,  2  bassoons 
and  double-bassoon,  2  horns,  2  trumpets,  3  trombones,  timpani  and  strings  (the 
piccolo,  trombones  and  contra-bassoon,  here  making  their  first  appearance  in  a 
symphony  of  Beethoven,  are  used  only  in  the  Finale) . 

It  is  possible  to  find  an  affinity  of  rhythmic  units  through  the  four 
movements  of  the  Fifth  Symphony.  But  the  similarity  (and  it  is 
nothing  more)  should  be  kept  within  the  bounds  of  a  superficial  obser- 
vation. Beethoven  may  not  have  been  even  aware  of  it  —  he  was  too 
deep  an  artist  to  pursue  a  unifying  theory.  A  still  greater  mistake  is  to 
look  upon  the  initial  four-note  figure  with  its  segregating  hold  as 
more  than  a  segment  of  the  theme  proper.  Weingartner  and  others 
after  him  have  exposed  this  fallacy,  and  what  might  be  called  the 
enlightened  interpretation  of  this  movement  probably  began  with 
the  realization  that  Beethoven  never  devised  a  first  movement  more 
conspicuous  for  graceful  symmetry  and  even,  melodic  flow.  An  isolated 
tile  cannot  explain  a  mosaic,  and  the  smaller  the  tile  unit,  the  more 
smooth  and  delicate  of  line  will  be  the  complete  picture.  Just  so 
does  Beethoven's  briefer  "motto"  devolve  upon  itself  to  produce  long 

[7] 


and  regular  melodic  periods.  Even  in  its  first  bare  statement,  the 
"motto"  belongs  conceptually  to  an  eight-measure  period,  broken 
for  the  moment  as  the  second  fermata  is  held  through  an  additional 
bar.  The  movement  is  regular  in  its  sections,  conservative  in  its 
tonalities.  Its  very  regularity,  its  incredible  compactness,  adds  to  the 
power  of  the  symphony  which,  when  it  was  first  heard,  disrupted 
all  contemporary  notions  of  what  a  symphony  was  supposed  to  be. 

The  Andante  con  mo  to  (in  A-flat  major)  is  the  most  irregular  of 
the  four  movements.  It  is  not  so  much  a  theme  with  variations  as  free 
thoughts  upon  segments  of  a  theme  with  certain  earmarks  and  re- 
currences of  the  variation  form  hovering  in  the  background.  The  first 
setting  forth  of  the  melody  cries  heresy  by  requiring  48  bars.  The 
first  strain  begins  regularly  enough,  but,  instead  of  closing  on  the 
tonic  A-flat,  hangs  suspended.  The  wood  winds  echo  this  last  phrase 
and  carry  it  to  a  cadence  which  is  pointedly  formal  as  the  strings 
echo  it  at  the  nineteenth  bar.  Formal  but  not  legitimate.  A  close  at 
the  eighth  bar  would  have  been  regular,  and  this  is  not  a  movement 
of  regular  phrase  lengths.  Regularity  is  not  established  until  the  end 
of  the  movement  when  this  phrase  closes  upon  its  eighth  bar  at  lastl 
The  whole  andante  is  one  of  the  delayed  cadences.  The  second  strain 
of  the  melody  pauses  upon  the  dominant  and  proceeds  with  an  out- 
burst into  C  major,  repeats  in  this  key  to  pause  at  the  same  place 
and  dream  away  at  leisure  into  E-flat.  The  two  sections  of  melody 
recur  regularly  with  varying  ornamental  accompaniment  in  the  strings, 
but  again  the  questioning  pauses  bring  in  enchanting  whispered 
vagaries,  such  as  a  fugato  for  flutes,  oboes  and  clarinets,  or  a  pianis- 
simo dalliance  by  the  violins  upon  a  strand  of  accompaniment.  The 
movement  finds  a  sudden  fortissimo  close. 

The  third  movement  (allegro,  with  outward  appearance  of  a 
scherzo)  begins  pianissimo  with  a  phrase  the  rhythm  of  which  crystal- 
lizes into  the  principal  element,  in  fortissimo.  The  movement  restores 
the  C  minoE  of  the  first  and  some  of  its  rhythmic  drive.  But  here  the 
power  of  impulsion  is  light  and  springy.  In  the  first  section  of  the 
Trio  in  C  major  (the  only  part  of  the  movement  which  is  literal!) 
repeated)  the  basses  thunder  a  theme  which  is  briefly  developed, 
fugally  and  otherwise.  The  composer  begins  what  sounds  until  its 
tenth  bar  like  a  da  capo.  But  this  is  in  no  sense  a  return,  as  the 
hearer  soon  realizes.  The  movement  has  changed  its  character,  lost  its 
steely  vigor  and  taken  on  a  light,  skimming,  mysterious  quality.  It 
evens  off  into  a  pianissimo  where  the  suspense  of  soft  drum  beats 
prepares  a  new  disclosure,  lightly  establishing  (although  one  does  not 
realize  this  until  the  disclosure  comes)  the  quadruple  beat.  The  bridge 
of  mystery  leads,  with  a  sudden  tension,  into  the  tremendous  out- 
burst of  the  Finale,  chords  proclaiming  C  major  with  all  of  the  power 

[8] 


asked  the  brahmin  of  the  brewer. . . 


"Pray  tell,  good  fellow,  why  not  a  beverage 
Brewed  in  a  fashion  a  bit  above  the  average? 
A  light-hearted  ale,  dry  refreshing  beer 
Worthy  of  a  connoisseur,  worthy  of  a  Peer?" 


"Matey,  you're  in  luck",  said  the  Brewer  to  the  Brahmin, 
"You  and  the  missus  and  the  Beacon  Hill  barman, 
For  Carling's  now  in  Natick,  brewing  ale  and  beer 
Worthy  of  a  connoisseur,  worthy  of  a  Peer." 


CARLING    BREWING    CO. 


[91 


an  orchestra  of  1807  could  muster  — which  means  that  trombones, 
piccolo  and  contra-bassoon  appeared  for  the  first  time  in  a  symphony. 
The  Finale  follows  the  formal  line  of  custom,  with  a  second  section 
in  the  dominant,  the  prescribed  development  section,  and  a  fairly 
close  recapitulation.  But  as  completely  as  the  first  movement  (which 
likewise  outwardly  conforms),  it  gives  a  new  function  to  a  symphony 
—  a  new  and  different  character  to  music  itself.  Traditional  precon- 
ceptions are  swept  away  in  floods  of  sound,  joyous  and  triumphant. 
At  the  end  of  the  development  the  riotous  chords  cease  and  in  the 
sudden  silence  the  scherzo,  in  what  is  to  be  a  bridge  passage,  is  recalled. 
Again  measures  of  wonderment  fall  into  the  sense  of  a  coda  as  the 
oboe  brings  the  theme  to  a  gentle  resolution.  This  interruption  was 
a  stroke  of  genius  which  none  could  deny,  even  the  early  malcontents 
who  denounced  the  movement  as  vulgar  and  blatant  —  merely  because 
they  had  settled  back  for  a  rondo  and  found  something  else  instead. 
The  Symphony  which  in  all  parts  overrode  disputation  did  so  no- 
where more  unanswerably  than  in  the  final  coda  with  its  tumultuous 

C  major. 

[copyrighted] 


ENTR'ACTE 
"MESSY  SOPRANO" 
By  Ernest  Newman 
(The  Sunday  Times,  London,  November  4,  1956) 


The  vogue  of  the  castrati  lasted  from  about  the  middle  of  the  16th  century  to 
the  end  of  the  18th.  The  last  to  have  a  stage  career,  Giovanni  Battista  Velluti 
(1781-1861),  re'tired  about  1830.  In  their  day,  the  best  castrati  were  praised  for  the 
incomparable  beauty  of  their  higher  tones,  which  were  considered  to  outclass 
those  of  any  female  singer;  they  were  genuinely  admired,  lionized  and  spoiled, 
enriched;  they  were  even  pursued  by  women.  There  is  a  reverse  side  to  the 
picture.  Parents,  often  lured  by  the  prospects  of  fame  and  fortune  for  a  son, 
would  submit  him  to  the  artificial  preservation  of  his  soprano  voice  without  taking 
account  of  his  natural  vocal  equipment  or  his  musical  aptitude,  with  the  result 
that  more  than  the  number  who  succeeded  were  those  who  languished,  deformed 
for  life,  in  poverty  and  obscurity. 

As  Mr.  Newman  points  out,  the  vocal  timbre  which  so  completely  enraptured 
the  best  opinion  of  the  period  must  remain  unknown  to  us  for  all  time.  The  last 
surviving  castrato  was  a  singer  in  the  Sistine  Chapel  choir  who  died  as  recently 
as  1922.  His  name  was  Alessandro  Moreschi,  and  he  was  presumably  not  a 
"falsettist,"  but  a  genuine  castrato.  Phonograph  records  were  made  of  his  voice 
in  1902-1903. 

[10] 


TO   EACH   SUBSCRIBER 


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encouragement. 

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Chairman 


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Symphony  Hall,  Boston 

I  ask  to  be  enrolled  as  a  member  of  the 

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[»] 


tn  his  "The  Castrati  in  Opera"  (Seeker  and  Warburg.  30s.)  Mr.  Angus 
-"-  Heriot  has  written  authoritatively  about  one  of  the  most  mysterious 
and  most  fascinating  phenomena  in  musical  history  —  the  breed  of 
"male  soprano"  and  "male  contralto"  that  flourished  amazingly  for 
some  two  centuries  and  can  almost  be  said  to  have  been  the  most  potent 
force  in  operatic  performance  during  a  large  proportion  of  that  time. 

Mr.  Heriot  has  done  a  tremendous  amount  of  research  into  the  sub- 
ject, and  this  book  of  his  is  likely  to  remain  the  standard  one  on  it. 

It  is  a  profoundly  interesting  subject  for  the  student  not  only  of 
operatic  history  but  of  those  strange  quirks  that  appear  now  and  then 
in  the  general  course  of  human  evolution  and  leave  us  as  baffled  with 
regard  to  the  comprehension  of  them  at  the  end  of  our  studies  as  we 
were  at  the  beginning.  We  know  nothing  today  at  real  first-hand  about 
the  art  of  the  great  castrati,  and  are  quite  at  a  loss  to  understand  how 
they  came  to  acquire  the  ascendency  they  did:  they  are  a  sort  of  fossil 
human  species  which,  it  is  fairly  safe  to  say,  will  never  occur  again. 

It  may  be  that  in  a  hundred  years  from  now  historians  will  be  writing 
in  some  such  terms  about  our  present  breed  of  crooners.  There  is, 
however,  one  fundamental  distinction  between  the  two  cases.  The 
castrati  of  the  great  period,  queer  creatures  as  they  seem  to  us,  won  the 
admiration  and  adoration  not  only  of  the  crowd  but  of  the  generality 
of  music-lovers  of  taste  and  intelligence;  while  the  crooners  of  today 
appeal  only  to  a  mentally  negligible  stratum  of  contemporary  Anglo- 
American  civilisation. 

We  can  get  some  idea  from  old  literary  records  of  the  amazing 
technique  of  the  great  castrati,  but  there  is  one  thing  we  do  not  know 
about  them  and  will  never  know  —  what,  at  their  best,  they  sounded 
like.  It  must  have  been  curiously  beautiful,  or  eighteenth-century 
music  devotees  of  taste  would  not  have  raved  about  it  as  they  did. 

If  we  were  to  hear  Farinelli  or  Guadagni  or  Senesino  today  we  would 
probably  be  puzzled  what  to  make  of  their  tones  and  by  what  name  to 
define  these.  Our  nomenclature  in  vocal  matters  is  very  limited.  Many 
years  ago  my  wife  and  I  were  listening  on  the  radio  to  some  singer  or 
other  whose  sex  we  could  only  guess  at:  was  it  a  woman  who  sounded 
rather  like  a  man,  or  a  male  singer  who  sounded  rather  like  a  woman, 
or  a  man  who  had  retained  in  maturity  something  of  the  timbre  of  a 
boy,  or  a  boy  who  had  somehow  the  power  and  timbre  of  a  grown  man, 
or  what? 

An  old  servant  of  those  days  happening  to  come  into  the  room,  my 
wife  asked  her  what  species  of  singer  she  would  say  this  was.  The  old 
lady  listened  very  attentively  for  a  while,  and  then  said,  "Is  that  what 

they  call  a  messy  soprano,  ma'am?" 

•    • 

[it] 


I  have  often  wondered,  since  then,  if  the  ordinary  musical  listener  of 
today  would  get  any  nearer  the  truth  about  the  castrato  voice  than  that. 
The  difficulty  for  us  would  be  to  find  any  name  for  it  that  would  define 
the  genre  of  tone  as  simply  and  definitely  as  our  "soprano"  or  "con- 
tralto" or  "tenor"  or  "bass"  does  for  us.  The  castrati  tone  was  not 
a  highly  elaborated  variety  of  falsetto:  as  Mr.  Heriot  points  out,  while 
there  seems  to  have  been  an  early  period  in  which  a  skilled  sort  of 
falsetto  singing  in  churches  and  elsewhere  had  many  practitioners, 
contemporary  musical  writers  made  an  emphatic  distinction  between 
the  falsettist  and  the  "male  soprano."  As  Delia  Valle  put  it  in  his 
"Discorso":  "You  are  pleased  to  compare  the  falsetti  of  former  times 
with  the  soprani  which  are  at  the  present  so  common.  But  whoever 
sang  then  like  a  Guidobaldo,  a  Cavalier  Loreto,  a  Gregorio,  an 
Angeluccio,  a  Marcantonio,  and  many  more  that  might  be  named?" 

Yet  there  was  no  specific  name  even  then  for  the  new  species  of  voice, 
which  included  not  only  soprani  but  contralti  (Handel's  most  endur- 
ingly  famous  operatic  aria,  for  example,  was  written  not  for  a  male 
soprano,  as  many  people  today  suppose,  but  for  a  contralto).  Something 
like  "messy  soprano"  is  about  as  near  a  shot  as  any  of  us  is  likely  to  get 
off-hand  to  a  categorisation  of  it  today. 


Sanders   Theatre      •      Cambridge 


Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 


FOURTH  CONCERT 

Tuesday  Evening,  March  12,  1957 
at  8.30  o'clock 

A  few  tickets  still  available  for  this  concert  and  the  remaining  concerts 
of  the  series  at  Sanders  Theatre 

March  12  March  26 

April  9 

Call  Subscription  Office  -  SYMPHONY  HALL  -  CO  6-1492 


[13] 


The  timbre  and  general  quality  of  these  voices  must  have  varied  as 
greatly  among  themselves  as  those  of  our  own  do  today,  while  still 
manifestly  remaining  en  masse  of  the  artificial  genre:  as  witness  the 
amazing  little  story  told  by  Berlioz  of  an  experience  of  his  own  youth. 
He  had  heard  some  splendid  solo  singing  in  an  Italian  church,  and  at 
the  end  of  it  had  given  loud  expression  to  his  admiration  of  the  per- 
formance: never,  he  declared,  had  he  heard  so  wonderful  a  castrato. 
Whereupon  a  lady  worshipper  near  him  turned  on  him  furiously:  "The 
magnificent  artist  you  have  been  listening  to,"  she  said,  "is  my  hus- 
band." Evidently  something  of  the  same  mystery  surrounded  the 
castrato  voice  as  surrounds  all  voices  today  that  are  not  clearly  definable 
in  current  dictionary  terms. 

How  and  why  did  this  extraordinary  species  of  singers  come  into 
being,  reign  unique  and  unchallenged  for  some  six  generations,  and 
then  pass  completely  out  of  existence?  These  are  interesting  questions, 
to  which  Mr.  Heriot  supplies  some  possible  answers. 


Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 


FIFTH   OPEN  REHEARSAL 

THURSDAY  EVENING 

MARCH  7 

In  SYMPHONY  HALL  at  7:30 


TICKETS  AT  BOX  OFFICE,  $2.00 


[H] 


SYMPHONY  NO.  5,  Op.  47 

By  Dmitri  Shostakovitch 

Born  September  25,  1906,  at  St.  Petersburg 


Shostakovitch  composed  his  Fifth  Symphony  for  performance  in  celebration  of 
the  twentieth  anniversary  of  the  Republic  of  Soviet  Russia.  The  first  of  a  series  of 
performances  was  given  at  Leningrad,  November  21,  1937.  The  first  performance  at 
Moscow  was  on  the  20th  of  January  following.  The  Symphony  had  its  first  American 
hearing  at  a  broadcast  concert  of  the  National  Broadcasting  Company,  in  New 
York,  April  9,  1938,  Artur  Rodzinski  conducting.  The  Symphony  was  performed 
by  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra,  January  20,  1939,  Richard  Burgin  conducting, 
and  under  the  direction  of  Serge  Koussevitzky,  October  18,  1940,  January  3,  1941, 
December  26,  1941,  April  30,  1943,  November  12,  1943,  November  24,  1944  (Leonard 
Bernstein  conducting),  March  5,  1948,  and  October  24-25,  1952  (Richard  Burgin 
conducting). 

The  Symphony  is  scored  for  2  flutes  and  piccolo,  2  oboes,  clarinets  in  A,  B-flat, 
and  E-flat,  2  bassoons  and  contra-bassoon,  4  horns,  3  trumpets,  3  trombones  and 
tuba,  timpani,  bass  drum,  cymbals,  triangle,  tambour  militaire,  tam-tam,  xylophone, 
bells,  celesta,  piano,  two  harps  and  strings. 

>TpHE  Fifth  Symphony  is  conceived,  developed  and  scored  for  the 

•*•  most  part  with  great  simplicity.   The  themes  are  usually  melodic 

and  long-breathed  in  character.  The  manipulation  of  voices  is  plastic, 

but  never  elaborate.   The  composer  tends  to  present  his  material  in 


Bequests  made  by  will 
to  the 

BOSTON  SYMPHONY  ORCHESTRA,  Inc. 

will  help  to 
perpetuate  a  great  musical  tradition. 

Such  bequests  are  exempt  from  estate  taxes. 


[15] 


the  pure  medium  of  the  string  choirs,  notably  in  the  opening  and 
slow  movements,  where  wind  color  and  sonority  are  gradually  built 
up.  The  first  movement  and  the  last  gain  also  in  intensity  as  they 
unfold  by  a  gradual  increase  of  tempo  throughout,  effected  by  con- 
tinual metronomic  indications. 

The  first  movement  opens  with  an  intervallic  theme,  stated  antiph- 
onally  between  the  low  and  high  strings.  From  it  there  grows  a  theme 
(violins)  in  extensive,  songful  periods.  The  development  is  in  the 
nature  of  melodic  cumulative  growth.  The  first  theme  returns  in  horns 
and  trumpets,  and  subsides  to  the  gentle  voice  of  the  violins,  over 
a  characteristic  triple  rhythmic  figure.  As  the  tempo  quickens,  the 
rhythms  tighten  and  become  more  propulsive,  while  the  melody, 
sounding  from  the  brass  choir,  becomes  exultant  in  animation.  The 
recapitulation  suddenly  restores  the  initial  slow  tempo  as  the  first 
theme  is  repeated  by  the  orchestra  in  unison,  largamente.  The  for- 
tissimo strings  and  deep  brass  give  way  to  a  gentler  reminiscent  mood, 
as  the  wood-wind  voices,  here  first  fully  exploited,  bring  the  move- 
ment to  a  close. 

The  second  movement  is  in  the  historical  scherzo  form  with  clear 
traces  in  the  course  of  the  music  of  the  traditional  repeats,  trio  section 
and  da  capo.  The  themes  are  in  the  triple  time  of  the  Austrian 
Ldndler,  from  which,  in  the  past,  scherzos  have  sprung.  The  slow 
movement,  like  the  first,  is  one  of  gradual  melodic  growth,  from  string 
beginnings.  The  theme,  too,  is  reminiscent  of  the  first  theme  in  the 
opening  movement.  The  individual  voices  of  the  wood  wind  enter, 
and  the  tension  increases  as  the  strings  give  a  tremolo  accompaniment, 
and  sing  once  more,  muted  and  in  the  high  register.  The  movement 
attains,  at  its  climax,  an  impressive  sonority  without  the  use  of  a  single 
brass  instrument. 

The  finale,  in  rondo  form,  devolves  upon  a  straightforward  and 
buoyant  march-like  rhythm  and  a  theme  unmistakably  Russian  in 
suggestion.  There  is  a  slow  section  in  which  the  characteristic  triple 
rhythm  of  the  first  movement  reappears.  The  first  theme  of  that  move- 
ment is  treated  by  the  violin  solo  with  fresh  melodic  development. 
There  is  a  constant  increase  in  tempo  as  the  conclusion  is  approached. 

[copyrighted] 


EDNA  NITKIN,  M.Mus. 

PIANIST 
ACCOMPANIST        TEACHER 

Studio :  500  Boy  Is  ton  St.,  Copley  Sq. 
Boston  RE  6-4062 


[16] 


AK 


Tom'w  Eve.,  Jordan  Hall 

ZIMBLER   SINFONIETTA 

Opening  Concert,  8th  Season. 
Friends  of  Chamber  Music,  Inc. 

Overture  in  D  major,  Johann  Bernard  Bach;  Concertante  for  English  horn 
and  strings,  Peter  Racine  Fricker,  soloist:  Louis  Speyer;  Concerto  da 
Camera  for  flute,  English  horn  and  strings,  Honegger,  soloists:  James 
Pappoutsakis  and  Louis  Speyer;  Four  Pieces  for  strings,  Francesco  Veracini. 


This  Sun.  at  3:30.,  Symphony  Hall 

ARTUR   RUBINSTEIN 


Last 

Symphony 
Hall  concert 
until  1959 


Sonata  in  F  minor,  Op.  57,  Beethoven;  Fantasiestuecke,  Op.  12,  Schumann; 
Intermezzo,  Op.  117,  Brahms;  Rhapsody,  Op.  79,  Brahms;  Prelude  in  A 
minor,  Debussy;  Ondine,  Debussy;  La  Plus  que  Lente,  Debussy;  O  Prole  do 
Bebe,  Villa-Lobos;  Berceuse,  Chopin;  Scherzo  in  B  flat  minor,  Chopin. 

Some  Floor  and  Stage  Seats  Remaining 

Under  the  auspices  of  the 
GOVERNMENT  of  the  FRENCH   REPUBLIC 

MADELEINE  JEAN-LOUIS 

RENAUD        BARRAULT 

and  their 

5=5,  COMPANY 

"THE   PRIDE  OF  PARIS!" 

SANDERS  THEATRE      ^Afty      CAMBRIDGE 

WED.   EVE.,   FEB.  27  and  THURS.   MAT.,  FEB.  28 
Moliere's  great  comedy  hit,  "LE  MISANTHROPE" 

Thur.  Mat.  at  3,  Feb.  28 

"Les  Fausses  Confidences"  by  Marivaux,  and  "Les  Adieux" 

(favorite  scenes,  sketches,  poems,  pantomime) 

BOX-OFFICE  SALE  at  FRENCH  CENTER  OF  N.  E.  opens  FEB.  20 

This  engagement  is  under  the  Patronage  of  the 

Consul  General  of  France  in  Boston,  Charles  de  Pampelonne 

By  arrangement  with  Aaron  Richmond 


for  your  briefest 

leisure  moment 


In  today's  all  too  busy,  time-crowded  world,  it  isn't 

easy  to  make  our  important  leisure  moments  really 

count  toward  mental  and  physical  refreshment  .  .  .  that's  why 

we  would  like  to  introduce  you  to  today's  newest  and 

most  rewarding  hobby  .  .  .  music  you  play 

yourself  on  the  Orga-sonic  Spinet  Organ. 

Me  .  .  .  play  the  organ? — you'll  ask  .  .  .  the  answer  is 

absolutely  yes!  But  don't  take  our  word  for  it — 

come  in  soon.  We'll  show  you  that  you  can  play  "right  away. 


THE  BALDWIN  PIANO  COMPANY 

160  BOYLSTON  STREET 

BOSTON 


Baldwin,  Acrosonic  and  Hamilton  Pianos  •  Baldwin  and  Orga-sonic  Organs 


^sJS 


*#  ^ 


BOSTON 

SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 


FOUNDED  IN  1881  BY 
HENRY  LEE  HIGGINSON 


•      4-      • 


,AK 


7///JiilMHUl(i 


^ 


3 


» 


^> 


?i 


H 


SEVENTY-SIXTH   SEASON 
1956-1957 

Sanders  Theatre,  Cambridge  \&farvard  University] 


Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

(Seventy-sixth  Season,  1956-1957) 
CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 

RICHARD  BURGIN,  Associate   Conductor 


Violins 

Richard  Burgin 
Concert-master 

Alfred  Krips 

George   Zazofsky 
Rolland  Tapley 

Norbert  Lauga 
Vladimir  Resnikoff 
Harry  Dickson 
Gottfried  Wilfinger 
Einar   Hansen 
Joseph  Leibovici 
Emil  Kornsand 
Roger  Shermont 

Minot  Beale 
Herman  Silbet  man 

Stanley  Benson 
Leo    Panasevich 

Sheldon  Rotenberg 
Fredy  Ostrovsky 

Clarence  Knudson 
Pierre  Mayer 

Manuel  Zung 
Samuel  Diamond 

Victor  Manusevitch 
James  Nagy 

Melvin  Bryant 
Lloyd  S  tones  treet 
Saverio  Messina 
William  Wate*r house 
William   Marshall 
Leonard  Moss 

Jesse  Ceci 
Noah  Bielski 

Alfred  Schneider 
Joseph  Silverstein 

Bassfs 

Georges  Moleux 
Gaston  Dufresne 

Irving  Frankel 

Henry  Freeman 

Henry  Portnoi 

Henri  Girard 

John  Barwidd 


PERSONNEL 

Violas 
Joseph  de  Pasquale 
Jean  Cauhape 
Eugen  Lehner 
Albert  Bernard 

George  Humphrey 
Jerome  Lipson 

Robert  Karol 
Reuben  Green 

Bernard   Kadinoff 
Vincent  Mauricci 

John  Fiasca 
Earl  Hedberg 

Violoncellos 
Samuel  Mayes 
Alfred  Zighera 

Jacobus  Langendoen 
Mischa  Nieland 
Karl  Zeise 
Josef  Zimbler 
Bernard  Parronchi 
Martin  Hoherman 
Louis  Berger 
Richard  Kapuscinski 
Robert  Ripley 

Flutes 
Doriot  Anthony  Dwyer 
James  Pappoutsakis 
Phillip  Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George  Madsen 

Oboes 
Ralph  Gomberg 
Jean   Devergie 
John  Holmes 

English  Horn 
Louis  Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino  Cioffi 
Manuel  Valerio 
Pasquale  Cardillo 

E\)  Clarinet 

Bass  Clarinet 
Rosario  Mazzeo 


Bassoons 

Sherman  Walt 
Ernst  Panenka 
Theodore  Brewster 

Contra-Bassoon 
Richard  Plaster 

Horns 

James  Stagliano 
Charles  Yancich 

Harry  Shapiro 
Harold  Meek 
Paul  Keaney 
Osbourne  McConathy 

Trumpets 
Roger  Voisin 
Marcel  Lafosse 
Armando  Ghitalla 
Gerard  Goguen 

Trombones 

William  Gibson 
William  Moyer 
Kauko  Kahila 
Josef  Orosz 

Tuba 
K.  Vinal  Smith 

Harps 
Bernard  Zighera 
Olivia  Luetcke 

Timpani 

Everett  Firth 
Harold  Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles  Smith 
Harold  Thompson 
Arthur  Press 

Piano 
Bernard  Zighera 

Library 
Victor  Alpert 


Sanders  Theatre,  Cambridge  [Harvard  University] 


SEVENTY-SIXTH  SEASON,  1956-1957 

Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 
Richard  Burgin,  Associate  Conductor 


Concert  Bulletin  of  the 
Fourth  Concert 

TUESDAY  EVENING,  March  12 

with  historical  and  descriptive  notes  by 
John  N.  Burk 

The  TRUSTEES  of  the 
BOSTON  SYMPHONY  ORCHESTRA,  Inc. 

Henry  B.  Cabot  .         President 

Jacob  J.  Kaplan  .         Vice-President 

Richard  C.  Paine  .         Treasurer 

Talcott  M.  Banks,  Jr.  E.  Morton  Jennings,  Jr. 

Theodore  P.  Ferris  Michael  T.  Kelleher 

Alvan  T.  Fuller  Palfrey  Perkins 

Francis  W.  Hatch  Charles  H.  Stockton 

Harold  D.  Hodgkinson  Edward  A.  Taft 

C  D.  Jackson  Raymond  S.  Wilkins 

Oliver  Wolcott 

TRUSTEES  EMERITUS 
Philip  R.  Allen  M.  A.  DeWolfe  Howe 

N.  Penrose  Hallo  well  Lewis  Perry 


Thomas  D.  Perry,  Jr.,  Manager 
G.  W.  Rector  )  Assistant  J.  J.  Brosnahan,  Assistant  Treasurer 

N.  S.  Shirk        [  Managers         Rosario  Mazzeo,  Personnel  Manager 

[1] 


Munc.fi:; 

conducts:  Beethoven  s 

PASTORAL  SYMPHONY 

Boston  Symphony  ■  ■    ^ 
0rchC'StM    ~ 


I       r^%.'-^' 


Pwyw^»TO^i^,c^TO1,MiiW^>i,^jJiUutiiiil>riiin«Mrrw 
THE  VIRTUOSO  ORCH WttiM  ""V™"  I  «-V 

i  Botto*  Syaplnay  Ot^mtn.. .CMo  Mow*      "  '        ^ 


~<£      »***-> I no-bub*  i. d»  *ftcr-o.  .(» Km^ 
♦LONG   PLAY    $3.98     45   EP    $3.98 


•  THREE  LONG   PLAY  RECORDS  $11.98 


♦  LONG   PLAY     $3.98 


♦  LONG  PLAY  $3.66     40  EP-S  $2.98  EA. 


CHARLES  MUNCH  ;• 
BOSTON  SYMPHONY  |  X -Vi 
ORCHESTRA  ''/'£' 


munch  in  person 

on  rca  Victor  records 


To  Charles  Munch,  conducting  is  not  a  profession  hut  a 
sacred  calling.  And  this  dedication,  combined  with  the 
magnificence  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra,  brings 
you  performances  of  unmatched  power  and  beauty.  You 
feel  and  hear  this  devotion  whether  he  conducts  Ravel, 
Berlioz  or  Beethoven  . . .  whether  the  performance  is  in 
Symphony  Hall  or ...  on  RCA  Victor  Records,  of  course ! 


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[*] 


SEVENTY-SIXTH  SEASON  •   NINETEEN  HUNDRED  FIFTY-SIX  AND  FIFTY-SEVEN 


Fourth   Concert 


TUESDAY  EVENING,  March  12 


Program 


Beethoven Symphony  No.  4,  in  B-flat  major,  Op.  60 

I.     Adagio;  Allegro  vivace 

II.  Adagio 

III.  Allegro  vivace 

IV.  Allegro,  ma  non  troppo 

Ravel "Daphnis  et  ChloeV'  Ballet,  Suite  No.  2 

Lever  du  jour  —  Pantomime  —  Danse  Generate 

INTERMISSION 

Franck Symphony  in  D  minor 

I.     Lento;  Allegro  non  troppo 
II.    Allegretto 

III.  Allegro  non  troppo 


Performances  by  this  orchestra  are  broadcast  each  week  on  Monday 
evenings  from  8:05  to  9:00  P.M.  on  the  NBC  Radio  Network.  (Nearest 
local  station  WJAR,  Providence.)  The  Friday  afternoon  concerts  at 
2:15  and  the  Saturday  evening  concerts  at  8:30  are  broadcast  direct 
each  week  by  Station  WGBH-FM. 

BALDWIN  PIANO  RCA  VICTOR  RECORDS 


[3] 


SYMPHONY  IN  B-FLAT  MAJOR  NO.  4,  Op.  60 

By  Ludwig  van  Beethoven 
Born  at  Bonn,  December  16  (?) ,  1770;  died  at  Vienna,  March  26,  1827 


This  symphony  was  completed  in  1806  and  dedicated  to  the  Count  Franz  von 
Oppersdorf.  The  first  performance  was  in  March,  1801,  at  the  house  of  Prince 
Lobkowitz  in  Vienna.  It  is  scored  for  flute,  2  oboes,  2  clarinets,  2  bassoons,  2 
horns,  2  trumpets,  timpani  and  strings. 

The  long  opening  Adagio  has  none  of  the  broad  chords  or  flourishes 
of  the  classical  introduction;  it  is  no  meandering  fantasia  but  a 
reverie,  precisely  conceived,  musing  upon  its  own  placid  theme  in  a 
sombre  minor  which  is  soon  to  be  banished.  Incisive  staccato  chords 
establish  at  once  the  brightness  of  B-flat  major  and  the  beat  of  the 
allegro  vivace.  The  subject  matter  of  this  movement  is  as  abundant  as 
that  of  the  first  movement  of  the  Eroica,  the  exposition  extending 
through  154  bars,  unfolding  one  new  thought  after  another  in  simple 
and  inevitable  continuity.  The  main  theme,  with  its  staccato  notes,  is 
taken  up  by  the  whole  orchestra  and  then  given  humorously  (and 
differently)  to  the  bassoon  over  whispered  trills  from  the  violins.  It 
generates  excitement  in  the  violins  and  breaks  with  energic  syncopated 
chords  which  bring  in  the  dominant  key,  and  from  the  flute  the 
graceful  and  lilting  second  subject,  which  suggests  a  crescendo  in 
short  chords  and  a  new  theme  in  canonic  dialogue  between  the  clarinet 
and  bassoon.  Another  syncopated  subject  ends  the  section.  The  de- 
velopment plays  lightly  with  fragments  of  the  principal  theme,  and 
the  little  rhythmic  figure  which  introduced  it.  The  theme  is  combined 
with  the  second  theme  proper.  There  is  a  full  recapitulation,  more 
brilliantly  written. 

The  Adagio  is  built  upon  a  theme  first  heard  from  the  strings  and 
then  from  the  full  choirs  in  a  soft  cantabile.  The  accompanying 
rhythmic  figure  pervades  the  movement  with  its  delicate  accentua- 
tion, appearing  by  turn  in  each  part  of  the  orchestra,  now  and  then 
in  all  parts  at  once,  and  at  the  last  quite  alone  in  the  timpani.  This 
instrument,  used  only  for  reinforcing  up  to  this  point,  takes  on  a 
special  coloring.  The  movement  continues  its  even,  dreaming  course 
with  not  a  moment  of  full  sonority.  It  sings  constantly  in  every  part. 
Even  the  ornamental  passages  of  traditional  slow  movement  develop- 
ment are  no  longer  decoration,  but  dainty  melodic  tracery.  No  other 
slow  movement  of  Beethoven  is  just  like  this  one.  What  Wagner  wrote 
of  Beethoven  in  general  can  be  applied  to  this  Adagio  in  a  special  sense: 
"The  power  of  the  musician  cannot  be  grasped  otherwise  than  through 
the  idea  of  magic.  Assuredly  while  listening  we  fall  into  an  enchanted 

[41 


state.  In  all  parts  and  details  which  to  sober  senses  are  like  a  complex 
of  technical  means  cunningly  contrived  to  fulfill  a  form,  we  now  per- 
ceive a  ghostlike  animation  ...  a  pulsation  of  undulating  joy,  lam- 
entation and  ecstasy,  all  of  which  seem  to  spring  from  the  depths  of 
our  own  nature.  .  .  .  Every  technical  detail  ...  is  raised  to  the  highest 
significance  of  spontaneous  effusion."  There  is  no  accessory  here,  no 
framing  of  a  melody;  every  part  in  the  accompaniment,  each  rhythmi- 
cal note,  indeed  each  rest,  everything  becomes  melody. 

The  third  movement  is  characterized  by  alternate  phrases  between 
wood  winds  and  strings.  The  Trio,  which  in  interest  dominates  the 
Scherzo  section,  makes  a  second  return  before  the  close,  the  first 
symphonic  instance  of  what  was  to  be  a  favorite  device.  The  finale, 
which  is  marked  allegro  ma  non  troppo,  takes  an  easily  fluent  pace, 
as  is  fitting  in  a  symphony  not  pointed  by  high  brilliance.  Its  de- 
lightful twists  and  turns  have  an  adroitness  setting  a  new  precedent  in 
final  movements. 

It  has  been  noted  that  in  all  of  his  even-numbered  symphonies, 
Beethoven  was  content  to  seek  softer  beauties,  reserving  his  de- 
fiances, his  true  depths  of  passion  for  the  alternate  ones.  There  may 
well  have  been  something  in  his  nature  which  required  this  alterna- 
tion, a  trait  perhaps  also  accountable  for  the  thematic  alternation  of 
virility  and  gentleness,  of  the  "masculine"  and  the  "feminine"  in  his 
scores  of  this  period.  For  the  years  1804-1806  were  the  years  of  the 
colossus  first  finding  his  full  symphonic  strength,  and  glorying  in  it, 
and  at  the  same  time  the  years  of  the  romantic  lover,  capable  of  being 
entirely  subdued  and  subjugated  by  feminine  charm.  They  were  the 
years  which  produced  the  "Eroica"  and  C  minor  symphonies,  and 
the  "Appassionato,"  Sonata  on  the  one  hand;  on  the  other,  the  Fourth 
Symphony  and  the  Fourth  Piano  Concerto,  not  to  mention  Fidelio 
and  the  three  Razumowsky  Quartets.  It  may  have  been  some  inner  law 


CAMBRIDGE  TRUST  COMPANY 

Harvard  Square 

Our  Trust  Department  would 
welcome  your  inquiry. 

Member  Federal  Deposit  Insurance  Corporation 

[5] 


of  artistic  equilibrium  which  induced  Beethoven,  after  drafting  two 
movements  for  his  C  minor  Symphony  in  1805,  to  set  them  aside, 
and  devote  himself,  in  1806,  to  the  gentler  contours  of  the  Sym- 
phony in  B-flat,  which,  completed  in  that  year,  thus  became  the 
fourth  in  number. 

Robert  Schumann  compared  this  Symphony  to  a  "Greek  maiden 
between  two  Norse  giants."  The  Fourth,  overshadowed  by  the  more 
imposing  stature  of  the  "Eroica"  and  the  Fifth,  has  not  lacked 
champions.  "The  character  of  this  score,"  wrote  Berlioz,  "is  gen- 
erally lively,  nimble,  joyous,  or  of  a  heavenly  sweetness."  Thayer, 
who  bestowed  his  adjectives  guardedly,  singled  out  the  "placid  and 
serene  Fourth  Symphony  —  the  most  perfect  in  form  of  them  all";  and 
Sir  George  Grove,  a  more  demonstrative  enthusiast,  found  in  it  some- 
thing "extraordinarily  entrainant  —  a  more  consistent  and  attractive 
whole  cannot  be.  .  .  .  The  movements  fit  in  their  places  like  the  limbs 
and  features  of  a  lovely  statue;  and,  full  of  fire  and  invention  as  they 
are,  all  is  subordinated  to  conciseness,  grace,  and  beauty." 

The  composer  has  left  to  posterity  little  of  the  evidence  usually 
found  in  his  sketchbooks  of  the  time  and  course  of  composition.  He 
has  simply  (but  incontrovertibly)  fixed  the  year,  inscribing  at  the  top 
of  his  manuscript  score:  "Sinfonia  ^ta  1806  — L.  v.  Bthvn."  This  date 
has  been  enough  to  enkindle  the  imagination  of  more  than  one  writer. 

It  was  probably  early  in  May  of  1801  that  Beethoven  took  a  post 
chaise  from  Vienna  to  visit  his  friends  the  Brunswicks  at  their  an- 
cestral estate  in  Martonvasar,  Hungary.  There  he  found  Count  Franz 
von  Brunswick,  and  the  Count's  sisters  Therese  and  Josephine  (then 
a  widow  of  twenty-six),  and  the  younger  Karoline.  Therese  and 
Josephine  ("Tesi"  and  "Pepi")  seem  to  have  had  the  composer's  more 
interested  attention.  Therese,  who  always  held  his  warm  regard, 
was  once  championed  as  the  "immortal  beloved,"  and  it  was  even  sup 
posed  that  sfce  and  Beethoven  became  engaged  in  this  summer  and 
that  the  Adagio  of  the  Fourth  Symphony  was  his  musical  declaration. 
Unfortunately  for  the  romancers,  the  book  by  Mariam  Tenger*  upon 


'Beethoven's    Unsterbliche    Geliebte,      1890. 


GEBELE1N 

SILVERSMITH 


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featuring  traditional  designs  in  lasting  favor 

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79  CHESTNUT  ST.  exhibited,  antique  and  modern,  domestic  and  imported, 

BOSTON  8  silver    and    silver-plate,    and    special    exclusives    by 

Foot  of  Beacon  Hill  CEBELEIN. 


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which  they  had  reached  their  conclusions,  has  been  quite  discredited. 
The  diaries  of  Therese,  since  examined,  clearly  show  that  she  held 
Beethoven  in  high  and  friendly  esteem  —  nothing  more.  Pepi,  on  the 
other  hand,  is  mentioned  by  Therese  as  being  interested  in  Beethoven 
to  the  danger  point,  and  has  recently  been  put  forward  as  the 
mysterious  beloved.  This  summer  infatuation  may  have  had  a  single 
lasting  effect  —  the  agreeable  one  of  stimulating  music.  Romain  Rol- 
land,  who  made  more  of  the  affair  with  Therese  von  Brunswick  than 
these  subsequent  discoveries  justify,  yet  came  to  the  still  plausible 
conclusion  that  the  Fourth  Symphony  was  the  direct  outcome  of  Bee- 
thoven's stay  at  Martonvasar,  "a  pure,  fragrant  flower  which  treasures 
up  the  perfume  of  these  days,  the  calmest  in  all  his  life." 

The  felicity  of  Martonvasar  seems  to  have  found  its  reflection  in 
the  Symphony.  The  gusty  lover  was  in  abeyance  for  the  time  being. 
Beethoven  dominated  the  affections  of  all,  but  not  in  a  way  to  ruffle  the 
blessed  succession  of  summer  days  and  nights  in  the  Hungarian  manor, 
secluded  in  its  immense  acres  where  a  row  of  lindens  was  singled  out 
and  one  chosen  as  sacred  to  each  of  the  little  circle,  Beethoven  in- 
cluded. 

[copyrighted] 


■Qfs, 


DAPHNIS  ET  CHLO£  -  Ballet  in  One  Act;  Suite  No.  2 

By  Maurice  Ravel 
Born  at  Ciboure,  Basses-Pyrenees,  March  7,  1875;  died  in  Paris,  December  28,  1937 


The  ballet  Daphnis  et  Chloe  was  completed  in  1911*,  and  first  produced  June 
8,  1912  by  Diaghileff's  Ballet  Russe,  at  the  Chdtelet  in  Paris,  Pierre  Monteux 
conducting.  Of  the  two  orchestral  suites  drawn  from  the  ballet,  the  second  had 
its  first  Boston  performance  at  the  concerts  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra, 
December  14,  1917    (Dr.  Karl  Muck  conducting) . 

IN  his  autobiographical  sketch  of  1928,  Ravel  described  his  Daphnis 
et  Chloe  as  "a  choreographic  symphony  in  three  parts,  commis- 
sioned from  me  by  the  director  of  the  company  of  the  Ballet  Russe: 
M.  Serge  de  Diaghileff.  The  plot  was  by  Michel  Fokine,  at  that  time 

*  This  according  to  Serge  Lifar,  who  was  a  dancer  in  the  Ballet  RtLsse  at  that  time. — "La 
Revue  Musicale,"  December,   1938. 

[71 


choreographer  of  the  celebrated  troupe.  My  intention  in  writing  it 
was  to  compose  a  vast  musical  fresco,  less  scrupulous  as  to  archaism 
than  faithful  to  the  Greece  of  my  dreams,  which  inclined  readily 
enough  to  what  French  artists  of  the  late  eighteenth  century  have 
imagined  and  depicted. 

"The  work  is  constructed  symphonically  according  to  a  strict 
tonal  plan  by  the  method  of  a  few  motifs,  the  development  of  which 
achieves  a  symphonic  homogeneity  of  style. 

The  choreography  is  taken  directly  from  the  book  of  the  same 
name  by  Longus,  the  writer  of  ancient  Greece  of  unknown  date.  It 
is  the  oldest  of  countless  tales  of  the  love  thwarted  by  circumstance, 
and  the  final  union  of  a  shepherd  and  shepherdess.*  The  two  suites 
familiar  to  concert  audiences  consist  of  the  second  and  third  parts 
of  the  ballet.  Between  them  is  an  episode  in  which  Chloe,  a  captive, 
her  hands  bound,  tries  to  escape. 

The  opening  scene  of  the  ballet  is  a  meadow  on  the  edge  of  a 
sacred  grove,  hills  seen  in  the  distance.  At  the  right  is  a  grotto,  guarded 
by  the  sculptured  likeness  of  three  nymphs.  A  great  rock  at  the  left 
rear  suggests  the  god  Pan.  It  is  a  clear  afternoon  of  spring.  Young 
men  and  girls  enter,  bearing  baskets  with  offerings  for  the  nymphs. 
There  follows  a  graceful  and  stately  religious  dance,  the  chorus  join- 
ing. Daphnis  appears,  preceded  by  his  flock.  Young  girls  surround 
Daphnis  and  dance  (in  7/4  rhythm) .  Chloe  appears  and  is  drawn 
into  the  dance.  Dorcon,  a  grotesque  figure,  and  Daphnis,  the  hand- 
some shepherd,  are  rivals  for  Chloe.  The  two  perform  a  dance  in 
turn,  but  Dorcon's  dance  is  received  with  derision  and  the  dance  of 
Daphnis  with  general  approval.  After  the  dance  (gracieuse  et  legere) , 
pirates  burst  upon  the  scene  and  carry  off  Chloe.  Daphnis  enters, 
finds  a  sandal  that  she  has  dropped  and  prays  to  the  nymphs  for  her 
safety.  The  three  sculptured  nymphs  come  to  life,  descend  and  perform 
a  dance   (lente  et  mysterieuse) .  All  pay  homage  at  the  altar  of  Pan. 

The  second  scene,  which  comprises  the  first  concert  suite,  shows  the 
camp  of  the  pirates  by  the  sea.  A  trireme  is  seen  in  the  distance. 
The  pirates  enter,  carrying  torches  and  booty.  There  follows  the  war- 
like dance    (danse  guerriere) . 

The  episode  which  follows  becomes  a  connecting  point  between 
the  two  orchestral  suites.  Chloe  is  brought  in,  her  hands  tied.  She 
performs  a  danse  suppliante  and  tries  to  escape,  but  is  prevented. 
Satyrs,  emissaries  of  Pan,  surround  the  pirates.  The  god  himself  ap- 
pears and  the  pirates  flee  in  terror,  leaving  Chloe. 

In  the  third  part  of  the  ballet  (which  is  the  second  suite)  the  scene 
is  that  of  the  beginning.  It  is  "night.  Daphnis,  mourning  Chloe,  is 


*  For  quotations  from  Longus'  Daphnis  et  Chloi,  see  page  548. 
[8] 


still  prostrate.  As  the  light  of  dawn  gradually  fills  the  scene,  shepherds 
enter,  seeking  Daphnis  and  Chloe.  They  find  Daphnis  and  wake  him; 
Chloe  enters  and  the  lovers  embrace.  Chloe,  beloved  of  the  gods,  has 
been  saved  by  the  intervention  of  Pan.  Daphnis  and  Chloe  reenact 
the  story  of  Pan  and  Syrinx,  the  nymph  who,  according  to  the  legend, 
successfully  evaded  the  god's  pursuit,  whereupon  he  broke  off  reeds 
from  the  thicket  into  which  she  had  disappeared  and  fashioned  what 
was  to  become  the  traditional  ancestor  to  the  flute.  The  others  join 
in  the  dance,  which  becomes  wild  and  bacchanalian.  Chloe  falls  into 
the  arms  of  Daphnis.  The  ballet  ends  in  a  joyous  tumult. 

[copyrighted] 


SYMPHONY  IN  D  MINOR 
By  Cesar  Franck 

Born  at  Liege,  Belgium,  December  10,  1822;  died  at  Paris,  November  8,  1890 


The  Symphony  by  C£sar  Franck  had  its  first  performance  by  the  Conservatoire 
Orchestra  of  Paris,  February  17,  1889.  The  symphony  reached  Germany  in  1894, 
when  it  was  performed  in  Dresden;  England  in  1896  (a  Lamoureux  concert  in 
Queen's  Hall) .  The  first  performance  by  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra  was  on 
April  15,  1899,  Wilhelm  Gericke,  conductor. 

The  Symphony  is  scored  for  2  flutes,  2  oboes  and  English  horn,  2  clarinets  and 
bass  clarinet,  2  bassoons,  4  horns,  2  trumpets,  2  cornets-a-pistons,  3  trombones  and 
tuba,  timpani,  harp  and  strings. 

It  is  not  hard  to  sympathize  with  the  state  of  mind  of  Franck's 
devoted  circle,  who  beheld  so  clearly  the  flame  of  his  genius,  while 
the  world  ignored  and  passed  it  by.  They  were  naturally  incensed 
by  the  inexplicable  hostility  of  some  of  Franck's  fellow  professors  at 
the  Conservatoire,  and  moved  to  winged  words  in  behalf  of  their 
lovable  "maitre"  who,  absorbed  and  serene  in  his  work,  never  looked 
for  either  performance  or  applause  —  was  naively  delighted  when  those 
blessings  sparingly  descended  upon  him. 

To  probe  back  into  the  circumstances  which  surrounded  the  compo- 
sition of  Franck's  Symphony  and  its  performance  in  the  musical  Paris 
of  1889  is  to  revive  a  controversial  spirit  which  no  longer  exists.  This 
Symphony,  which  is  now  generally  recognized  for  its  worth  in  the 
standard  repertoire,  was  for  years  after  the  death  of  its  composer  a 
subject  for  discussion  and  disagreement.  Those  who  lived  and  worked 
with  Franck  found  his  music  expressive  of  the  master  they  loved  and 

[9] 


welcomed  it  accordingly.  They  were  indignant  with  those  who  gave 
no  more  than  passing  attention  to  the  obscure  organist  of  the 
Conservatoire.*  These  reluctant  musicians  were  annoyed  that  the 
otherwise  unassertive  teacher  had  the  effrontery  to  compose  music  out 
of  the  expected  pattern.  If  Franck  was  aware  of  this  surrounding 
controversy  he  gave  no  sign  of  being  disturbed  by  it.  It  is  more  than 
probable  that  the  ardent  claims  made  by  his  fellow  members  in  the 
Societe  Nationale  spurred  the  passive  indifference  of  musicians  "out- 
side" into  active  rejection. 

Vincent  d'Indy's  book  on  the  "Maitre"  has  long  been  accepted  as  the 
gospel  of  the  Franck  movement,  but  it  cannot  stand  eternally  as  a 
clear  and  just  account.  His  description,  for  example,  of  the  first 
performance  of  the  Symphony  at  the  Conservatoire  leans  rather 
heavily  on  the  official  resistance  within  the  institution  and  the  spiteful 
remarks  by  various  musicians  with  which  it  was  greeted.  It  is  true  that 
Jules  Garcin,  the  conductor  at  the  Conservatoire,  brought  the  Sym- 
phony to  performance  by  his  "benevolent  obstinacy,"  as  d'Indy  has 
called  it,  against  a  dead  weight  of  reactionary  reluctance;  that  a  con- 
ductor like  Lamoureux,  who  had  come  to  grief  with  Les  bolides, 
fought  shy  of  the  Symphony  when  approached  in  its  behalf.  D'Indy's 
anecdote  that  "a  professor  at  the  Conservatoire,"  whom  he  did  not 
name,  dismissed  the  Symphony  for  using  such  an  unsymphonic  instru- 
ment as  an  English  horn,  has  been  perhaps  over-quoted,  since  it  was 
nothing  more  than  somebody's  conversational  remark.  His  attack  on 
Gounod  is  more  serious,  for  the  man  is  named,  while  the  remark, 
printed  in  italics,  was  also  conversational.  D'Indy  quotes  Gounod  as 
calling  the  Symphony,  before  a  "cortege  of  male  and  female  adorers," 
the  "affirmation  of  incompetence,  pushed  to  dogmatic  lengths."' f 
Since  d'Indy  was  not  one  of  the  "adulateurs,"  he  may  have  picked  it 
up  at  second  hand.  Leon  Vallas  takes  d'Indy  to  task  on  this.  "Both  the 
opinion  and  the  meaningless  jargon  in  which  it  is  couched  seem 
improbable  in  the  last  degree.  According  to  another  anecdote,  told  by 
Georges  Rodenbach  in  Figaro  on  December  24,  1896,  Gounod  is 
reported  as  saying  'It  is  the  negation  of  music'  That  remark  too 
seems  hardly  credible.  Whatever  differences  in  outlook  and  taste 
separated  the  two  old  friends,  Gounod  always  recognized  the  mastery 
of  his  fellow-musician.  If  at  times  he  criticized  certain  of  Franck's 
tendencies  —  his  excessive  refinement  and  his  lack  of  simplicity  —  he 
never  ceased  to  acclaim  him  as  a  great  artist.  One  need  attach  no 
importance  to  certain  solemn  pontifical  utterances  of  the  composer  of 


*  D'Indy  pours  just  derision  upon  the  ministry  who,   as  late  as  August,   1885,  awarded  the 
ribbon  of  Chevalier  of  the  Legion  of  Honor  to  "Franck  (Cesar  Auguste),  professor  of  organ." 

"L' affirmation  de  Vimpuissance  poussee  jusq'au  dogme." 

[10] 


FRIENDS  OF  THE  BOSTON 
SYMPHONY  ORCHESTRA 
—  ANNUAL  MEETING  — 

The  twenty-third  Annual  Meeting  of  the  Friends 
will  be  held  in  Symphony  Hall  on  Wednesday, 
March  27,  1957,  at  four  o'clock  for  the  transaction 
of  appropriate  business.  Dr.  Munch  and  the 
Orchestra  will  play  a  short  program.  After  the 
music  tea  will  be  served. 

All  Friends  enrolled  by  March  15  are  cordially 
invited  to  attend  this  meeting. 

PALFREY  PERKINS 

Chairman,  Friends  of  the 
Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 


I  wish  to  be  enrolled  as  a  member  of  the 

Friends  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

for  the  1956-57  season  and  contribute  the  sum  of  $ 

enclosed  within  or  pledge  the  sum  of  $ payable 

on 

Name   

Address    

Checks  are  payable  to  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra,  Inc. 
Gifts  to  the  Orchestra  are  deductible  under  the  Federal  Income  Tax  laws. 


[»] 


Faust,  bandied  about,  distorted,  and  twisted  out  of  recognition  by  the 
malignancy  of  the  public." 

Franck's  Symphony  was  inevitably  compared  with  the  Symphony 
by  Saint-Saens  in  C  minor,  which  had  been  introduced  on  January  9, 
1887.  D'Indy  has  claimed  that  Franck  could  not  have  known  the 
Symphony  at  the  time,  but  Vallas  retorts  with  the  statement  that 
"Sketches  for  Franck's  Symphony  were  jotted  down  during  two 
months  of  the  summer  of  1887  —  that  is,  six  months  and  more  after 
the  publication  and  performance  of  the  Saint-Saens."  That  both 
symphonies  lean  to  the  color  of  the  organ  and  that  both  have  a  cyclic 
recurrence  need  only  mean  that  both  were  composed  at  a  time  when 
such  traits  were  likely.  The  opinion  of  Bellaigue  that  "One  is  night, 
the  other  day;  in  the  Saint-Saens  one  breathes  freely;  in  the  Franck 
one  is  stifled  and  dies"  may  be  contrasted  with  the  opinion  of  d'Indy 
that  "the  final  impression  of  doubt  and  sadness"  felt  in  the  Symphony 
of  Saint-Saens  has  its  exact  opposite  in  Franck's  Symphony,  which 
is  "a  continual  ascent  towards  pure  gladness  and  life-giving  light 
because  the  workmanship  is  solid  and  its  themes  are  manifestations 
of  ideal  beauty."  It  would  hardly  occur  to  a  listener  today  to  compare 
two  symphonies  which  are  as  different  as  were  their  two  composers. 

The  impatience  of  the  Franck  disciples  extended,  less  reasonably, 
to  the  public  which  allowed  him  to  die  before  awaking  to  the  urgent 
beauty  of  his  art.  Ropartz,  for  instance,  tried  to  console  himself  with 
the  philosophical  reflection:  "All  true  creators  must  be  in  advance 
of  their  time  and  must  of  necessity  be  misunderstood  by  their  con- 
temporaries: Cesar  Franck  was  no  more  of  an  exception  to  this  rule 
than  other  great  musicians  have  been;  like  them,  he  was  misunder- 
stood." A  study  of  the  dates  and  performances,  which  d'Indy  himself 
has  listed,  tends  to  exonerate  the  much  berated  general  public, 
which  has  been  known  to  respond  to  new  music  with  tolerable 
promptness   when   they   are   permitted   to   hear   it   even   adequately 


KNEISEL  HALL,  BLUE  HILL,  MAINE 

Summer  School 
July  8th  to  September  1st,  1957 

INTENSIVE  ENSEMBLE  and  INDIVIDUAL  TRAINING 

Distinguished  Faculty  includes: 

ARTUR  BALSAM 
JOSEPH  FUCHS  -  LOUIS  PERSINGER 
CARL  STERN  -  EDOUARD  DETHIER 


MARIANNE  KNEISEL,  Director 
190  RIVERSIDE  DRIVE,  NEW  YORK  24,  N.  Y. 


[12] 


presented.  The  performances  of  Franck's  music  while  the  composer 
lived  were  patchy  and  far  between. 

Through  almost  all  of  his  life,  Paris  was  not  even  aware  of  Franck. 
Those  who  knew  him  casually  or  by  sight  must  have  looked  upon  him 
simply  as  a  mild  little  organist  and  teacher  at  the  Conservatoire,  who 
wrote  unperformed  oratorios  and  operas  in  his  spare  time.  And  such 
indeed  he  was.  It  must  be  admitted  that  Franck  gave  the  world  little 
opportunity  for  more  than  posthumous  recognition  —  and  not  so  much 
because  this  most  self-effacing  of  composers  never  pushed  his  cause, 
as  because  his  genius  ripened  so  late.  When  he  had  reached  fifty-seven 
there  was  nothing  in  his  considerable  output  (with  the  possible  excep- 
tion of  La  Redemption  or  Les  bolides)  which  time  has  proved  to  be 
of  any  great  importance.  Les  Beatitudes,  which  he  completed  in  that 
year  (1879)  had  neither  a  full  nor  a  clear  performance  until  three 
years  after  his  death,  when,  according  to  d'Indy,  "the  effect  was  over- 
whelming, and  henceforth  the  name  of  Franck  was  surrounded  by 
a  halo  of  glory,  destined  to  grow  brighter  as  time  went  on."  The 
masterpieces  —  Psyche,  the  Symphony,  the  String  Quartet,  the  Violin 
Sonata,  the  Three  Organ  Chorales,  all  came  within  the  last  four  years 
of  his  life,  and  the  Symphony  —  that  most  enduring  monument  of 


Sanders   Theatre      •      Cambridge 


Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 


FIFTH  CONCERT 

Tuesday  Evening,  March  26 ^  1957 
at  8.30  o'clock 

Soloist:  JOSEPH  de  PASQUALE,  Viola 

A  few  tickets  still  available  for  this  concert  and  the  remaining  concerts 

of  the  series  at  Sanders  Theatre 
March  26  April  9 

Call  Subscription  Office  -  SYMPHONY  HALL  -  CO  6-1492 


Psl 


Franck's  genius  —  was  first  performed  some  twenty  months  before  his 
death.  In  the  last  year  of  his  life,  musicians  rallied  to  the  masterly  new 
scores  as  soon  as  they  appeared,  and  lost  no  time  in  spreading  the 
gospel  of  Franck  —  a  gospel  which  was  readily  apprehended.  Ysaye 
played  the  Violin  Sonata  (dedicated  to  him)  in  town  after  town;  the 
Quartet  was  performed  at  the  Salle  Pleyel  by  the  Societe  Nationale  de 

Musique  (April  19,  1890) ,  and  the  whole  audience,  so  we  are  told, 
rose  to  applaud  the  composer.  And  after  Franck's  death,  his  music, 
aided  (or  hindered)  by  the  zealous  pronouncements  of  the  militant 
school  which  had  grown  at  his  feet,  made  its  way  increasingly  to 
popular  favor. 

D'Indy  has  given  posterity  the  vivid  picture,  backed  by  the  familiar 
painting  of  Jeanne  Rongier,  of  the  Maitre  in  his  organ  loft  at  Ste. 
Clotilde  improvising  to  the  amazement  of  all  hearers.  The  improvisa- 
tions may  have  sometimes  reached  celestial  heights,  but  one  must  reflect 
that  they  grew  from  something  far  less  inspired.  The  very  habit  of 
improvisation  must  have  begun  with  the  postludes  familiar  in  all 
churches,  the  convenient  dalliance  with  sustained  chords  and  alternat- 
ing stops  as  the  congregation,  minds  already  on  Sunday  dinner,  make 


HARVARD  GLEE   CLUR 
RADCLIFFE   CHORAL  SOCIETY 

G.    WALLACE    WOODWORTH,    Conductor 


Concert  at  Sanders  Theatre,  Cambridge 
Friday,  March  22.  1957  at  8:30  P.M. 


PROGRAM 

STABAT  MATER  for  Two  Choirs  PALESTRINA 

MASS  OF  THE  HOLY  SPIRIT   (1955) RANDALL  THOMPSON,  '20 

(First  complete  Performance) 

TE  DEUM  LAUDAMUS    (1936) KODALY 

Written  for  the  250th  Anniversary  of  the 
Liberation  of  Budapest  from  the  Turks 

♦JUBILATE  DEO    (1597) GIOVANNI  GABRIELI 

From  Sacrae  Symphoniae  Born  in  Venice,  1557 

With  Brass  Choir  from  the  Harvard-Radcliffe  Orchestra 

*  Available  on  Cambridge  Recording  CRS-201 

Tickets  are  priced  at  $2.50,  $2.00,  $1.50,  and  $1.00,  and  may  be  obtained  at  the  Harvard 
Cooperative  Society  or  by  mail  from  the  Harvard  Glee  Club,  Holden  Chapel,  Cambridge 
38.    Telephone  orders  will  be  accepted  on  weekdays  from  2-5  P.M.  at  KI  7-8990. 


[14] 


RCA    VICTOR    RECORDS 

BOSTON  SYMPHONY  ORCHESTRA 


Recorded  under  the  leadership  of  CHARLES  MUNCH 
Beethoven  Overtures  Leonore  Nos.  1,  2,  3 ;  "Fidelio" ;  "Coriolan" 
Symphonies  Nos.  5,  6,  7 
Violin  Concerto  (Heifetz) 
Berlioz  "Fantastic     Symphony" ;     Overture    to     "Beatrice    and     Benedick" ; 
"Romeo  and  Juliet"  (complete)  ;  "Summer  Nights"  (De  Los  Angeles); 
"The  Damnation  of  Faust"  (complete) 
Brahms  Piano  Concerto  No.  2  (Rubinstein) 

Symphonies  Nos.  2,  4 ;  "Tragic  Overture" 
Bruch  Violin  Concerto  No.  1  (Menuhin) 
Chausson  "Poeme"  for  Violin  and  Orchestra  (Oistrakh) 
Chopin  Piano  Concerto  No.  2  (Brailowsky) 
Debussy  "The  Martyrdom  of  St.  Sebastian" ;  "Prelude  to  the  Afternoon  of  a 

Faun";  "The  Blessed  Damozel"  (De  Los  Angeles) 
Handel  "Water  Music"  Suite  (arr.  Harty) 
Haydn  Symphony  No.  104 
Honegger  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  5 
Lalo  Overture  to  "Le  Roi  d'Ys" 
Menotti  Violin  Concerto  (Spivakovsky) 
Mozart  Overture  to  "The  Marriage  of  Figaro" 
Ravel  "Daphnis  and  Chloe"  (complete)  ;  "Pa vane" 

Newly  Recorded :   "Bolero"  ;  "La  Valse" ;  "Rapsodie  Bspagnole" 
Roussel  "Bacchus  and  Ariane,"  Suite  No.  2 

Saint-Saens  "Introduction  and  Rondo  Capriccioso"   (Oistrakh) 
Overture  to  "La  Princesse  Jaune" 
Piano  Concerto  No.  4  (Brailowsky) 
Schubert  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  8  ("Unfinished"  Symphony) 
Schumann  Overture  to  "Genoveva"         Symphony  No.  1 
Strauss  "Don  Quixote"  (Soloist,  Piatigorsky) 

Tchaikovsky  Violin  Concerto   (Milstein)  ;  "Francesca  da  Rimini";  "Romeo 
and  Juliet" ;  Symphony  No.  4 

Among  the  recordings  under  the  leadership  of  SERGE  KOUSSEVITZKY 


Bach  Brandenburg  Concertos  Nos.  1,  6; 

Suites  Nos.  1,  4 
Beethoven  Symphonies  Nos.  3,  5,  9 
Berlioz  "Harold  in  Italy"  (Primrose) 
Brahms   Symphony   No.  3 ;   Violin   Con- 
certo (Heifetz) 
Copland  "A  Lincoln  Portrait" ;  "Appala- 
chian Spring"  ;  "El  Salon  Mexico" 

Hanson  Symphony  No.  3 
Harris  Symphony  No.  3 

Haydn  Symphonies  Nos.  92,  "Oxford" ; 

94,  "Surprise" 
Khatchaturian  Piano  Concerto  (Kapell) 
Mendelssohn  Symphony  No.  4,  "Italian" 


Mozart  "Eine  kleine  Nachtmusik"  ;  Sere- 
nade No.  10,  for  Woodwinds;  Sym- 
phonies Nos.  36,  "Linz"  ;  39 

Prokofieff  "Classical"  Symphony;  "Lt. 
Kije"  Suite  ;  "Romeo  and  Juliet,"  Suite 
No.  2 ;  Symphony  No.  5 ;  Violin  Con- 
certo No.  2  (Heifetz) 

Rachmaninoff  "Isle  of  the  Dead" 

Ravel  "Bolero"  ;  "Ma  Mere  L'Oye"  Suite 

Schubert  Symphony  in  B  Minor,  "Un- 
finished" 

Sibelius  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  5 

Strauss,  R.  "Don  Juan" 

Tchaikovsky  Serenade  in  O ;  Symphonic* 
Nos.  4,  5 

Wagner  Siegfried  Idyll 


Recorded  under  the  leadership  of  PIERRE  MONTEUX 

Debussy  "La  Mer" ;  "Nocturnes"  Tchaikovsky   Symphony  No.  6,   "Pathe- 

Liszt  "Les  Preludes"  tique" 
Mozart  Piano  Concertos  Nos.  12,  18  (Lili 

Kraus)  Delibes  Ballets  "Sylvia,"  "Coppelia"  by 

Scriabin  "The  Poem  of  Ecstasy"  Members    of    the    Boston    Symphony 

Stravinsky  "Le  Sacre  dn  Printemps"  Orchestra 

Recorded  vender  the  leadership  of  Leonard  Bernstein 
Stravinsky  "L'Histoire  du  Soldat" ;  Octet  for  Wind  Instruments 

The  above  recordings  are  available  on  Long  Play  (33%  r.p.m.)  and  (in  some  cases) 
45  r.n.m. 

[15] 


their  way  out.  The  fine  organ  at  Ste.  Clotilde  which  was  Franck's  from 
1858  surely  gave  birth  to  some  of  his  finest  thoughts.  Yet  one  suspects 
that  the  really  fine  ones  somehow  got  written  down. 

Few  would  disagree  with  d'Indy's  opinion  that  Franck,  choosing 
subjects  which  contrasted  the  forces  of  good  and  evil,  was  far  more 
convincing  in  the  former.  Satan  in  the  Beatitudes  is  "pompous  and 
theatrical,"  rebellion  and  tyranny  negative  quantities,  musically  speak- 
ing, while  beside  the  choruses  of  the  heavenly  host  in  the  Redemption 
he  finds  even  Perugino's  angels  "somewhat  affected  in  their  attitudes." 
Franck's  music  shows  him  an  unworldly  person,  just  as  Liszt's 
Mephistopheles,  who  is  a  far  more  interesting  musical  figure  than  his 
St.  Elizabeth,  shows  that  composer  a  man  of  the  world.  But  to  carry 
the  identification  further  and  describe  Franck  as  a  Pater  seraphicus  is 
a  line  of  logic  which  might  turn  the  good  Abbe*  into  a  Diabolus. 

A  man's  music  is  in  some  degree  a  reflection  of  his  nature,  but  as  a 
creation  of  his  fantasy  it  is  not  necessarily  autobiographical.  Franck 
was  angelic  in  his  serenity,  his  lack  of  guile  or  rancor,  his  infinite 
patience  before  the  jealous  hostility  of  certain  colleagues  and  the  loud 
protestations  of  his  followers.  His  church  may  have  been  his  sanctuary, 
but  it  was  also  by  force  of  circumstances  his  workshop  and  his  daily 
bread.  D'Indy  was  indignant  with  those  "short-sighted  writers  who 
tried  to  compare  Franck's  ideal  of  Christ  .  .  .  with  that  ambiguous 
philanthropist  whom  Ernest  Renan  has  presented  to  us  under  His 
name."  What  d'Indy  does  not  tell  us  is  that  Franck,  who  was  evidently 
a  free-thinker  and  no  doctrinaire,  was  much  taken  with  the  historical, 
the  human  presentation  of  Jesus  in  the  Vie  de  Jesus  until  his  strict 
Roman  Catholic  pupil  talked  him  out  of  it. 

[copyrighted] 


Q^ 


EDNA  NITKIN,  M.Mus. 

PIANIST 

ACCOMPANIST        TEACHER 

Studio:  500  Boylston  St.,  Copley  Sq. 

Boston  KE  6-4062 


[16] 


asked  the  brahmin  of  the  brewer. . . 


"Pray  tell,  good  fellow,  why  not  a  beverage 
Brewed  in  a  fashion  a  bit  above  the  average? 
A  light-hearted  ale,  dry  refreshing  beer 
Worthy  of  a  connoisseur,  worthy  of  a  Peer?" 


"Matey,  you're  in  luck",  said  the  Brewer  to  the  Brahmin, 
"You  and  the  missus  and  the  Beacon  Hill  barman, 
For  Carling's  now  in  Natick,  brewing  ale  and  beer 
Worthy  of  a  connoisseur,  worthy  of  a  Peer." 


CARLING    BREWING    CO. 


CLAUDIO  ARRAU 

"Baldwin   is    the   greatest   of  pianos 
.  .  .  my  favorite  beyond  comparison." 

Wednesday  morning,  March  13th 

Boston  Morning  Musicales 

Hotel  Statler  Ballroom 


THE  BALDWIN  PIANO  COMPANY 

160  BOYLSTON  STREET 

BOSTON 


BOSTON 

SYMPHONY 

ORCHESTRA 


FOUNDED  IN  1881  BY 
HENRY  LEE  HIGGINSON 


SEVENTY-SIXTH   SEASON 
1956-1957 

Sanders  Theatre,  Cambridge   \Shf award  University] 


Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

(Seventy-sixth  Season,  1956-1957) 
CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 


Violins 

Richard  Burgin 
Concert-master 

Alfred  Krips 

George   Zazofsky 
Roll  and  Tapley 
Norbert  Lauga 


Vladimir  ResnikoS 
Harry  Dickson 
Gottfried  Wilfinger 

Einar   Hansen 
Joseph  Leibovici 

Emil   Kornsand 
Roger  Shermont 

Minot  Beale 
Herman  Silberman 
Stanley  Benson 
Leo    Panasevich 
Sheldon  Rotenberg 
Fredy  Ostrovsky 

Clarence  Knudson 
Pierre  Mayer 

Manuel  Zung 
Samuel  Diamond 

Victor  Manusevitch 
James   Nagy 

Melvin  Bryant 
Lloyd  Stonestreet 
Saverio  Messina 
William  Waterhouse 
William   Marshall 
Leonard  Moss 
Jesse  Ceci 
Noah  Bielski 
Alfred  Schneider 
Joseph  Silverstein 

Basses 

Georges  Moleux 
Gaston  Dufresne 

Irving  Frankel 
Henry  Freeman 

Henry  Portnoi 
Henri  Girard 
John  Barwicki 


RICHARD   BURGIN,  Associate   Conductor 

PERSONNEL 

Violas 
Joseph  de  Pasqualc 
Jean  Cauhape 
Eugen  Lehner 
Albert  Bernard 

George  Humphrey 
Jerome  Lipson 

Robert  Karol 
Reuben  Green 

Bernard   Kadinoff 
Vincent  Mauricci 
John  Fiasca 
Earl  Hedberg 


Violoncellos 
Samuel  Mayes 
Alfred  Zighera 

Jacobus   Langendoen 
Mischa  Nieland 
Karl  Zeise 
Josef  Zimbler 
Bernard  Parronchi 
Martin  Hoherman 
Louis   Berger 
Richard   Kapuscinski 
Robert  Ripley 

Flutes 
Doriot  Anthony  Dwyer 
James  Pappoutsakis 
Phillip  Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George  Madsen 

Oboes 
Ralph  Gomberg 
Jean  Devergie 
John  Holmes 

English  Horn 
Louis  Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino  Cioffi 
Manuel  Valerio 
Pasquale  Cardillo 

E\)   Clarinet 

Bass  Clarinet 
Rosario  Mazzeo 


Bassoons 

Sherman  Walt 
Ernst  Panenka 
Theodore  Brewster 

Contra-Bassoon 
Richard  Plaster 


Horns 

James  Stagliano 
Charles  Yancich 

Harry  Shapiro 
Harold  Meek 
Paul  Keaney 
Osbourne  McConathy 


Trumpets 
Roger  Voisin 
Marcel  Lafosse 
Armando  Ghitalla 
Gerard  Goguen 

Trombones 

William  Gibson 
William  Moyer 
Kauko  Kahila 
Josef  Orosz 

Tuba 
K.  Vinal  Smith 

Harps 
Bernard  Zighera 
Olivia  Luetcke 

Timpani 
Everett  Firth 
Harold  Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles  Smith 
Harold  Thompson 
Arthur  Press 

Piano 
Bernard  Zighera 

Library 
Victor  Alpert 


Sanders  Theatre,  Cambridge  [Harvard  University] 


SEVENTY-SIXTH  SEASON,  1956-1957 

Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 
Richard  Burgin,  Associate  Conductor 


Concert  Bulletin  of  the 
Fifth  Concert 

TUESDAY  EVENING,  March  26 

with  historical  and  descriptive  notes  by 
John  N.  Burk 

The  TRUSTEES  of  the 
BOSTON  SYMPHONY  ORCHESTRA,  Inc. 

Henry  B.  Cabot  .         President 

Jacob  J.  Kaplan  .         Vice-President 

Richard  C.  Paine  .         Treasurer 

Talcott  M.  Banks,  Jr.  E.  Morton  Jennings,  Jr. 

Theodore  P.  Ferris  Michael  T.  Kelleher 

Alvan  T.  Fuller  Palfrey  Perkins 

Francis  W.  Hatch  Charles  H.  Stockton 

Harold  D.  Hodgkinson  Edward  A.  Taft 

C.  D.  Jackson  Raymond  S.  Wilkins 

Oliver  Wolcott 

TRUSTEES  EMERITUS 
Philip  R.  Allen  M.  A.  DeWolfe  Howe 

N.  Penrose  Hallo  well  Lewis  Perry 

Thomas  D.  Perry,  Jr.,  Manager 
G.  W.  Rector  )   Assistant  J.  J.  Brosnahan,  Assistant  Treasurer 

N.  S.  Shirk        )   Managers         Rosario  Mazzeo,  Personnel  Manager 

hi 


munch  in  person 

on  rca  Victor  records 


To  Charles  Munch,  conducting  is  not  a  profession  hut  a 
sacred  calling.  And  this  dedication,  combined  with  the 
magnificence  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra,  brings 
you  performances  of  unmatched  power  and  beauty.  You 
feel  and  hear  this  devotion  whether  he  conducts  Ravel, 
Berlioz  or  Beethoven  . . .  whether  the  performance  is  in 
Symphony  Hall  or ...  on  RCA  Victor  Records,  of  course! 


THE 
WORLD'S 
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M 


SEVENTY-SIXTH  SEASON  •   NINETEEN  HUNDRED  FIFTY-SIX  AND  FIFTY-SEVEN 


Fifth   Concert 


TUESDAY  EVENING,  March  26 


Program 

Walton Johannesburg  Festival  Overture 

Walton Concerto  for  Viola  and  Orchestra 

I.    Andante  comodo:  Cantabile  espressivo 
II.    Vivo,  con  molto  preciso 
III.    Allegro  moderato 

INTERMISSION 

Wagner Overture  and  Bacchanale  from  "Tannhauser" 

Wagner Magic  Fire  Music  from  "Die  Walkiire" 

Wagner Siegfried's  Rhine  Journey  from  "Gotterdammerung" 


SOLOIST 

JOSEPH  de  PASQUALE 


Performances  by  this  orchestra  are  broadcast  each  week  on  Monday 
evenings  from  8:05  to  9:00  P.M.  on  the  NBC  Radio  Network.  (Nearest 
local  station  WJAR,  Providence.)  The  Friday  afternoon  concerts  at 
2:15  and  the  Saturday  evening  concerts  at  8:30  are  broadcast  direct 
each  week  by  Station  WGBH-FM. 

BALDWIN  PIANO  RCA  VICTOR  RECORDS 


[31 


JOHANNESBURG  FESTIVAL  OVERTURE* 

By  William  Walton 

Born  in  Oldham,  Lancashire,  March  29,  1902 


This  Overture,  completed  last  spring,  had  its  first  performance  in  Johannesburg, 
South  Africa,  September  15,  1956,  when  Malcolm  Sargent  conducted  the  Symphony 
Orchestra  of  the  South  African  Broadcasting  Corporation  (SABC). 

The  required  instruments  are  3  flutes,  2  oboes  and  English  horn,  3  clarinets,  3 
bassoons,  4  horns,  3  trumpets,  3  trombones  and  tuba,  timpani,  harp,  percussion, 
and  strings. 

Qir  William  Walton  completed  the  score  in  his  villa  on  the  Island 
^  of  Ischia  in  the  Bay  of  Naples,  May  16,  1956.  Its  performance  in 
Johannesburg  was  part  of  a  festival  celebrating  the  70th  anniversary 
of  that  city.  The  prevailing  tempo  is  "presto  capriccioso."  The  con- 
siderable array  of  percussion  instruments  contributes  to  the  appropri- 
ateness of  the  locale.  They  consist  of  maracas,  rumba  sticks,  xylophone, 
glockenspiel,  castanets,  tambourine,  bass  drum,  cymbals,  triangle,  side 
drum,  tenor  drum. 

[copyrighted] 


CONCERTO  FOR  VIOLA  AND  ORCHESTRA 

By  William  Walton 

Born  in  Oldham,  Lancashire,  March  29,  1902 


Composed  in  the  years  1928  and  1929,  this  Concerto  had  its  first  performance  at 
the  Promenade  Concerts  in  London,  under  the  direction  of  Sir  Henry  Wood,  October 
3,  1929,  when  Paul  Hindemith  was  the  soloist.  Lionel  Tertis  played  it  at  Liege  in 
the  following  year  at  the  I.S.C.M.  Festival. 

The  orchestra  consists  of  2  flutes  and  piccolo,  2  oboes  and  English  horn,  2  clarinets 
and  bass  clarinet,  2  bassoons  and  contra-bassoon,  4  horns,  3  trumpets,  3  trombones 
and  tuba,  timpani,  strings.    The  score  bears  the  dedication  "To  Christabel." 

tn  a  plan  which  he  was  later  to  repeat  in  his  Cello  Concerto,  Sir 
•*•  William  Walton  has  not  chosen  a  slow  movement  for  the  middle 
part  of  his  Viola  Concerto,  but  a  brief  and  sparkling  scherzo  in  that 
position.  The  opening  movement  serves  in  both  cases  for  the  slow 
movement,  while  in  the  Viola  Concerto  there  is  a  contrasting  section 
of  animation  and  vigor  achieved  by  an  elaboration  of  notes  in  shorter 
value  within  the   continuing  broader  scheme.    The   finale   in   both 


*  This  Overture  as  well  as  Walton's  Viola  Concerto  are  performed  by  arrangement  with  the 
Oxford  University  Press. 

[4] 


concertos  is  the  longest  and  most  developed  movement,  orchestrally 
speaking.  The  Viola  Concerto  is  without  a  cadenza. 

The  soloist  gives  us  at  once  this  principal  subject,  a  cantabile  theme 
which  is  to  recur  at  the  close  of  the  Concerto: 


Donald  Francis  Tovey  in  his  detailed  analysis  of  this  Concerto* 
shows  how  the  accompanying  chords  with  their  C-sharp  against  the 
C  of  the  soloist  are  to  become  a  significant  motto  in  this  movement. 
An  elaborate  solo  passage,  broadening  into  sixths,  introduces  a  second 
theme  which  is  equally  "espressivo": 


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p=m,  r  r-QET  B 


The  second  movement  with  its  syncopated  accents  has  reminded 
Professor  Tovey  of  "ragtime."  Whether  the  composer  was  familiar 
with  this  Americanism,  defunct  when  he  wrote  the  Concerto,  or 
whether  he  consciously  took  a  hint  from  that  phenomenon  of  the  early 
century  would  be  debatable.  The  rhythmic  treatment,  which  is  jaunty 
and  gay  but  varied  and  subtle  of  beat,  is  less  obviously  an  imitation  of 
ragtime  than  the  earlier  essays  of  Debussy  or  Stravinsky.  This  "rondo" 
(it  approximates  the  form  by  the  recurrence  of  the  main  theme)  is 
pointed  and  brilliant  without  undue  weight. 

The  finale  opens  pianissimo  with  a  grotesque  theme  first  heard  from 
the  bassoons  and  soon  taken  up  by  the  soloist: 


&m=* 


i 


«ft)J-  Ja 


5 


^ 


A=Q: 


a 


a 


0    i- 


r  f  f 


*  Essays  in  Musical  Analysis,  Volume  III. 


CAMBRIDGE  TRUST  COMPA1VY 

Harvard  Square 

Our  Trust  Department  would 
welcome  your  inquiry. 

Member  Federal  Deposit  Insurance  Corporation 


[5J 


An  element  of  grotesquerie  this  movement  has  throughout,  but  the 
mood  is  not  light.  Tovey  goes  so  far  as  to  say  that  when  this  theme 
"reveals  itself  as  a  purely  majestic  subject  for  a  fugal  stretto  .  .  .  the 
listener  will  soon  become  convinced  that  the  total  import  of  the  work 
is  that  of  high  tragedy."  "High  tragedy"  may  be  a  strong  characteriza- 
tion for  this  Concerto,  but  there  can  be  no  mistaking  the  composer's 
serious  intent  as  he  fulfills  his  fugato  in  the  orchestra  alone.  The 
orchestra  reaches  an  intense  climax,  fortissimo,  dies  away,  and  gives 
the  final  center  of  attention  to  the  soloist  as  he  concludes  the  Concerto 
with  the  theme  which  opened  it.  The  melancholy  voice  inherent  in 
the  instrument  is  delicately  and  colorfully  supported  to  the  last 
cadence. 

Walton  is  singularly  successful  in  matching  the  special  timbre  of  the 
viola  with  what  is  often  a  considerable  orchestra.  He  does  not  turn 
to  arpeggios  as  Berlioz  did.  In  the  first  and  last  movements  (partic- 
ularly in  the  second  theme  of  the  last)  he  finds  strength  and  beauty 
by  the  use  of  sixths.  "There  are  so  few  concertos  for  viola  that  (even 
if  I  happen  to  know  any  others),"  so  concludes  Professor  Tovey,  "it 
would  be  a  poor  compliment  to  say  this  was  the  finest.  Any  concerto 
for  viola  must  be  a  tour  de  force;  but  this  seems  to  me  to  be  one  of 
the  most  important  modern  concertos  for  any  instrument,  and  I  can 
see  no  limits  to  what  may  be  expected  of  the  tone-poet  who  could 
create  it." 

[copyrighted] 


JOSEPH  de  PASQUALE 


Joseph  de  Pasquale  was  born  in  Philadelphia,  October  14,  1919. 
He  studied  with  Louis  Bailly  at  the  Curtis  Institute,  graduating  with 
honors.  He  has  also  studied  with  Max  Aranoff  and  William  Primrose. 
For  the  duration  of  the  war  he  played  in  the  Marine  Band  of  Washing- 
ton, D.  C,  subsequently  joining  the  viola  section  of  the  American 
Broadcasting  Company  Orchestra  in  New  York.  Mr.  de  Pasquale 
became  first  viola  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra  in  1947.  He  has 
been  soloist  in  performances  of  Berlioz'  Harold  in  Italy,  Strauss'  Don 
Quixote,  Viola  Concerto  in  B  minor  by  Handel  (?). 

In  the  present  performances  he  plays  a  Gasparo  da  Said  instrument. 


[6] 


ENTR'ACTE 
THE  TENOR  WHO  LET  WAGNER  DOWN 


A  lbert  Niemann,  the  tenor  who  sang  the  part  of  Tannhauser  in  the 
^**  first  Paris  production,  has  until  recently  been  considered  to  have 
been  a  valiant  laborer  in  the  Wagner  cause.  The  story  told  by  £mile 
Ollivier  (L' Empire  Liberal,  1900)  was  not  believed.  Ollivier  then 
related  that  "Niemann  saw  the  storm  coming,  foresaw  the  angry  mob, 
was  frightened,  and  told  Scudo  that  he  would  withdraw  from  the 
Opera  if  he  himself  would  be  let  alone."  The  story  thus  seems  to  have 
come  from  Scudo,  a  most  unreliable  critic,  and  was  suspect  on  that 
account.  Philip  Hale,  discussing  the  matter  in  the  Boston  Symphony 
Programs,*  dismissed  it  as  "hardly  worth  a  thought." 

Letters  in  the  Burrell  Collection  from  the  tenor  to  Wagner  have 
circumstantially  revealed  the  truth  of  such  a  disaffection,  f  Niemann 
had  indeed  been  in  Wagner's  favor  and  hopes,  on  account  of  his 
success  in  Tannhauser,  Rienzi,  and  Lohengrin  in  Hanover.  Wagner, 
in  exile,  had  never  heard  his  voice.  He  had  indeed  called  upon 
Wagner  at  the  Asyl  in  Zurich.  But  Tichatschek,  the  original  Rienzi 
and  Tannhauser  in  Dresden,  under  Wagner's  direction,  whom  the 
composer  admired  and  loved,  was  there  too.  This  was  one  tenor  too 
many  —  each  refused  to  sing  in  the  presence  of  the  other. 

"Unable  to  hear  Niemann,  Wagner  was  delighted  with  his  fine 
physique  and  his  youth  (he  was  then  twenty-seven,  Tichatschek  fifty- 
three)  and  at  once  visualized  him  for  Siegfried.  He  also  had  him  in 
mind  for  Tristan,  and  when  Tannhauser  was  put  on  in  Zurich,  would 
have  insisted  upon  his  engagement  if  the  budget  of  the  company  had 
permitted.  When  Tannhauser  was  cast  for  Paris,  Wagner  would  have 
none  other  for  the  title  part.  Niemann  was  imported  to  France  at 
54,000  francs  for  nine  months,  with  Tannhauser  as  his  sole  obligation 
—  such  were  the  earnings  of  a  popular  tenor,  even  in  those  days,  as 
compared  to  a  mere  composer.  Niemann  was  a  tenor  of  the  arrogant 
type  who  tended  to  lord  it  over  Wagner.  But  he  must  have  listened 
to  Wagner's  suggestions  about  how  the  part  should  and  should  not  be 
sung,  for  Wagner  was  at  first  pleased  with  him.  Wagner  wrote  to 
Mathilde  Wesendonck,  as  late  as  February  12,  1861,  only  a  week  before 
the  first  full  rehearsal:  'Niemann  is  altogether  sublime.  He  is  a  great 
artist  of  the  rarest  quality.'  Wagner's  sudden  loss  of  confidence  in 
him,  as  shown  in  his  letter  of  remonstrance   (February  20),  can  mean 


*  April  21,  1922.  Mr.  Hale  there  also  gives  an  amusing  description  of  Fortunata  Tedesco,  the 
Venus  who  sang  opposite  Niemann  in  Paris,  and  whose  career  had  taken  her  as  far  afield 
as  the  Howard  Athenaeum  in  Boston,  where  she  "drew  all  men  unto  her." 

t  Letters  of  Richard  Wagner;  the  Burrell  Collection  (The  Macmillan  Company,  1950).  The 
passages  here  quoted  are  taken  from  the  text  of  this  book. 

[7i 


only  that  Niemann  had  suddenly  gotten  wind  of  an  industrious  plot 
to  ruin  the  production  and  make  a  public  scandal  of  it.  When  he 
believed  that  the  Tannhauser  production  was  a  scuttled  ship,  he 
suddenly  turned  on  both  the  composer  and  his  opera,  giving  them 
no  more  care,  attention,  or  pains  than  the  letter  of  his  contract 
required.  Von  Biilow  found  him  a  'toneless  baritone'  in  quality,  but 
this  was  at  the  last  rehearsals,  when  he  was  cynically  saving  himself, 
voice  included,  from  the  wreckage.  He  seems  to  have  given  not  a 
thought  to  what  Wagner  stood  to  lose,  nor  to  have  shown  a  spark  of 
sympathy  for  the  harassed  composer." 

A  letter  from  Niemann's  wife  (January  2,  1861;  No.  387)  complains: 

"Dear  Honored  Herr  Wagner! 

"My  poor  husband  came  back  so  exhausted  again  from  the  evening 
rehearsal  that  I  foresaw  his  present  indisposition  which  prevents  him 
from  coming  to  see  you  this  morning,  since  he  will  have  to  stay  in  bed 
till  this  afternoon." 

Wagner  had  patiently  coached  him  in  the  proper  vocal  handling 
of  the  character  of  Tannhauser.  The  composer's  conception  was  not 
in  accord  with  the  self-vaunting  ways  of  the  traditional  Heldentenor 
(February  20,  1867;  No.  377).  "But  this  Heldentenor  was  not  con- 
cerned about  dramatic  verity.  He  thought  only  of  extricating  himself 
without  loss  of  prestige.  Smarting  under  'indignities'  suffered  at  the 
first  full  rehearsal,  he  wrote  this  letter  on  the  day  following: 

"Honored  Sir! 

"Although  I  have  repeatedly  and  most  urgently  asked  you  to  let  me 
omit  the  phrase  'venant  en  aide  au  miserable/*  which  no  singer  has 
so  far  been  able  to  negotiate  after  the  fatigue  of  the  first  two  acts  of 
Tannhauser,  and  although  you  must  have  noticed  that  this  phrase  was 
beyond  my  powers,  you  nevertheless  insisted  that  it  be  retained,  and 
it  was  only  because  of  my  foolish  reticence  [damme  Bescheidenheit] 
that  I  did  not  take  a  more  determined  stand  against  you.  Since  this 
phrase  yesterday  caused  me  great  embarrassment  before  a  large 
audience  improperly  admitted  by  you,  an  embarrassment  about  which 
people  are  already  talking  everywhere  and  which  will  have  a  most 
harmful  effect  on  my  success,  you  can,  I  hope,  be  induced  to  cut  this 
phrase.  —  If,  however,  I  should  be  mistaken  in  this  assumption,  there 
remains  no  other  way  out  for  you  than  to  look  for  another  Tannhauser. 

"Renouncing  any  personal  success  for  myself,  I  shall  be  very  happy 
indeed  if  I  escape  from  this  whole  affair  with  my  voice  intact. 

Sincerely  yours, 

A.  Niemann. 


*  "Zum  HeiL  den  Siindigen  zu  fiihren,"  Tannhauser's  opening  line  in  the  climactic  ensemble 
following  Elisabeth's  intercession  in  Act  II.  Its  omission,  ruinous  to  the  scene,  would  not  have 
been  especially  taxing  to  Niemann,  who  merely  wished  to  save  his  voice  for  solo  purposes. 

r  s  1 


"This  piece  of  callous  hostility,  arriving  just  as  Wagner  had  written 
his  long  and  painstaking  attempt  to  save  the  day,  must  have  come  as 
a  shock.  He  read  the  lines  and  sadly  added  the  following  postscript 
to  his  own  letter*: 

"I  had  got  thus  far  when  your  letter  reached  me.  I  see  where  you 
have  now  got  to:  you  employ  toward  me  a  manner  of  speech  which 
I  find  myself  able  to  understand  only  by  casting  my  mind  back  to  the 
very  first  period  of  my  painful  career.  Permit  me  to  say  that  you  are 
mistaken  when  you  speak  of  having  laid  yourself  open  to  ridicule,  and 
I  can  only  wonder  who  has  been  repeating  the  chatter  of  the  boule- 
vards to  you.  I  ask  myself  doubtfully  whether  this  letter  of  mine  can 
still  serve  any  good  purpose  with  you,  or  whether  it  will  only  make 
matters  worse.  However,  I  will  not  all  at  once  give  up  the  last  hope 
concerning  my  art.  From  this  letter  you  can  see  how  very  high  my 
opinion  is  of  you,  and  the  sure  consciousness  of  this  must  preserve  you 
from  a  superficial  misunderstanding  of  the  spirit  in  which  I  have 
addressed  myself  to  you.  But  on  one  point  I  withdraw  what  I  have 
said  in  this  letter  of  mine:  I  am  prepared  to  cut  the  passage  in  ques- 
tion. May  you  find  peace!  Take  care  of  yourself,  and  —  should  it  be 
possible  —  form  an  opinion  of  me  that  in  the  future  will  ensure  for 
me  rather  more  regard  on  your  part  than  is  evident  in  the  tone  of 
your  letter  today. 

"Even  if  Niemann  had  been  capable  of  being  moved  by  this  quiet, 
sensible,  and  conciliatory  plea  from  a  much  beset  composer,  it  would 
have  availed  little.  Even  those  most  eager  to  hear  Tannhduser  had 
no  opportunity  to  listen  to  it  with  quiet  attention,  the  third  act 
especially;  at  each  of  the  three  performances,  the  hullabaloo  then 
reached  its  height,  at  the  last  interrupting  the  performers  for  fifteen 
minutes  at  a  time.  Niemann,  taking  it  as  a  personal  insult,  strode  to 
the  front  of  the  stage  and  hurled  his  property  hat  at  the  Jockeys.  He 
was  no  doubt  jeered  at  for  his  pains. 

"After  his  tribulations  with  the  insufferable  Niemann,  Wagner's 
thoughts  went  back  to  the  faithful  Tichatschek,  the  original  Tann- 
hauser,  and  he  wrote  to  his  friend  on  the  eve  of  the  third  performance 
(March  23,  1861;  No.  347 A): 

"God,  how  much  I've  thought  of  you  lately,  dearest  Tschekel!  How 
often  have  I  already  told  people  the  story  about  you,  how  after  the 
first  performance  of  Rienzi  you  had  forbidden  the  copyists  to  make 
the  cuts  I  indicated  and  how,  when  I  called  you  to  account,  you 
answered:  'No!  I  won't  allow  any  cuts!  It's  too  heavenly!'  How  the 
hot  tears  ran  down  my  cheeks. 

"This  was  all  brought  back  to  me  as  I  was  dealing  with  a  miserable 
coward  who  runs  around  howling  that  he  ruins  his  voice  with  my 
Tannhduser.  You  can  well  imagine  how  I  felt!" 

J.  N.  B. 


*  "Richard  Wagner  and  Albert  Niemann,"  1924    (Translation  by  Ernest  Newman). 

[91 


OVERTURE  AND  BACCHANALE    (THE  VENUSBERG) 
FROM  "TANNHAUSER" 

By  Richard  Wagner 

Born  in  Leipzig,  May  22,  1813;  died  in  Venice,  February  13,  1883 


Wagner  composed  his  Tannhauser  between  the  summer  of  1842  and  the  end  of 
1844,  producing  the  opera  in  Dresden,  October  19,  1845.  Tannhauser  was  introduced 
to  Paris  at  the  Opera,  March  13,  1861,  for  which  production  the  Bacchanale  was 
written  and  inserted,  replacing  the  reprise  of  the  pilgrim's  chorus. 

Wagner  added  to  the  orchestra  used  in  the  Overture  a  flute  interchangeable  with 
piccolo,  castanets,  and  harp.  The  Overture  calls  for  2  flutes  and  piccolo,  2  oboes, 
2  clarinets,  2  bassoons,  4  horns,  3  trumpets,  3  trombones,  and  tuba,  timpani,  cymbals, 
triangle,  tambourine,  and  strings. 

The  Bacchanale,  Philip  Hale  has  noted,  was  performed  in  Boston,  before  its 
publication,  at  a  concert  of  Theodore  Thomas,  November  28,  1873.  Arthur  Nikisch 
gave  the  first  performance  at  the  concerts  by  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra, 
December  31,   1890. 

TT7agner,  an  exile  in  Paris  in  i860,  anxious  for  a  musical  hearing, 
*  *  came  to  the  interested  attention  of  influential  people,  notably 
the  Princess  Metternich,  wife  of  the  Austrian  ambassador,  who  pre- 
vailed over  Napoleon  III  to  order  a  production  of  Tannhauser  at  the 
Opera.  The  composer,  not  without  skepticism  as  to  the  result,  saw  to 
the  translation  of  his  text  into  French.  It  was  considered  imperative  for 
the  success  of  the  production  that  a  ballet  be  introduced  in  the  second 
act  according  to  operatic  custom.  "The  subscribers,"  wrote  Wagner 
in  his  autobiography,  "always  reached  the  theatre  somewhat  late  after 
a  heavy  dinner,  never  at  the  commencement."  The  composer,  of 
course,  could  not  conceive  of  introducing  tripping  ballerinas  into 
the  sedate  hall  of  song  at  the  Wartburg.  Nevertheless,  the  idea  of 
enlarging  the  introductory  Venusberg  scene  by  bringing  in  seductive 
bacchantes  greatly  appealed  to  him.  The  case  for  eroticism,  soon  to 
be  overborne  by  the  case  for  piety,  would  thus  make  its  point  more 
vividly.  The  ripened  dramatic  sense  of  the  composer  who  had  since 
written  Lohengrin,  Das  Rheingold,  Die  WalkiXre,  part  of  Siegfried, 


Workshop  of  the  Craft 
at  the  Teapot  Sign 

79  CHESTNUT  ST. 

BOSTON  8 

Foot  of  Beacon  Hill 
LAfayette  3-3871 


[10] 


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featuring  traditional  designs  in  lasting  favor 

Ready  selection  for  gifts  from  wide  range  of  pieces 
exhibited,  antique  and  modern,  domestic  and  imported, 
silver  and  silver-plate,  and  special  exclusive*  by 
CEBELEIN. 


and  Tristan  und  Isolde  made  him  newly  aware  that  to  fill  out  and 
strengthen  the  element  of  profane  love  in  Tannhauser  would  greatly 
enhance  the  effect  of  the  coming  struggle  between  Venus  and  Elisabeth 
for  the  soul  of  Tannhauser.  He  therefore  wrote  an  elaborate  ballet 
and  enriched  the  dialogue  between  Venus  and  Tannhauser. 

His  imagination  ran  riot  with  bacchanalian  possibilities,  including 
mythological  tableaux  vivants.  Petipas,  the  Ballet  Master  of  the  Opera 
(in  Mein  Leben  Wagner  amusingly  spells  it  "Petitpas"),  held  out  as 
long  as  he  could  against  the  inclusion  of  the  ballet  so  early  in  the 
opera.  His  dancers  would  not  consent  to  it,  he  protested,  nor  could 
they  abandon  their  cold  and  stilted  gyrations  and  become  voluptuous 
nymphs,  sirens  and  water  sprites.  The  composer  was  adamant,  and 
supplementary  Hungarian  dancers  were  engaged.  The  tableaux  of 
"Europa  and  the  Bull"  and  "Leda  and  the  Swan"  were  omitted  in  this 
production.  "The  ladies  of  the  ballet,"  according  to  Gasperini,  "do 
not  have  the  appearance  of  knowing  why  they  are  in  the  Venusberg, 
and  they  dance  there  with  as  much  dignity  as  though  they  were  in  the 
'Gardens  of  Alcazar,'  the  delight  of  'Moorish  Kings.'  "  Wagner's  friend 
elsewhere  described  this  "glacial  performance"  as  like  "an  orgy  in  a 
ladies'  parlor." 

Wagner's  tremendous  planning  and  tremendous  labors  in  the  prep- 
aration of  Tannhauser  (there  were  150  preliminary  rehearsals  and 
eight  full  rehearsals)  were  doomed  to  be  wasted.  The  so-called  "Jockey 
Club"  were  set  to  defile  the  opera,  completely  defeat  all  these  labors. 
"Rich,  frivolous  gentlemen,"  Wagner's  wife  Minna  called  them,* 
"who  have  their  mistresses  in  the  ballet,  nearly  all  employed  without 
any  salary,  with  whom  they  amuse  themselves  after  the  ballet,  behind 
the  scenes,  and  this  in  the  most  indecent  manner."  These  gentlemen, 
bandits  in  white  gloves,  armed  with  whistles,  could  render  the  noblest 
music  inaudible. 

Minna  had  no  confidence  in  the  inclusion  of  the  ballet,  "Venus- 
spukereien"  as  she  called  it,  at  the  expense  of  the  sonorous  conclusion 
of  the  original  overture:  "The  electric  spark  which  he  hurled  into  the 
public  with  his  overture  has  vanished."  So  far  as  the  ad  captandum 
finale  was  concerned,  she  had  a  practical  point.  She  was  sadly  uncom- 
prehensive  of  Wagner  in  this  his  Tristan  period,  nor  could  she  have 
followed  his  plain  purpose  of  enhancing  an  important  scene  in  its 
relation  to  the  opera  as  a  whole.  Current  cabals  and  even  the  hazards 
of  the  production  in  hand  would  not  have  deterred  him  from  this 
higher  purpose. 

The  Jockey  Club  and  their  kind,  needless  to  say,  were  as  little 
concerned  with  the  suitability  of  the  ballet  as  they  were  with  the  basic 

*  Letter  to  her  daughter  Natalie,  April  5,  1861  (Burrell  Collection  #361F). 

[11] 


struggle  for  the  soul  of  a  legendary  bard  of  remote  Thuringia.  The 
lighter  diversions  of  Auber  or  Offenbach  were  more  to  their  taste. 
They  were  more  than  ready  to  oblige  the  royal  political  faction,  and 
if  possible  put  the  intrusive  princess  out  of  countenance  by  the  collapse 
of  the  whole  project. 

Wagner  threw  himself  with  characteristic  prodigious  vigor  and 
pains  into  the  "grotesque  undertaking,"  as  he  has  called  it,  his 
meticulous  labors  not  in  the  least  abated  by  the  attendant  hum  of 
intrigue.  He  chose  and  drilled  the  dancers,  coached  the  singers  in 
every  inflection  and  gesture  of  music  entirely  baffling  to  them,  and 
stood  over  the  conductor  at  the  almost  endless  rehearsals,  establishing 
the  tempi.  The  opening  performance  was  all  but  howled  and  whistled 
off  the  stage  by  the  organized  demonstration  of  the  fashionable  dandies. 
A  second  performance  on  March  18  fared  little  better.  Only  the  first 
act  and  part  of  the  second  were  allowed  to  be  heard  unmolested. 
Apparently  the  "late  diners"  had  lingered  over  their  coffee  before 
they  condescended  to  make  their  ruinous  descent.  The  third  (and 
last)  performance  fared  worse,  for  the  jockeys  were  on  hand  at  the 
beginning.  Wagner  this  time  stayed  away.  The  opera  was  withdrawn 
at  his  own  insistence.  Overnight  he  had  become  famous  (or  infamous) 
in  Paris,  the  topic  of  the  salons  and  boulevards. 

He  was  not  too  downcast  after  the  whole  debacle,  at  least  so  he  con- 
fided to  his  intimate  friends.  The  public  of  Paris  had  not  condemned 
Tannhauser,  for  they  had  not  been  allowed  to  hear  it.  Nor  did  it 
languish  elsewhere.  In  any  case  his  heart,  his  hopes,  had  long  been 
concentrated  upon  a  production  at  last  of  his  latest  work,  which  in 
every  respect  except  the  bacchanale  was  an  immense  advance  upon  the 
early  Tannhauser  —  the  far  more  difficult  and  far  more  problematic 

Tristan  und  Isolde. 

[copyrighted] 


KNEISEL  HALL,  BLUE  HILL,  MAINE 

Summer  School 

July  8th  to  September  1st,  1957 

INTENSIVE  ENSEMBLE  and  INDIVIDUAL  TRAINING 

Distinguished  Faculty  includes: 

ARTUR  BALSAM 
JOSEPH  FUCHS  -  LOUIS  PERSINGER 
CARL  STERN  -  EDOUARD  DETHIER 


MARIANNE  KNEISEL,  Director 
190  RIVERSIDE  DRIVE,  NEW  YORK  24,  N.  Y. 


[12] 


FINALE    ("FEUERZAUBER")  from  "DIE  WALKURE" 

(Close  of  Act  III) 

By  Richard  Wagner 

Born  in  Leipzig,  May  22,  1813;  died  in  Venice,  February  13,  1883 


The  "Farewell  of  Wotan"  and  the  "Magic  Fire  Music"  were  performed  in  Boston 
at  a  Thomas  concert,  January  20,  1875,  before  the  entire  work  had  been  heard  in 
this  city.  The  first  performance  by  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra  was  on  Decem- 
ber 30,  1882,  when  Georg  Henschel  was  the  soloist. 

npHE  last  scene  in  Die  Walkiire  is  the  summit  of  a  mountain,  a  craggy 
***  and  precipitous  spot  and  a  haven  of  the  Valkyries.  Wotan  has 
angrily  dismissed  the  maidens  as  they  have  tried  to  shield  their  sister, 
and  Brunnhilde  alone  has  had  to  face  his  godlike  wrath.  She  has 
opposed  divine  authority,  raised  her  spear  against  it  to  protect  the 
unsanctified  union  of  Siegmund  and  Sieglinde.  She  has  even  brought 
Sieglinde  to  this  refuge  —  Sieglinde  who,  soon  to  perish,  will  first 
bear  a  son,  the  destined  hero  Siegfried.  Brunnhilde,  Wotan  has  said, 
must  forfeit  the  attributes  of  a  goddess,  her  proud  inviolability,  her 
divine  maidenhood,  her  place  at  Valhalla.  She  is  to  be  left  defenceless 
before  the  first  mortal  who  may  come  to  claim  her  as  wife.  Brunnhilde 


Sanders    Theatre      •      Cambridge 


Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 


SIXTH  CONCERT 

Tuesday  Evening,  April  p,  1937 
at  8.30  o'clock 

A  few  tickets  still  available  for  this  concert  at  Sanders  Theatre 
Call  Subscription  Office  -  SYMPHONY  HALL  -  CO  6-1492 


[«3l 


has  plead  to  be  spared  from  the  indignity.  Has  her  transgression 
justified  this  terrible  degradation?  Has  she  not  in  fact  fulfilled  his 
secret  wish  in  helping  the  race  of  the  Walsungs  whom  he  has  fathered 
and  loved?  May  she  not  in  her  punishment  at  least  be  encircled  with 
a  defence  such  as  Loge  might  give,  a  fire  which  no  chance  comer  but 
only  a  hero  might  penetrate? 

Wotan  is  touched  by  the  appeal  of  the  once  intrepid  and  indomi- 
table, but  now  helpless  Brunnhilde,  and  he  accedes  to  her  request.  In 
the  remainder  of  the  scene,  he  is  no  longer  the  wrathful  God,  she  the 
impenetrable  Goddess.  They  are  father  and  daughter,  the  parent  tak- 
ing farewell  of  his  favorite  child  whom  he  is  never  to  see  again.  He 
must  strip  her  of  her  divine  qualities,  though  his  heart  cry  out  against 
it.  His  very  human  emotion,  pervading  the  close  of  "Die  Walkiire" 
must  in  his  own  torn  heart  submit  to  the  unalterable  law  which  as 
ruler  he  is  bound  to  enforce.  He  invokes  Loge  as  the  motive  of  that 
god  develops  into  flickering  flames.  The  motive  of  Fate  darkly  under- 
lies it.  The  coming  of  Siegfried,  who  is  to  release  Brunnhilde,  is  fore- 
told as  his  motive  as  deliverer  flashes  prophetically  across  the  scene. 
The  motives  of  Fire  and  Sleep  are  inextricable,  for  the  same  magic 

charm  imposes  both. 

[copyrighted] 


Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 


CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 


NEXT   OPEN  REHEARSAL 

THURSDAY  EVENING 

APRIL  4 

In  SYMPHONY  HALL  at  7:30 


TICKETS  AT  BOX  OFFICE,  $2.00 


[Hi 


asked  the  brahmin  of  the  brewer. . . 


"Pray  tell,  good  fellow,  why  not  a  beverage 
Brewed  in  a  fashion  a  bit  above  the  average? 
A  light-hearted  ale,  dry  refreshing  beer 
Worthy  of  a  connoisseur,  worthy  of  a  Peer?" 


"Matey,  you're  in  luck",  said  the  Brewer  to  the  Brahmin, 
"You  and  the  missus  and  the  Beacon  Hill  barman, 
For  Carling's  now  in  Natick,  brewing  ale  and  beer 
Worthy  of  a  connoisseur,  worthy  of  a  Peer." 


CARLING    BREWING    CO. 


[15] 


'DAYBREAK"  and  "SIEGFRIED'S  RHINE  JOURNEY,"  from 
GoTTERDAMMERUNG" 

By  Richard  Wagner 

Born  in  Leipzig,  May  22,  1813;  died  in  Venice,  February  13,  1883 


Wagner's  G otter dammerung,  completed  in  1874,  was  first  performed  at  the 
Festival  Theatre,  Bayreuth,  August  17,  1876.  The  first  performance  in  the  United 
States  was  at  the  Metropolitan  Opera  House,  January  25,  1888. 

The  two  excerpts  here  played  call  for  3  flutes  and  piccolo,  3  oboes  and  English 
horn,  3  clarinets  and  bass  clarinet,  3  bassoons,  8  horns,  3  trumpets  and  bass  trumpet, 
4  trombones  and  tuba,  timpani,  Glockenspiel,  triangle,  cymbals,  tam-tam,  2  harps, 
and  strings. 

There  is  an  orchestral  interlude  between  the  two  parts  of  the 
prologue  to  the  Dusk  of  the  Gods,  depicting  the  coming  of  dawn 
over  the  rock  of  the  Valkyries.  This  is  joined  in  the  concert  version 
to  the  interlude  connecting  the  prologue  with  the  first  act,  played  in 
the  opera  house  while  the  curtain  is  lowered  and  the  scene  is  changed. 
The  three  Norns  holding  fate  in  their  hands  as  they  weave  their 
thread  have  been  dismayed  to  find  it  suddenly  broken,  and  have 
vanished  into  the  night.  "The  day,  which  has  been  slowly  approaching, 
now  dawns  brightly  and  obliterates  the  distant  fire  glow  in  the  valley." 
Soft  chords  from  the  horns  gently  fill  the  scene  with  the  theme  of  the 
hero  Siegfried,  and  there  follows  the  motive  of  Briinnhilde's  love  with 
its  characteristic  gruppetto  figure  here  developed  to  its  most  glowing 
intensity.  In  the  scene  which  is  to  follow,  Siegfried  in  armor  enters 
from  the  cave,  Briinnhilde  at  his  side.  As  punishment,  she  has  been 
subjected  to  him  in  mortal  love,  but  she  is  blissful  and  unreluctant. 
Siegfried,  about  to  depart  for  new  adventure,  draws  the  fateful  ring 
from  his  finger  and  places  it  upon  her  own.  He  bids  her  farewell  and 
embarks  in  a  boat,  floating  on  the  current  of  the  Rhine,  as  she  gazes 
after  her  departing  lover.  The  second  interlude  now  follows.  Sieg- 
fried's horn  call  leads  into  the  rapturous  and  sweeping  motive,  some- 
times called  "the  decision  to  love,"  which  was  first  developed  in  the 
third  act  of  Siegfried.  The  horn  call  is  combined  with  reminiscences 
of  the  fire  music,  and  undergoes  development  almost  symphonic.  There 
follows  in  full  statement  the  undulating  theme  of  the  Rhine  and  its 
attendant  themes  of  the  Rhine  maidens,  the  Gold,  the  Ring,  and  the 
renunciation  of  love. 

[copyrighted] 


EDNA  NITKIN,  M.Mus. 

PIANIST 

ACCOMPANIST        TEACHER 

Studio:   500  Boylston  St.,  Copley  Sq. 

Boston  KE  6-4062 


[16] 


RCA   VICTOR   RECORDS 

BOSTON  SYMPHONY  ORCHESTRA 

Recorded  under  the  leadership  of  CHARLES  MUNCH 
Beethoven  Overtures  Leouore  Nos.  1,  2,  3 ;  "Fidelio" ;  "Coriolan" 
Symphonies  Nos.  5,  G,  7 
Violin  Concerto  (Heifetz) 
Berlioz  "Fantastic     Symphony" ;     Overture     to     "Beatrice    and     Benedick'' ; 
"Komeo  and  Juliet"  (complete)  ;  "Summer  Nights"  (De  Los  Angeles)  ; 
"The  Damnation  of  Faust"  (complete) 
Brahms  Piano  Concerto  No.  2  (Rubinstein) 

Sj'mphonies  Nos.  2,  4 ;  "Tragic  Overture" 
Bruch  Violin  Concerto  No.  1  (Menuhin) 
Chausson  "Poeme"  for  Violin  and  Orchestra  (Oistrakii) 
Chopin  Piano  Concerto  No.  2  (Brailowsky) 
Debussy  "The  Martyrdom  of  St.  Sebastian"  ;  "Prelude  to  the  Afternoon  of  a 

Faun"  ;  "The  Blessed  Damozel"  (De  Los  Angeles) 
Handel  "Water  Music"  Suite  (arr.  Harty) 
Haydn  Symphony  No.  104 
Honegger  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  5 
Lalo  Overture  to  "Le  Roi  d'Ys" 
Menotti  Violin  Concerto  (Spivakovsky) 
Mozart  Overture  to  "The  Marriage  of  Figaro" 
Havel  "Daphnis  and  Chloe"   (complete)  ;  "Pavane" 

Newly  Recorded  :    "Bolero"  ;  "La  Valse"  ;  "Rapsodie  Espagnole" 
Roussel  "Bacchus  and  Ariane,"  Suite  No.  2 
Suint-Saens  "Introduction  and  Rondo  Capriccioso"  (Oistrakii) 
Overture  to  "La  Princesse  Jaune" 
Piano  Concerto  No.  4  (Brailowsky) 
Schubert  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  8  ("Unfinished"  Symphony) 
Schumann  Overture  to  "Genoveva"       Symphony  No.  4 
Strauss  "Don  Quixote"  (Soloist,  Piatigorsky) 

Tchaikovsky  Violin  Concerto    (Milstein)  ;   "Francesea  da   Rimini";  "Romeo 
and  Juliet" ;  Symphony  No.  4 

Among  the  recordings  under  the  leadership  of  SERGE  KOUSSEVITZKY 


Bach  Brandenburg  Concertos  Nos.  1,  6; 
Suites  Nos.  1,  4 

Beethoven  Symphonies  Nos.  3,  5,  9 

Berlioz  "Harold  in  Italy"  (Primrose) 

Brahms  Symphony  No.  3 ;  Violin  Con- 
certo (Heifetz) 

Copland  "A  Lincoln  Portrait"  ;  "Appala- 
chian Spring"  :  "El  Salon  Mexico" 

Hanson  Symphony  No.  3 

Harris  Symphony  No.  3 

Haydn   Symphonies  Nos.  92,   "Oxford"  ; 

94,  "Surprise" 
Khatchaturian  Piano  Concerto  (Kapell) 
Mendelssohn  Symphony  No.  4,  "Italian" 


Mozart  "Eine  kleine  Nachtmusik"  ;  Sere- 
nade No.  10,  for  Woodwinds;  Sym- 
phonies Nos.  3G,  "Linz"  ;  39 

Prokofieff  "Classical"  Symphony:  "Lt. 
Kije"  Suite ;  "Romeo  and  Juliet,"  Suite 
No.  2 ;  Symphony  No.  5 ;  Violin  Con- 
certo No.  2  (Heifetz) 

Rachmaninoff  "Isle  of  the  Dead" 

Ravel  "Bolero" ;  "Ma  Mere  L'Oye"  Suite 

Schubert  Symphony  in  B  Minor,  "Un- 
finished" 

Sibelius  Symphonies  Nos.  2,  5 

Strauss,  R.  "Don  Juan" 

Tchaikovsky  Serenade  in  C ;  Symphonies 
Nos.  4,  5 

Wagner  Siegfried  Idyll 


Recorded  under  the  leadership  of  PIERRE  MONTEUX 
Debussy  "La  Mer"  ;  "Nocturnes"  Tchaikovsky   Symphony   No.   6,   "Pathe- 

Liszt  "Les  Preludes"  tique" 

M KrIusT110  C°nCert0S  N°S-  12' 18  (LlLI       Delibes  Ballets  "Sylvia,"  "Coppelia"  by 
Scriabin  "The  Poem  of  Ecstasy"  Members    of    the    Boston    Symphony 


Stravinsky  "Le  Sacre  du  Printemps" 


Orchestra 


Recorded  under  the  leadership  of  Leonard  Bernstein 
Stravinsky  "L'Histoire  du  Soldat" ;  Octet  for  Wind  Instruments 


The  above  recordings  are  available  on  Long  Play  (33%  r.p.m.)  and  (in  some  cases) 
45  r.p.m. 


Your  family  deserves  the  Aero  sonic 


Touched  by  your  fingers  and  those 
of  your  children*  the  keys  of  your 
Acrosonic  will  unlock,  for  a  lifetime, 
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BALDWIN    GRAND    PIANOS 
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THE  BALDWIN  PIANO  COMPANY 

160  BOYLSTON  STREET 

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BALDWIN    AND    ORGA-SONIC    ELECTRONIC    ORGANS 


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FOUNDED  IN  1881  BY 
HENRY  LEE  HIGGINSON 


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SEVENTY-SIXTH   SEASON 
1956-1957 

Sanders  Theatre,  Cambridge  \&farvard  University] 


Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

(Seventy-sixth  Season,  1 956- 1957) 
CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 

RICHARD   BURGIN,  Associate   Conductor 


Violins 

Richard  Burgin 
Concert-master 

Alfred  Krips 
George   Zazofsky 
Roll  and  Tapley 
Norbert  Lauga 
Vladimir  Resnikoff 
Harry  Dickson 
Gottfried  Wilfinger 
Einar  Hansen 
Joseph  Leibovici 

Emil   Kornsand 
Roger  Shermont 

Minot  Beale 
Herman  Silberman 
Stanley  Benson 
Leo    Panasevich 

Sheldon  Rotenberg 
Fredy  Ostrovsky 

Clarence  Knudson 
Pierre  Mayer 

Manuel  Zung 
Samuel  Diamond 

Victor  Manusevitcb 
James   Nagy 

Melvin  Bryant 
Lloyd  Stonestreet 
Saverio  Messina 
William  Waterjiouse 
William  Marshall 
Leonard  Moss 
Jesse  Ceci 
Noah  Bielski 
Alfred  Schneider 
Joseph  Silverstein 

Basses 

Georges  Moleux 
Gaston  Dufresne 
Irving  Frankel 
Henry  Freeman 
Henry  Portnoi 
Henri  Girard 
John  Barwicki 


PERSONNEL 

Violas 
Joseph  de  Pasquale 
Jean  Cauhape 
Eugen  Lehner 
Albert  Bernard 
George  Humphrey 
Jerome  Lipson 

Robert  Karol 
Reuben  Green 

Bernard   Kadinoff 
Vincent  Mauricci 
John  Fiasca 
Earl  Hedberg 

Violoncellos 
Samuel  Mayes 
Alfred  Zighera 

Jacobus  Langendoen 
Mischa  Nieland 

Karl  Zeise 
Josef  Zimbler 

Bernard  Parronchi 
Martin  Hoherman 

Louis   Berger 
Richard  Kapuscinski 
Robert  Ripley 

Flutes 
Doriot  Anthony  Dwyer 
James  Pappoutsakis 
Phillip  Kaplan 

Piccolo 
George  Madsen 

Oboes 
Ralph  Gomberg 
Jean  Devergie 
John  Holmes 

English  Horn 
Louis  Speyer 

Clarinets 
Gino  Cioffi 
Manuel  Valerio 
Pasquale  Cardillo 

E\)  Clarinet 

Bass  Clarinet 
Rosario  Mazzeo 


Bassoons 

Sherman  Walt 
Ernst  Panenka 
Theodore  Brewster 

Contra-Bassoon 
Richard  Plaster 

Horns 

James  Stagliano 
Charles  Yancich 

Harry  Shapiro 
Harold  Meek 
Paul  Keaney 
Osbourne  McConathy 

Trumpets 
Roger  Voisin 
Marcel  Lafosse 
Armando  Ghitalla 
Gerard  Goguen 

Trombones 

William  Gibson 
William  Moyer 
Kauko  Kahila 
Josef  Orosz 

Tuba 
K.  Vinal  Smith 

Harps 
Bernard  Zighera 
Olivia  Luetcke 

Timpani 

Everett  Firth 
Harold  Farberman 

Percussion 

Charles  Smith 
Harold  Thompson 
Arthur  Press 

Piano 
Bernard  Zighera 

Library 
Victor  Alpert 


Sanders  Theatre,  Cambridge  [Harvard  University] 


SEVENTY-SIXTH  SEASON,  1956-1957 

Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 
Richard  Burgin,  Associate  Conductor 


Concert  Bulletin  of  the 
Sixth  Concert 

TUESDAY  EVENING,  April  9 

with  historical  and  descriptive  notes  by 
John  N.  Burk 

The  TRUSTEES  of  the 
BOSTON  SYMPHONY  ORCHESTRA,  Inc. 

Henry  B.  Cabot  .         President 

Jacob  J.  Kaplan  .         Vice-President 

Richard  C.  Paine  .         Treasurer 

Talcott  M.  Banks,  Jr.  E.  Morton  Jennings,  Jr. 

Theodore  P.  Ferris  Michael  T.  Kelleher 

Alvan  T.  Fuller  Palfrey  Perkins 

Francis  W.  Hatch  Charles  H.  Stockton 

Harold  D.  Hodgkinson  Edward  A.  Taft 

C.  D.  Jackson  Raymond  S.  Wilkins 

Oliver  Wolcott 

TRUSTEES  EMERITUS 
Philip  R.  Allen  M.  A.  De Wolfe  Howe 

N.  Penrose  Hallo  well  Lewis  Perry 


Thomas  D.  Perry,  Jr.,  Manager 
G.  W.  Rector  )   Assistant  J.  J.  Brosnahan,  Assistant  Treasurer 

N.  S.  Shirk        J   Managers         Rosario  Mazzeo,  Personnel  Manager 


j^^j^yHMWH  ~s=e 


munch  in  person 

on  rca  Victor  records 


To  Charles  Munch,  conducting  is  not  a  profession  hut  a 
sacred  calling.  And  this  dedication,  combined  with  the 
magnificence  of  the  Boston  Symphony  Orchestra,  brings 
you  performances  of  unmatched  power  and  beauty.  You 
feel  and  hear  this  devotion  whether  he  conducts  RaveL 
Berlioz  or  Beethoven  . . .  whether  the  performance  is  in 
Symphony  Hall  or ...  on  RCA  victor  Records,  of  course! 


THE 
WORLD'S 
GREATEST 
ARTISTS 

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ON 


rcaVictor 


ftariaullr  AdvcrtiMd  Price*— Option*! 


l«J 


SEVENTY-SIXTH  SEASON  •   NINETEEN  HUNDRED  FIFTY-SIX  AND  FIFTY-SEVEN 


Sixth   Concert 


TUESDAY  EVENING,  April  9 


Program 


Tchaikovsky Serenade  for  Strings,  Op.  48 

I.  Pezzo  in  forma  di  Sonatina:  Andante  non  troppo;  Allegro  moderato 

II.  Valse:  Moderato,  tempo  di  valse 

III.  Elegia:  Larghetto  elegiaco 

IV.  Finale,  Tema  Russo:  Andante;  Allegro  con  spirito 


INTERMISSION 


Strauss "Ein  Heldenleben,"  Tone  Poem,  Op.  40 


Performances  by  this  orchestra  are  broadcast  each  week  on  Monday 
evenings  from  8:05  to  9:00  P.M.  on  the  NBC  Radio  Network.  (Nearest 
local  station  WJAR,  Providence.)  The  Friday  afternoon  concerts  at 
2:15  and  the  Saturday  evening  concerts  at  8:30  are  broadcast  direct 
each  week  by  Station  WGBH-FM. 

BALDWIN  PIANO  RCA  VICTOR  RECORDS 


[3] 


TANGLEWOOD     1957 

The 
Boston  Symphony  Orchestra 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Music  Director 


The  Berkshire  Festival 

Twentieth  Season 

CHARLES  MUNCH,  Conductor 


The  Berkshire  Music  Center 

Fifteenth  Season 
CHARLES  MUNCH,